Innovative pedagogies


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  • This is the start of a series of exciting teaching and learning innovations that are happening at our own institutions and other SA HEIs
  • Johnson, L., Adams, S., and Cummins, M. (2012). Technology Outlook for Australian Tertiary Education 2012-2017: An NMC Horizon Report Regional Analysis. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.
  • Radical change Is needed in the design and delivery of teaching if HEIs are to be ‘fit for purpose’ for the 21st Century (Bates & Sangra, 2011:4)‘Recognizing the fact that learning is a lifelong process that occurs naturally outside of the classroom, designers are advised to designopportunities for activities that allow learners to engage with course-related topics outside of the classroom. Such activities should occur in open-ended learning environments that allow for learner flexibility, self-direction, and student-centered control of learning (Land & Hannafin,1996), to accommodate learner interests. For instance, introducing learners to communities of practice should be an integral part of higher education curricula’. Veletsianos, 2011)‘transformative learning experiences cannot be “imposed” on learners. Parrish and Wilson (this issue) make a similar argument when they claim that “deeper forms of learning can’t just be made to happen; they are invited, and encouraged, and facilitated. Experience, after all is largely a subjective thing – it’s how real people encounter their worlds, not how they should respond or what the materials are meant to do to them.” This paper is grounded on a similar premise, as technology has been described as an agent of change, as a way to provideopportunities for transformation while sculpting pedagogical practice. Second, since it is not possible to construct transformative experiences but, to provide opportunities for transformation, these learning experiences are bound to encompass unknown outcomes. In other words, the outcomes associated with these opportunities may or may not be transformational. Consequently, the outcomes of opportunities for transformation do not lend themselves well to being evaluated using pre-defined objectives. An added complexity relates to the definition of the term transformation as a personally fulfilling and meaningful outcome. If transformation is a personalized, it is difficult to assess it based on pre-established guidelines. Indeed, individualized assessment may be the only meaningful approach available to evaluate transformative learning.’ (Velestianos,2011)
  • Parry, W., “School orders students to remove blogs”. USA Today, 26/10/2005. Downloaded from: over-adoption of tools can lead to what has been termed ‘creepy tree house’ syndrome (Stein 2008) when authority is seen to try and invade a young person's social space. There is strong resistance from students to universities and lecturers making formal use of social networks as this is seen as an invasion of their social space (e.g. Madge 2009). When parents and professors start inhabiting these spaces it creates a role conflict (Selwyn 2009) for students, as they struggle to know which face to present and find their communication stifled. These tools may have significant potential for learning, but students don't want them to become the next LMS: organisationally controlled, bland and singular in focus (i.e. teaching). For the teaching function of scholarship then the question is ‘How can educators utilise the potential of these tools without destroying what makes them valuable to students?’ Weller,2011:
  • Emerging and new are not necessarily synonomousWhile for example, Twitter may be an emerging technology, various practices on Twitter platform may already be establishedToday’s ET may become tomorrow’s fad – must remain sceptical about sudden transformation. ETs go through cycles of euphoria, adoption, use, maturity, impact, enthusiasm or even infatuation. Some will remain, others fade into backgroundCan’t yet fully understand the implications and what they offer teaching and learning, what they mean for educators and for institutions. It is not predictable we can’t determine in advance what will happen but only make sense of it after the event (Williams et al. 2011).Initial investigations often evangelical and describe superficial aspects of the technology without understanding the affordances of the technology and how these provide different ways to learn. Newer technologies can also be used in old traditional ways.Lack of research impedes disseminationAccording to Veletsianos (2010:17) emerging technologies are ‘tools, technologies, innovations, and advancements utlized in diverse educational settings to serve varied education-related purposes’. We are still learning and still learners with regard to the affordances of ETs. There is an absence of empirical work or practitioner knowledge base to explore enhancement of practice. Veletsianos (2010:17) personal technologies often sit uneasily with institutions; in some cases they are even banned within the university buildings and networks (Parry, 2005).
  • he latest hype cycle is below, and here are the descriptions of the major stages of it.1. Technology TriggerA breakthrough, public demonstration, product launch or other event generates significant press and industry interest.2. Peak of Inflated ExpectationsDuring this phase of overenthusiasm and unrealistic projections, a flurry of well-publicized activity by technology leaders results in some successes, but more failures, as the technology is pushed to its limits. The only enterprises making money are conference organizers and magazine publishers.3. Trough of DisillusionmentBecause the technology does not live up to its overinflated expectations, it rapidly becomes unfashionable. Media interest wanes, except for a few cautionary tales.4. Slope of EnlightenmentFocused experimentation and solid hard work by an increasingly diverse range of organizations lead to a true understanding of the technology’s applicability, risks and benefits. Commercial off-the-shelf methodologies and tools ease the development process.5. Plateau of ProductivityThe real-world benefits of the technology are demonstrated and accepted. Tools and methodologies are increasingly stable as they enter their second and third generations. Growing numbers of organizations feel comfortable with the reduced level of risk; the rapid growth phase of adoption begins. Approximately 20% of the technology’s target audience has adopted or is adopting the technology as it enters this phase.
  • Cloud computing has become the unifying factor among content and applications on the many devices people use in everyday life. Whether connecting at home, work, school, on the road, or in social spaces, nearly everyone who uses computers relies on cloud computing to access their information and applications. This ability to access services and files from any location and on any device is driving development of cloud computing applications in the consumer space.Mobile phones — distinct from new sorts of larger format mobile devices such as tablets — have as a category proven more interesting and more capable with each passing year. According to a report from mobile manufacturer Ericsson, by 2015 80% of people accessing the Internet worldwide will be doing so from a mobile device. At the 2011 Mobile World Congress, Google CEO Eric Schmidt noted that for every baby born that year, 30 Android phones would be activated. Mobiles are becoming better understood in the academic world; there has been a significant amount of time spent finding creative ways to incorporate them both in the physical space and as a tool to help students learn from a distance. As educational institutions become more adept at developing and using mobile apps, their utility and pervasiveness is only due to increase. Current examples of mobile apps span functions from interpretation and education to campus service directories to specialized apps tied to specific courses. Learners can share their findings on topics and they facilitate content creation through the use of recorders, cameras etcSocial reading is a relatively new phenomenon emerging at the intersection of electronic books and social networking. When e-books began to take hold in the consumer sector over the past two years, the devices and content were constrained with digital rights management that effectively made sharing content impossible. Some publishers, along with a mix of start-ups, saw another way, and began to find ways to enhance content to make it more interactive, to mirror the qualities of a print publication — and to make aspects of the experience sharable. Today a variety of websites and ereading tools allow users to annotate their e-books, highlight passages, bookmark — and notably —share sections with friends via email, Facebook and Twitter. Several of the new services allow users to store their entire reading experience on any device they want by syncing their tablet or dedicated eReader with a social reading service, such as Amazon or Float. These services can record actions taken by the reader and ultimately create for them a personal virtual bookshelf. People who are subscribed to the service are able to share their e-books and comments with each other, as well as people within their social networks. Social reading tools could be used to allow study groups to easily exchange notes on electronic books they are reading in their classes, and spur meaningful virtual discussions.In the past year, advances in tablet computers have captured the imagination of educators and museum professionals around the world. Led by the incredible success of the iPad, which in 2011 was selling at the rate of more than 3 million units a month, other similar devices such as the Samsung Galaxy and Sony's Tablet S, have also begun to enter this rapidly growing new market. In the process, tablets (a form that is distinct from tablet PCs) have come to be viewed as not just a new category of mobile devices, but indeed a new technology in its own right, one that blends features of laptops, smart phones, and earlier tablet computers with always-connected Internet, and thousands of apps with which to personalize the experience. As these new devices have become more used and understood, it is clear that they are independent and distinct from other mobile devices such as smart phones, eReaders, or tablet PCs. With significantly larger screens and richer gestured-based interfaces than their smartphone predecessors, they are ideal tools for sharing content, videos, images, and presentations because they are easy for anyone to use, visually compelling, and highly portable.Tablets are easily adaptable to almost any learning environment, with tens of thousands of educational applications emerging as part of a new software distribution model.! As a one-to-one solution, tablets present an economic, flexible alternative to laptops and desktops due to their lower cost, greater portability, and access to apps.! Tablets are conducive to engaging in learning outside the classroom, with a suite of tools for capturing data in real-time and collaborating on projects.Adaptive learning environments (ALEs) are seen as the next logical step in the continuum that begins with personal learning environments by first incorporating data from learning analytics, and then using software to modify the learning environment as needed. While personal learning environments are seen by many as primarily a way of organizing tools, content, examples, and concepts to support self-directed and group-based learning, adaptive learning environments are envisioned as responsive, allowing the tools, content, examples, and concepts to be modified in real-time based on how the students are actually learning. The term itself was coined in 1998, but 14 years hence, adaptive learning environments still remain more of a vision than a reality.The topic has resurfaced recently as a potential application for learning analytics, but work that bridges the two concepts is hard to locate, and the editors were unable to locate any prototypes or examples in which this idea is being explored. Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Adaptive learning environments may cater to students with differing learning styles.! ALEs enable modifications to learning environments based on how each student is performing, catering to their specific learning needs.! As ALEs become more in tune with various learners’ needs, educators can use the data to develop new courses and new materials that cater to different learning styles.! Ongoing online courses can be changed in real-time with little manual, time-consuming intervention. Augmented reality (AR), a capability that has been around for decades, is shifting from what was once seen as a gimmick to a tool with tremendous potential. The layering of information over 3D space produces a new experience of the world, sometimes referred to as “blended reality,” and is fueling the broader migration of computing from the desktop to the mobile device, bringing with it new expectations regarding access to information and new opportunities for learning. While the most prevalent uses of augmented reality so far have been in the consumer sector (for marketing, social engagement, amusement, or location-based information), new uses seem to emerge almost daily, as tools for creating new applications become even easier to use. A key characteristic of augmented reality is its ability to respond to user input. This interactivity confers significant potential for learning and assessment; students can construct new understanding based on interactions with virtual objects that bring underlying data to life. Dynamic processes, extensive datasets, and objects too large or too small to be manipulated can be brought into a student’s learning space at a scale and in a form easy to understand and manipulate.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Augmented reality has strong potential to provide both powerful contextual, in situ learning experiences and serendipitous exploration and discovery of the connected nature of information in the real world.! Students visiting historic sites can access AR applications that overlay maps and information about how the location looked at different points of history.! Games that are based in the real world and augmented with networked data can give educators powerful new ways to show relationships and connections.Game-based learning has gained considerable traction since 2003, when James Gee began to describe the impact of game play on cognitive development. Since then, research — and interest in — the potential of gaming on learning has exploded, as has the diversity of games themselves, with the emergence of serious games as a genre, the proliferation of gaming platforms, and the evolution of games on mobile devices. Developers and researchers are working in every area of game-based learning, including games that are goal-oriented; social game environments; non-digital games that are easy to construct and play; games developed expressly for education; and commercial games that lend themselves to refining team and group skills. Role-playing, collaborative problem solving, and other forms of simulated experiences are recognized for having broad applicability across a wide range of disciplines.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Educational games offer opportunities for both discovery-based and goal-oriented learning, and can be very effective ways to develop teambuilding skills.! Simulations and role-playing games allow students to re-enact difficult situations to try new responses or pose creative solutions.! Educational games can be used to teach cross-curricular concepts that touch on many subjects in an engaging wayLearning analytics refers to the interpretation of a wide range of data produced by and gathered on behalf of students in order to assess academic progress, predict future performance, and spot potential issues. Data are collected from explicit student actions, such as completing assignments and taking exams, and from tacit actions, including online social interactions, extracurricular activities, posts on discussion forums, and other activities that are not directly assessed as part of the student’s educational progress. The goal of learning analytics is to enable teachers and schools to tailor educational opportunities to each student’s level of need and ability. Learning analytics promises to harness the power of advances in data mining, interpretation, and modeling to improve understandings of teaching and learning, and to tailor education to individual students more effectively. Still in its early stages, learning analytics responds to calls for accountability on campuses and leverages the vast amount of data produced by students in academic activities.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! The promise of learning analytics is that when correctly applied and interpreted, it will enable teachers to more precisely identify students’ learning needs and tailor instruction appropriately.! If used effectively, learning analytics can help surface early signals that indicate a student is struggling, allowing teachers and schools to address issues quicklyDigital identity management focuses on enabling users to create a single digital identity that can be used in any place where a login is required to access a website or service. It is not a single technology, but a group of related technologies and ideas. In the simplest terms, one’s digital identity is a method that allows recognition any place where a log-in is needed. A variety of different systems are being developed, and though they have the same broad purpose of creating a sign-on system that is convenient and secure for an individual rather than a company or organization, ideas about what precisely defines a user-centric identity system and how that would be implemented are still widely varied. Both Google and Facebook are positioning their systems to be the “home” of one’s digital identity.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Digital identity allows for broader control beyond information systems; there is one path to trace when profiling an individual’s digital footprint, i.e. content delivery.! Digital identity has the potential to personalize curriculum through profiling learners’ interests based on their historic content consumption.! A single ID and password helps educators and students seamlessly connect to resources across multiple devices and websites.It is already common to interact with a new class of devices entirely by using natural gestures. The Microsoft Surface, iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch, the Nintendo Wii, and other gesture-based systems accept input in the form of taps, swipes, and other ways of touching, hand and arm motions, or body movement. These are the first in a growing array of alternative input devices that allow computers to recognize and interpret natural physical gestures as a means of control. We are seeing a gradual shift towards interfaces that adapt to — or are built for — humans and human movements. Gesture-based computing allows users to engage in virtual activities with motion and movement similar to what they would use in the real world, manipulating content intuitively. The idea that natural, comfortable motions can be used to control computers is opening the way to a host of input devices that look and feel very different from the keyboard and mouse — and that enable our devices to infer meaning from the movements and gestures we make.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Gestural interfaces allow users to easily perform precise manipulations that can be difficult to manage with a mouse or controller.! Gesture-based computing facilitates the convergence of a user’s thoughts with their movements, which appeals to kinetic learners who learn by acting.! Large multi-touch displays support collaborative work, allowing multiple users to interact with content simultaneously.Haptic interfaces are a well-understood, mature technology; the topic first appeared in the NMC Horizon Report: 2004 Higher Ed Edition, where it was highlighted as an example of multimodal interfaces and placed on the mid-term horizon. Since then, haptic interfaces have found broad use in medical, engineering, military and other simulations, theme parks, and games. The most common haptic interfaces use vibration as a sensory cue, but haptics also make use of sensations such as movement, temperature, texture, and pressure to convey non-verbal cues and information to the user. Often, very subtle cues can make an experience much more authentic, a feature that has broad use in medical and flight simulators, as well as in the popular simulator rides found in theme parks, but such feedback is expensive to produce. Sometimes discussed in the same conversation as gesture-based computing, the two are distinctly different. Gesture-based computing is centered on input to a device — it does not require direct touch and does not generate any feedback from the device. On the other hand, haptic interfaces are output-oriented, used to pull information out of the device. Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Haptic interfaces help in medical simulations, enabling students to perform mock surgeries while learning the different sensation of actions, such as cutting through tissue and muscle.! Haptic interfaces have much potential for aiding the visually impaired, allowing users to touch a surface to hear a specific audio explanation.! Resistance, heat, and traction are features of haptic interfaces that mirror physical reality, allowing learners to immerse themselves in new environments they otherwise may not have access toThe “Internet of Things” has become a sort of shorthand for network-aware smart objects that connect the physical world with the world of information. A smart object has four key attributes: it is small, and thus easy to attach to almost anything; it has a unique identifier; it has a small store of data or information; and it has a way to communicate that information to an external device on demand. The Internet of Things extends that concept by using TCP/IP as the means to convey the information, thus making objects addressable (and findable) on the Internet. Objects that carry information with them have long been used for the monitoring of sensitive equipment or materials, point-of-sale purchases, passport tracking, inventory management, identification, and similar applications. Smart objects are the next generation of those technologies — they “know” about a certain kind of information, such as cost, age, temperature, color, pressure, or humidity — and can pass that information along easily and instantly. They can be used to digitally manage physical objects, monitor their status, track them throughout their lifespan, alert someone when they are in danger of being damaged or spoiled — or even to annotate them with descriptions, instructions, warranties, tutorials, photographs, connections to other objects, and any other kind of contextual information imaginable. The Internet of Things would allow easy access to these data.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Attached to scientific samples, the Internet of Things can alert scientists and researchers to conditions that may impair the quality or utility of the samples.! Pill-shaped microcameras are used in medical diagnostics and teaching to traverse the human digestive tract and send back thousands of images to pinpoint sources of illness.! QR codes bridge the gap between physical and digital content as people can “scan” printed materials with their mobiles and be immediately directed to the corresponding place on the web.
  • New Horizon Report 2013 ‘ The role of educators continues to change due to the vast resources that are accessible to students via the Internet. Institutions are now faced with a critical shift as students engage in more informal learning outside of the classroom, and are using always connected devices to surf the web, download apps, and read articles. Educating learners on how to decipher credible resources and aggregate content has become imperative, and there is a need for university educators to fulfill the position of content guide. The emergence of MOOCs, open content, and free online seminars also raises the question of who is considered the expert. Educators are providing mentorship and connecting students with the most effective forums and tools tonavigate their areas of study’ .
  • Adaptive systems / Assisstive technologies (e.g. Screenreaders) Argumentation Visualisation (debategraph) Augmented Reality (AR) Bibliographic management (e.g. RefWorks, Zotero, Mendeley)5Blogging (e.g. Blogger, WordPress, Live journal)20Concept and Mindmapping (e.g., CMap, Freemind, Inspiration)3Context aware environments and devices (e.g. geotagging, data mashups) E-books2Electronic portfolios (e.g. Carbonmade, Exabis, Mahara)2Games and Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) Instant messaging (e.g. MSN, GoogleTalk, Mxit)7Internet phone (e.g. Skype)3Learning analytics Lecture capturing Microblogging (e.g. Twitter, Statusnet)7Modelling / Simulation tools7Multimedia production; Digital stories (e.g.Photostory, Windows MovieMaker)13Open Educational Resources repositories (e.g. MIT OpenCourseWare - free and open course materials via internet)6Podcasting / Vodcasting (e.g. Podcast Capture, Movie maker, Audacity)20Remote instrumentation (e.g. remote labs) Research databases (e.g. Ebscohost; Academic Premier)9Reusable learning objects RSS Feeds1Screencasting (e.g. Camtasia, Camstudio, Captivate, Wink)12Social bookmarking (e.g. Delicious)2Social media (e.g. Flickr, YouTube, Slideshare, Picasa, Vimeo)18Social networking (e.g. Facebook, MySpace)16Student/Personal response systems / Clickers (e.g. Turning Point)5Tablet computers6Virtual worlds / Immersive technologies (e.g. Second Life) Web-based documents (e.g. Google Docs, Google Forms)8Webconferencing (e.g. elluminate, MS Lync, dimdim, Adobe Connect)3Wikis (e.g. Wikis within an LMS; MediaWiki, Wikispaces, PBWiki)8LMS / CMS59   242
  • Source:  Innovators- The adoption process begins with a tiny number ofvisionary, imaginative innovators2.   Early adopters: Once the benefits start to become apparent, earlyadopters leap in. They love getting an advantage over their peers and they have time and money to invest3.   Early majority: They are followers who are influenced by mainstream fashions and wary of fads. They are looking for simple, proven, better ways of doing what they already do. 4.   Late majority: They are conservative people who hate riskand are uncomfortable your new idea.5.   Laggards: They hold out to the bitter end. They arepeople who see a high risk in adopting a particular product orbehavior
  • Horizon 2013 The workforce demands skills from college graduates that are more often acquired from informal learning experiences than in universities. Informal learning generally refers to any learning that takes place outside of a formal school setting, but a more practical definition may be learning that is self-directed and aligns with the student’s own personal learning goals. Employers have specific expectations for new hires, including communication and critical thinking skills — talents that are often acquired or enhanced through informal learning. Online or other modern environments are trying to leverage both formal and informal learning experiences by giving students traditional assignments, such as textbook readings and paper writing, in addition to allowing for more openended,unstructured
  • Pedagogy means the theory and practice of teaching, learning and assessmentNew pedagogy for e-books: As e-book technologies evolve, they will offer new ways of interacting with massively shared, adaptive and dynamic books. Teachers will be able to write alternative versions of text, embed graphs and simulations showing live data, add summarization, and use tools such as timers and calculators to support structured learning and formative assessment. Students will be able to share annotations or contact other people reading the same page of a book. New forms of learning with e-books could include crowd authoring (where textbooks are produced by students, for students), embedded tutoring (where readers offer to explain or discuss a difficult passage), or co-reading (where readers are automatically put in contact with others currently reading the same page).
  • These are short courses offered by publishers either in affiliation with recognised educational providers, or independently. The publisher’s incentive is to understand learners in the subject areas covered by their regular publications, and to engage consumers in extended learning activities. For the learner, these courses offer self-directed learning for professionals, with institutional affiliation providing respectable ‘leisure learning’ products.
  • Assessment can support the process of learning, not just measure its outcomes. In diagnostic testing with rapid feedback, the results of summative computer-based assessment are provided immediately to learners and teachers, then used as a basis for addressing misconceptions andproviding supplementary teaching. Research from computer games has explored how continuous feedback can guide performance and improve motivation. This requires software to monitor how learners progress through the course materials, diagnose misconceptions, know when to intervene, and offer appropriate advice. A teacher can be provided with a ‘dashboard’ that displays the progress of each student and offers a range of actions from simple automated prompts to online student-tutor conversation. Students can be offered ‘open learner models’ that show their progress in relation to peers.
  • Badges offer a way of accrediting non-formal learning. A badge, analogous to a Scout badge, is awarded when a learner completes a task or challenge that demonstrates a learning achievement. Badges may be awarded by authorities, by peers, or may be automatically assigned on completion of certain tasks. Badge systems have been used to encourage participation in online help forums and to acknowledge expertise in gaming environments. New approaches support the collection and validation of badges for learning, and work is in progress to develop an infrastructure to award, manage and validate badges.
  • Massive open online courses are attempts to create open-access online courses that provide no constraints on class size. They run over a defined period of time and are open to all. The early instantiations followed a pattern of ‘let’s put on a course here, right now’. More recent offerings take the form of free courses based on existing university teaching materials freely available online, with computer marked assessment and certificates of completion. Some courses have engaged over one hundred thousand participants.Horizon 2013 ‘ Led by the successful early experiments of world-class institutions (like MIT and Stanford), MOOCs have captured the imaginationof senior administrators and trustees like few othereducational innovations have. High profile offerings are being assembled under the banner of institutional efforts like edX, and large-scale collaborations like Coursera and the Code Academy. As the ideas evolve, MOOCs are increasingly seen as a very intriguing alternative to credit-based instruction. The prospect of a single course achieving enrollments in the tens of thousands is bringing serious conversations on topics like micro-credit to the highest levels of institutional leadership’ .
  • There are two commonly used approaches to open access publishing: the Gold route, whereby the author or research funder pays a publisher for the cost of making an article open; and the Green route, where the individual author self-archives the article. Some journals have begun to experiment with open review where the reviewers’ comments are made public and not anonymised. Others adopt a low threshold for acceptance, replacing peer review selection with post-publishing commentaryHorizon Report 2013 ‘ As authoritative sources lose their importance, there is need for more curation and other forms of validation to generate meaning in information and media. “Open” continues its diffusion as a buzzword in education, and it isincreasingly important to understand the definition. Often mistakenly equated only with “free,” open education advocates are working towards a common vision that defines “open” as free, copyable, remixable, and without any barriers to access or interaction.’
  • Seamless learning occurs when a person experiences a continuity of learning across a combination of locations, times, technologies or social settings. Previous work on seamless learning has focused on designing software for mobile devices that allow people to carry their learning with them and to switch quickly from one learning activity to another. Recent studies have also examined how to support learning journeys. These are extended learning projects that can be accessed on multiple devices, flow across boundaries between formal and informal settings, and continue over life transitions such as school to university and workplace.
  • Learning analytics involves the collection, analysis and reporting of large datasets about learners and their contexts in order to improve learning and the environments in which learning takes place, for example visualisations and recommendations that can influence student behaviour while a course is in progress. Current research is attempting to identify key indicators that show when a student is making good progress or is struggling. From a practical perspective, systems need to allow real-time analysis of disparate data and generate timely reports.Horizon Report 2103 As learners participate in online activities, they leave a clear trail of analytics data that can be mined for insights. Dashboards filter this information so that student progress can be monitored in real time. As the field of learning analytics matures, the hope is that this information will enable continual improvement of learning outcomes.
  • Typically, personal inquiry learning involves active exploration of an open question, with the student taking ownership of the inquiry process. Mobile phones can become inquiry toolkits. A typical inquiry might start in a formal setting, with a tutor helping students to refine their questions, continue at home or outdoors with the students collecting and viewing data, then return to the formal setting to share and present results. Inquiry learning can extend existing online or classroom learning. It also has the potential to catalyse citizen science experimentation.
  • This invokes the metaphor of a rhizome, a plant stem which sends out roots and shoots that allow the plant to propagate itself through organic growth into the surrounding habitat. Seen as a model for the construction of knowledge, rhizomaticprocesses suggest the interconnectedness of ideas as well as boundless exploration across many fronts from different starting points. For the educator, supporting rhizomatic learning requires the creation of a context within which the curriculum and knowledge are constructed by members of a learning community and which can be reshaped in a dynamic manner in response to environmental conditions. The learning experience may build on social, conversational processes, as well as personal knowledge creation, linked into unbounded personal learning networks that merge formal and informal media.
  • Guided by Henschke’s (2010) principles for stimulating learning, the project seeks to create new knowledge on how the use of emerging technologies alters the teaching and learning interactions and paradigms to create a stimulating learning environment that could generate the following qualitative outcomes:An environment in which learners are empowered, are safe to express themselves, to ask and respond to peers’ questions without feeling oppressed, domesticated or silencedAn environment that encourages intellectual freedom to ‘think-aloud’, ‘try-out’ new things and reflect on lessons learntAn environment in which the psychological distance between knowledgeable others (peers and experts) is reducedAn environment in which learners are equal partners in knowledge production (participatory parity)
  • . citizen journalism was funded project with Grocott mail and use mobile phones to enrich content and to get ordinary people who would not normally contribute to the newspaper to contribute. Includes trg children to SMS news to the paper and a community radio station. The dept all involved and as i teach video i proposed using mobile phones to produce video and even though the audio is bad on mobile phones the students could collaborate with ordinary people to produce videos. Student 3rd yr journalism students, first time introduced to television. Project part of module on citzen journalism (more than one type of journalism - promote democracy and goes beyond own concerns, allows stories to be told from more than one view, stop gate keeping) Also theoretical module on citzen journalism and democracy very practical course- We worked with Up Start - so handed over from me to NGO to the teenagers - it was a process. We started by inviting groups from schools - 3 from school paired with 3 students - started by brainstorming about problems in schools. Student group was 24 so 48 people altogether. The brief to students was to identify problems that are public to help the authentic voice of the youth to emerge. Some raised ethical issues for example - gangsters hanging around school - talked about this and because the town is so small we were worried about victimisation so did not do this. so children themselves were a source of knowledge. also we had Upstart field worker who spoke about issues for youth and she was always available for the students as source.
  • One may wonder whether care could be offered in artefacts or through machines rather than resting solely with humans and whether the nodes on social networks may offer possibilities for people to connect to caring others. Connectivism also values diverse opinions and believes that the capacity to know is more important than what is currently known. Decision-making in connectivism is crucial for discerning what is useful to learn and what sense one can make of a plethora of ideas. In the political ethic of care, sense-making, dialogical deliberations about what is best for the caring process. Using learning analytics, where information resides in computers and databases to make good decisions about what people need according to their profiles may be useful on a macro level, but if it falls into uncaring hands may also be a means of controlling and regulating populations of caregivers and receivers. Technology has also made it possible for learners to develop personal learning environments, where they can amass whatever nodes and connections they find personally useful for their own learning. The political ethic of care which emphasises the particular rather than the general and pays close attention to each person’s needs, resonates with these abilities offered by personal learning environments to learners.
  • Innovative pedagogies

    1. 1. An introduction to innovation• What is innovative pedagogical practice?• The current context in higher education• Emerging technologies and innovation• How is innovation viewed internationally and locally?• Examples of innovative teaching and learning• Future initiatives in innovative learning at UWC
    2. 2. Current challenges in higher education Johnson et al. (2012:3) Johnson & Adams (2011:3)
    3. 3. What institutions are using…
    4. 4. What are students using?
    5. 5. Problems in current context• ‘schools, colleges and universities are attempting to teach knowledge and skills for jobs that no longer exist, and that teachers are not fully involved in educational innovation and curriculum development’.• (Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012:7)
    6. 6. Emerging Technologies1. May or may not be new technologies2. Evolving organism, that exist in the state of coming into being3. Go through hype cycles4. They are not yet fully understood5. They are not yet fully researched6. They are potentially disruptive, but that potential is mostly unfulfilled Veletsianos, 2010:13-17
    7. 7. Hype Cycle for Education 2011
    8. 8. Technology Outlook for STEM and Education 2012-2017 Johnson, Adams & Cummins, 2012
    9. 9. Technology Outlook for Australian Tertiary Education2012- 2017 (Johnson et al.,2012:3) • table on top trends table on top trends
    10. 10. Shift of locus of control“Although lecturers and students are seeminglyembracing emerging technologies enthusiastically, it istaking longer for institutions and policy makers toadopt and implement them.Institutions and policy makers are not yet fullyengaging with these technologies to understand theusefulness of these technologies and thereforeadministrative policies may slow down or haltadoption.” COL 2008, 16
    11. 11. Consequences of non-engagement with ET • Increased gap between educators with resources and the will to experiment and those who cannot or are not willing to… (Bozalek, Ng’ambi & Gachago, in press) • Students are increasingly disengaged – they are spending much of their free time on the Internet, learning and exchanging new information — often via their social networks (Johnson et al., 2013:8) • Mismatch between student expectations and those of HEI – little room for learner choice and control through differentiated teaching and learning • Opportunities for preparing 21st century graduates are lost • Lack of admission by HEIs of the importance of digital media literacies as modes of thinking rather than tools • Missions of HEI tend to be failing students • Educating learners on how to decipher credible resources and aggregate content not seen as imperative (Johnson et al., 2013:8)
    12. 12. Diffusion of ET in SARLO
    13. 13. What is your most innovativeT&L practice using technology?
    14. 14. What are you?
    15. 15. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012
    16. 16. Open University UK Definition“the innovations are not independent, butfit together into a new and disruptive formof education that transcends boundariesbetween formal and informal settings,institutional and self-directed learning, andtraditional education providers andcommercial organisations”(Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012:6)
    17. 17. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012• New pedagogy for e-books
    18. 18. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012 • Publisher-led short coursesPearson’sBeverleyWharton-Hoodpresentationat UWC
    19. 19. PEARSON PLC CEO Marjorie Scardino on Pearsonx We believe in learning – all kinds of learning for all kinds of people, delivered in a personal style. Because wherever learning flourishes, so do people.
    20. 20. Building a Foundation to Improve the Quality of Teaching and Learning Quality of Teaching and Learning Content and Services eBooks, Blended-learning, Mobile Assessment and Homework Learning Analytics Learning Analytics and Reporting Content Management Learning Management System
    21. 21. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012• Assessment for learningAdvice and support on how to narrow the gap between current and desiredperformance (Vygotsky’s (1978) Zone of Proximal Development) – shift from assessingoutcomes to guiding the learning process1 Clarify what good performance is2 Facilitate self-assessment3 Deliver high quality feedback information4 Encourage teacher and peer dialogue5 Encourage positive motivation and self esteem6 Provide opportunities to close the gap7Use feedback to improve teaching(Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick p.13)
    22. 22. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012• Badges to accredit learning
    23. 23. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012• MOOCs
    24. 24. Open University Innovating Pedagogy
    25. 25. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012• Seamless learning
    26. 26. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012• Learning analytics
    27. 27. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012• Personal inquiry learning
    28. 28. Open University Innovating Pedagogy 2012• Rhizomatic learning
    29. 29. • Although the use of emerging technologies is on the rise in Higher Education globally and locally, it is seldom used in a way that facilitates transformative teaching and learning (Ng’ambi, Bozalek & Gachago, in press).
    30. 30. Qualitative outcomesStimulating learning environments where:• learners are empowered, safe to express themselves, ask and respond to peers’ questions without feeling oppressed, domesticated or silenced;• there is encouragement to ‘think aloud’, try out new things and reflect on lessons learnt• the psychological distance between knowledgeable others (peers and experts) is reduced• Learners are equal partners in knowledge production (participatory parity) (Henschke, 2010)
    31. 31. Innovative learning in Science
    32. 32. Authentic learning using a fish tank
    33. 33. Media project CPUT
    34. 34. Citizenship journalism• Citizen journalism (videos on mobile phones) project• involved NGO, youth and students – students taught youth• Brainstorming about problems in schools• Brief to students was to identify problems that are public to help the authentic voice of youth to emerge• funded project with newspaper• used mobile phones to enrich content and to get ordinary people who would not normally contribute to the newspaper to contribute• Student 3rd yr journalism students, first time introduced to television. Project part of module on citizen journalism (more than one type of journalism - promote democracy and goes beyond own concerns, allows stories to be told from more than one view, stop gate keeping) Also theoretical module on citizen journalism and democracy• UPSTART channel on YouTube
    35. 35. UWC initiatives on innovative learning• Seminar series on innovative learning hosted by Directorate and Faculty of Arts• CHEC course on Emerging Technologies to improve teaching and learning in HE 2013• Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 2014• Workshop on 3 D virtual learning environments• Colloquium on authentic learning 22 March 2013• Development of case studies – edited collection• Dissemination and networking• Universities as spaces of social justice project• Identifying guidelines and models of innovative theory and practice across the HEIs
    36. 36. Emerging Technologies CHEC course
    37. 37. ReferencesBozalek, V., Ng’ambi, D. and Gachago, D. (in press) Transforming teaching with emerging technologies: Implications for Higher Education Institutions, South African Journal of Higher Education.Henschke, J. A. (2010). Bringing Together Personal Learning, Higher Education Institutions Elements, and Global Support for a Re-Orientation towards a Focus on Lifelong Learning and Education. In Wang, V., (Ed.), Encyclopedia for Using Technology in Adult and Career Education. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. June, 2010.Herrington, J., Reeves, T. and Oliver, R. (2010) A Guide to Authentic e-Learning. New York & London: Routledge.Johnson, L., Adams, S., and Cummins, M. (2012). Technology Outlook for Australian Tertiary Education 2012- 2017: An NMC Horizon Report Regional Analysis. Austin, Texas: The New Media ConsortiumJohnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., and Ludgate, H. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Higher Education Edition Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. 2013-horizon-report- higher-ed(Accessed 23 February 2013).Ng’ambi, D., Bozalek, V. & Gachago, D. (in press). Empowering educators to teach using emerging technologies in higher education – A case of facilitating a course across institutional boundaries. Paper to be presented at the 8th International Conference on e-Learning ICEL 2013.Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., Fitzgerald, E., Hirst, T., Mor, Y., Gaved, M., Whitelock, D. 2012. Innovating pedagogy 2012: Exploring new forms of teaching, learning and assessment, to guide educators and policy makers. Open University Innovation Report 1. Milton Keynes:The Open University. Available at, G. 2010. A Definition of Emerging Technologies for Education. . In G. Veletsianos (ed.) Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. Theory and Practice. Edmonton: AU Press, pp1-22Vygotsky, L. 1978. Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    38. 38. Second Life – 3D immersive environment• Second Life