Authentic learning and Graduate Attributes - The Learner Conference 2013 University of the Aegean


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This was a presentation given on 11 July 2013 at the University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece by Vivienne Bozalek from the University of the Western Cape

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Authentic learning and Graduate Attributes - The Learner Conference 2013 University of the Aegean

  1. 1. Using  authen,c  learning  to   develop  graduate  a4ributes   Vivienne  Bozalek   University  of  the  Western  Cape  
  2. 2. Structure  of  presenta,on   •  Curriculum  alignment  vs  authen,c  learning  for   achieving  graduate  a4ributes   •  Graduate  a4ributes   •  Authen,c  learning  –  elements     •  Research  done  at  the  University  of  the  Western   Cape  (UWC)  on  authen,c  learning   •  A  case  study  illustra,ng  authen,c  learnng  and   graduate  a4ributes   •  Conclusion  
  3. 3. Developing  graduate  a4ributes   •  Increasing  emphasis  of  graduate  a4ributes  in   higher  educa,on   •  How  best  to  develop  these  a4ributes  in  higher   educa,on  and  embed  them  in  curriculum   •  One  possible  way  is  through  construc,ve   alignment  (Biggs,  2012)     •  Another  possibility  is  through  authen,c   learning  (Herrington  et  al.,  2010)  
  4. 4. What are Graduate Attributes? Graduate  a4ributes  are  the  quali,es,  skills  and   understandings  a  university  community  agrees  its   students  should  develop  during  their  ,me  with   the  ins,tu,on  and  consequently  shape  the   contribu,on  they  are  able  to  make  to  their   profession  and  society  ...  They  are  quali,es  that   also  prepare  graduates  as  agents  of  social  good  in   unknown  futures.’  (Bowden  et  al.,  2000)  
  5. 5. What would UWC Graduate Attributes for the 21st Century look like?
  6. 6. Two tiers of graduate attributes (Barrie, 2004) Tier 1 ‘complex interwoven aspects of human ability’ (Barrie, 2006:3) •  attributes that allow graduates to prosper in an uncertain world of change (Barnett, 2004) UWC Charter generic attributes: •  scholarship, citizenship and the social good, lifelong learning Tier 2 * Clusters of personal skills and abilities (UWC charter) •  Inquiry-focused and knowledgeable •  Critically and relevantly literate •  Autonomous and collaborative •  Ethically, Environmentally and Socially Aware and Active •  Skilled Communicators •  Interpersonal flexibility and confidence to engage across difference
  7. 7. UWC Charter of Graduate Attributes First Tier SCHOLARSHIP: A critical attitude towards knowledge: UWC graduates should be able to demonstrate a scholarly attitude to knowledge and understanding within the context of a rapidly changing environment. UWC graduates should have the ability to actively engage in the generation of innovative and relevant knowledge and understanding through inquiry, critique and synthesis. They should be able to apply their knowledge to solve diverse problems and communicate their knowledge confidently and effectively. CRITICAL CITIZENSHIP AND THE SOCIAL GOOD: A relationship and interaction with local and global communities and the environment: UWC graduates should be engaged, committed and accountable agents of social good. They must aspire to contribute to social justice and care, appreciative of the complexity of historical contexts and societal conditions through their roles as professionals and members of local and global communities. They should demonstrate leadership and responsibility with regard to environmental sustainability. LIFELONG LEARNING: An attitude or stance towards themselves: UWC graduates should be confident Lifelong Learners, committed to and capable of continuous collaborative and individual learning and critical reflection for the purpose of furthering their understanding of the world and their place in it. Graduate Attributes and curriculum alignment 2013/07/11
  8. 8. UWC Charter of Graduate Attributes SecondTier 1.  Inquiry-focused and knowledgeable: UWC graduates will be able to create new knowledge and understanding through the process of research and inquiry 2.  Critically and relevantly literate: UWC graduates will be able to seek, discern, use and apply information effectively in a range of contexts. 3.  Autonomous and collaborative: UWC graduates will be able to work independently and in collaboration with others, in a way that is informed by openness, curiosity and a desire to meet new challenges. 4.  Ethically, Environmentally and Socially Aware and Active: UWC graduates should be critical and responsible members of local, national, international and professional communities. They should also demonstrate a thorough knowledge of ethical, social, cultural and environmental issues relating to their disciplines and make professional and leadership decisions in accordance with these principles. 5.  Skilled Communicators: UWC graduates should recognise and value communication as a tool for negotiating and creating new understanding, interacting with diverse others, and furthering their own learning. They should use effective communication as a tool to engage with new forms of complexity in social and working life. 6.  Interpersonal flexibility and confidence to engage across difference: UWC graduates should be able to interact with people from a variety of backgrounds and have the emotional insight and imagination to understand the viewpoints of others. They should be able to work in a productive team, to lead where necessary and to contribute their skills as required to solving complex problems. Graduate Attributes and curriculum alignment 2013/07/11
  9. 9. Herrington’s  nine  elements  of   authen,c  learning   •  Authen'c  context   •  Authen'c  task     •  Expert  performance     •  Mul'ple  perspec'ves   •  Collabora'on     •  Reflec'on     •  Ar'cula'on   •  Coaching  and  scaffolding   •  Assessment    
  10. 10. Authen,c  Context  
  11. 11. Second  Life  –  3D  immersive  environment  
  12. 12. Looking  aWer  a  fish  as  an  authen,c  learning   task  
  13. 13. Authen,c  learning  using  a  fish  tank  
  14. 14. Blog  on  fish  tank  
  15. 15. Access  to  expert  Performances  and   modelling  of  processes  
  16. 16. Guest  lectures:  Remix    Company  
  17. 17. TELL ME YOUR RACE THEN I WILL GIVE YOU OUR IDENTITY                           Guest  lectures:  local   ar,st:  Bernie  Searle  
  18. 18. Performing  poetry   Gabeba  Baderoon   Diana  Ferrus  
  19. 19. Collabora,ve  construc,on  of  knowledge  
  20. 20. Collabora,ve  construc,on  and  assessment   of  knowledge  
  21. 21. Reflec,on  (Schön  1983).   Reflec,on  in  ac,on  and  reflec,on  on  ac,on(Schön  1983).
  22. 22. Community,  Self  and  Iden9ty:   A  Virtual  Learning  Community  across  two  South  African  Universi9es   Poul  Rohleder     Wendy  Lee  Fish     Amanda  Ismael   Lisa  Padfield   Deborah  Platen      
  23. 23.           ZPD   This  is  the  teaching  space;    this  is  the   knowledge  gap!   Teacher  provides  skills,  strategies  and  links  to  be  able  to  complete  the  task   Coaching  and  scaffolding   Outcome  of  deep  learning,   Rela,onal  conceptual   understanding.       The  student:     world  of  experience,     Unstructured  Knowhow     &/or   Surface  learning   Mediated  learning  for  understanding  
  24. 24. Assessment   •  Use  Powerpoint  to  prepare  a  presenta,on  on  the  rela,onship  between  iden,ty,   community  and  professional  prac,ce.  The  presenta,on  should  cover:   No,ons  of  community,  self  and  iden,ty.   Remaining  ques,ons,  tensions  and  contradic,ons  for  the  group.   Implica,ons  of  the  above  for  professional  prac,ce  in  social  work,  occupa,onal  therapy   and  psychology.       You  will  be  assessed  on  the  basis  of  your  presenta,on,  and  the  notes  used  for  the   presenta,on.  Cri,cal  and  crea,ve  presenta,ons  are  encouraged.  Your  presenta,ons   should  contain  references  to  the  workshops,  pos,ngs  and  readings.  They  should  show   an  understanding  of  the  complexity  of  the  no,ons  of  iden,ty,  community  and  the   human  professions,  and  should  reflect  a  cri,cal  apprecia,on  of  different  viewpoints.     In  your  presenta,on,  ensure  that  you  have  considered  how  raced,  gendered  and   classed  histories  and  differing  experiences  and  values  inform  professional  iden,,es   and  prac,ces.       Your  powerpoint  presenta,on  should  be  no  longer  than  ten  slides,  containing  a   maximum  of  80  words  per  slide  (to  be  presented  in  15  minutes;  5  minutes  for   ques9ons).    
  25. 25. •  Part  of  Na,onal  Research  Founda,on  (NRF)  project   •  Target  group:  lecturers  that  are  known  to  be  open  to/engaged  with   technology   •  Sent  by  email  to  contacts  in  all  public  HEIs  ins,tu,on  (22)  in  August/ September  2011,  snowball  sampling   •  Content:  3  parts,  demographic,  tools  and  open  ended  ques,ons   around  prac,ce  with  Emerging  Technologies  (ET)   •  Respondents:  262  (by  30  September  2011)   •  Selec,on  of  20  respondents,  for  further  indepth  interviews  on  how   emerging  technology  is  being  used  to  provide  and  authen,c  learning   experience  for  students   •  Sub-­‐set  of    10  UWC  staff  members  were  interviewed  as  part  of  this   research.   •  The  collected  data  was  analysed  independently  by  two  researchers  of   the  NRF  project  using  the  following  coding  system:  0  –  no  evidence,  1   –  weak  evidence,  2  –  strong  evidence  of  authen,c  learning  elements.   Discrepancies  were  averaged  aWer  discussion.   Indepth  interviews  at  UWC  
  26. 26. Lecturers  interviewed  at  UWC  
  27. 27. Elements  engaged  with  by  UWC  lecturers  
  28. 28. Inter-­‐rater  scores  for  authen,c  principles  of  UWC  lecturers  who  were  interviewed  
  29. 29. Elements   Graduate  APribute     Tier  1   Graduate   APribute   Tier  2   Case  study  of  physiotherapy  lecturer   Authen,c   Context   Barne4's  idea  of   complexity  and   uncertainty   scholarship   lifelong  learning     Cri,cally  and   relevantly   literate  (2)   Ethically,   environmenta lly  and  socially   aware  and   ac,ve  (4)*     In  order  to  teach  physiotherapy,  the   educator  has  developed  wri4en  cases  to   improve  the  clinical  reasoning  process;  ….   …  We  introduce  and  encourage  the  idea   of  uncertainty  and  we  try  and  give  the   students  opportuni5es  to  learn  how  to   be  comfortable  with  the  complexity  and   uncertainty  of  the  clinical  context  and   then  to  give  them  skills  to  navigate  that   uncertainty-­‐  rather  than  just  being   flawed  and  overwhelmed  by  all  the   different  variables….  We  need  to  give   them  skills  now  for  then  to  able  to  go  into   the  real  world  and  say  I  don’t  have  this   answer,  now  what  do  I  know,  what  do  I   need  to  find  out,  how  will  I  find  out.    
  30. 30. Elements   Graduate  APribute     Tier  1   Graduate   APribute   Tier  2   Case  study  of  physiotherapy  lecturer   Authen,c   task     scholarship   Inquiry-­‐ focused   In  the  past  we  would  have  lectured  on  a   series  of  condi'ons  and  say  these  are  the   condi'ons  that  you  need  to  be  aware  of   now  what  we  do  we  give  them  a  case  and   each  case  runs  every  3  weeks  every  week   we  introduce  complexity  to  the  case  so   we  add  more  informa'on  -­‐  some'mes  we   give  readings,  some'mes  there  is  a  video   that  they  have  to  go  and  watch  but  all   the  'me  we  are  building  on  what  they   know  and  then  what  they  need  to  know   and  we  are  trying  to  make  the  cases   typical  presenta'ons  of  what  you  might   expect  in  a  South  African  context    
  31. 31. Elements   Graduate  APribute   Tier  2   Case  study  of  physiotherapy  lecturer   Expert   performance   Inquiry  focused  (1)   cri,cally  and  relevantly   literate  (2)     One  of  the  1st  assignments  we  did  in  this   module  was  we  gave  them  a  task  where  they   had  some  readings  and  they  had  to  develop  a   list  of  criteria  that  they  would  use  to  establish   credibility  in  online  sources     Mul,ple   perspec,ves     Interpersonal  flexibility  (6)   You  can  have  clinicians  who  would  disagree  on   appropriate  management  strategies  for   pa5ents  and  how  do  you  nego5ate  kind  of  a   compromise  between  what  you  think  is  right   and  what  someone  else  thinks  is  right  so  we   do  try  and  model  that.  What  we  will  oOen  do  is   students  will  ask  me  a  ques'on  and  I  will  say   well  this  is  what  I  think  but  let  me  just  grab  this   other  person  who  I  know  has  a  different  view   and  then  we  pull  facilitators  into  the   conversa'on  and  then  we  discuss  the  difference   in  the  view  point  and  model  to  the  students   that  oOen  'mes  there  is  no  right  answer.    
  32. 32. Elements   Graduate  APribute   Tier  2   Case  study  of  physiotherapy  lecturer   Coaching  and   scaffolding     Cri,cally  and  relevantly   literate  (2)   Interpersonal  flexibility  (6)     So  in  terms  of  scaffolding  students  have  to  have   a  base  and  from  that  base  they  can  build,  if  the   base  is  shaky  we  try  and  design  the  case  so  that   its  difficult  for  them  to  proceed  without  having   an  understanding  of  what  they  did  in  the   beginning.  Feedback  -­‐  we  try  and  encourage   all  the  facilitators  to  give  feedback  in  the  form   of  a  ques5on  rather  than  saying  this  is  wrong,   this  is  right,  this  is  excellent.  So  even  this  is   excellent  is  not  useful  feedback  because   students  has  no  way  to  go  from  that.  …  we   guide  facilitators  on  how  to  give  feedback  so   in  terms  of  the  scaffolding  I  think  we  try  and   always  say  why  do  you  say  that?  What  are   you  basing  that  on?     Reflec,on     Skilled  communicators  (5)   Interpersonal  flexibility  (6)     We  model  reflec'on  we  go  on  and  on  about   how  reflec5on  is  really  important  for   professional  development,  there  is  just  this   block  with  the  students  where  its  just  thinking   we  talk  about  if  you  don’t  have  any  emo5onal   investment  in  what  you  are  doing  then  but  the   students  are  very  resistant  to  reflec5on.    
  33. 33. Tier  2   Assessment     Cri,cally   and   relevantly   literate   (2)     At  the  end  of  every  term  the  students  have  to  submit  a  clinical  file   which  is  a  collec'on  of  documenta'on  that  they  have  gathered   that  relates  to  their  pa'ents’  contact  so  there  is  a  clinical   evalua'on  tool  where  there  are  pa5ents  documenta5on  notes,   reflec5ons,  they  have  set  learning  objec5ves     Collabora,on         Autonom ous  and   collabora ,ve  (3)     They  are  in  different  groups.  When  they  go  out  in  a  clinical   prac5ce  they  are  in  one  group  and  in  the  classroom  they  are  in  a   different  group  and  the  idea  is  that  students  learn  things  on  a   clinical  experience  and  they  bring  it  back  to  the  classroom   experience  so  on  the  Monday  morning  they  set  aside  'me  where   they  discuss  the  pa'ent  they  saw  the  previous  Thursday  and  we  try   to  get  them  to  bring  their  own  clinical  stories  back  into  the   classroom  and  then  the  facilitators  can  discuss  those  experiences.   We  try  to  build  in  collabora'on  we  don’t  give  them  notes  they  have   to  collabora'vely  build  the  notes  in  their  groups  with  inputs  from   facilitators.     Ar,cula,on     Skilled   communi cators  (5)   Inquiry   focused   (1)     At  the  end  of  every  case  each  group  has  to  have  a  set  of  case  notes   where  they  have  drawn  up  about  their  understanding  of  this   par'cular  pa'ent.  Every  group  must  do  a  full  case  presenta5on   that  they  are  graded  on  at  the  end  of  each  case.   We  challenge  every  single  statement  that  the  student  makes  that   is  not  explicitly  guided  by  a  reason…    
  34. 34. Discussion   •  Resonance  with  what  would  be  required  for  a  beginner   physiotherapist  –  desired  a4ributes   •  Coherence  between  graduate  a4ributes  and  authen,c   learning   •  To  acquire  graduate  a4ributes  students  need  to  be  ac,ve   learners  –  inquiry-­‐focused  approach  to  teaching   •  Learner’s  needs  must  be  responded  to  sensi,vely   •  Lecturers  shouldn’t  set  themselves  up  as  sole  repositories  of   knowledge     •  Can  use  emerging  technologies  to  promote  authen,c   learning  and  graduate  a4ributes  (Google  Drive)   •  Cri,cal  ci,zenship  and  the  social  good  not  really  achieved  in   the  case  study  –  the  other  two  ,er  one  a4ributes   scholarship  and  lifelong  learning  were  achieved  
  35. 35. Conclusion     •  The  case  study  provided  an  example  of  how  effec,ve  the   elements  of  authen,c  learning  can  be  in  developing  the   values,  skills  and  a4ributes  that  a  university  student   should  have  acquired  at  the  end  of  their  degree     •  It  would  seem  that  only  by  engaging  students  in   authen,c  tasks  which  have  their  focus  on  real  world   consequences  and  learning,  is  it  possible  to  develop  the   requisite  a4ributes  for  employability   •  Authen,c  learning  is  thus  a  useful  framework  through   which  to  develop  graduate  a4ributes  as  it  is  forward-­‐ looking,  providing  a  way  of  situa,ng  learning  in  its   context  for  future  use  in  the  workplace  and  as  cri,cal   ci,zens,  which  graduate  a4ributes  are  aiming  towards.    
  36. 36. References   •  Barrie,  S.  C.  2006.Understanding  what  we  mean  by  the  generic   a4ributes  of  graduates.  Higher  Educa'on  51(2):  215–41.   •  Barne4,  R.  2004.  Learning  for  an  unknown  future.  Higher   Educa'on  Research  and  Development  14  (3):  247-­‐260.   •  Biggs,  J.  2012.  What  the  student  does:  teaching  for  enhanced   learning.  Higher  Educa'on  Research  and  Development,  31(1):   39-­‐55.   •  Bowden,  J.,  Hart,  G.,  King,  B.,  Trigwell,  K.  and  Wa4s,  O.2000.  In   Generic  Capabili'es  of  ATN  University  Graduates.  Available  at   hXp://   •  Herrington,  J.,  Reeves,  T.  C.  &  Oliver,  R.  2010.  A  guide  to  authen'c   e-­‐learning.  New  York  &  London:  Routledge.   •  Schön,  D.  A.  1983.The  reflec've  prac''oner:  How  professionals   think  in  ac'on.  New  York,  USA:  Basic  Books.   •  Vygotsky,  L.S.  1978.  Mind  in  Society:  The  Development  of  Higher   Psychological  Processes  (trans.  V.  John-­‐Steiner,  M.  Cole,  S.   Scribner  and  E.  Souberman).  Cambridge,  Mass.: