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  • 1. Public Speaking Chapter 1Dra. Baby Poernomo, M.ADepartment of Human Services
  • 2. Chapter 1a. The Power of Public Speakingb. Similarities between Public Speaking & Conversationc. Differences between Public Speaking & Conversationd. Developing Confidencee. Public Speaking & Critical Thinkingf. Cultural Diversity & Public Speaking
  • 3. The Power of Public SpeakingDuring modern times many women and menAround the globe have spread their ideasAnd influence through public speaking.
  • 4. Similarities between Public Speaking & Conversationa. Organizing your thought logicallyb. Tailoring your message to your audiencec. Telling a story for maximum impactd. Adapting to listener feedback
  • 5. Differences between Public Speaking & Conversationa. Public Speaking is more highly structuredb. Public Speaking requires more formal languagec. Public Speaking requires a different method of delivery
  • 6. Developing your confidenceNervousness is normal “Rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it from a negative force into what one expert calls positive nervousness - azesty, enthusiastic”
  • 7. 6 ways to turn your nervousness Turn From a negative force into a positive one1. Acquire speaking experience2. Prepare-Prepare-Prepare3. Think Positively4. Use the Power of Visualization (VIDEO)5. Know that most nervousness is not visible6. Don’t Expect Perfection
  • 8. Think PositivelyNegative Thought Positive Thought(1) I wish I didn’t have to give (1) This speech is a chance for me to this speech share my ideas and gain experience as a speaker(2) I’m not a great public (2) No one’s perfect, but I’m getting speaker better with each speech I give(3) I’m always nervous when I (3) Everyone’s nervous. If other give a speech people can handle it, I can too(4) No one will be interested (4) I have a good topic and I’m fully prepared. Of course they’ll be in what I have to say interested.
  • 9. 22/02/2013 9
  • 10. Public Speaking & Critical Thinking
  • 11. “Disciplined,self-directedthinking . . . ”*The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987.
  • 12. In “everyday” language:• Thinking “outside” the box• Thinking about thinking• “Unlimited” thinking• Divergent thinking
  • 13. “The intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information.”** The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987.
  • 14. “Critical thinking is the art of analyzingand evaluating thinking with a viewto improving it.”**The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking:Concepts And Tools, 5 ed. The Foundation forCritical Thinking, 2008.
  • 15. “Critical thinking is . . . • Self-disciplined • Self-monitored • Self-corrective thinking.”**The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking:Concepts and Tools, 5th ed. The Foundationfor Critical Thinking, 2008.
  • 16. It concerns itself with 8 elements of thought • Point of view • Purpose • Questions at issue • Implications and consequences • Information • Interpretation and Inference • Concepts • Assumptions*The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Conceptsand Tools, 5 ed. The Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2008.
  • 17. Point of ViewWhat are the . . . –Frames of reference –Perspectives – OrientationsAnd how do they influence “point of view”?
  • 18. PurposeWhat are the• Goals• ObjectivesAnd how do they relate to point of view?
  • 19. What does critical thinking involve? • Making logical inferences (based upon the information presented) • Drawing logical conclusions (based upon the information presented) • Higher levels of thinking, such as . . .
  • 20. • Conceptualizing — developing a “mind picture”• Conceptualizing to use • Applying—putting conceptual info• •Applying orexamining, to Analyzing—closely tearing apart breaking down• Analyzingreally look at• •Synthesizing things together in a well- organized Synthesizing—pulling logical way• Evaluating decisions • Evaluating—making about; reviewing; assessing; Etc.
  • 22. Critical thinking helps us develop:Why Is Critical Thinking Important? • • Intellectual Humility Intellectual Autonomy • Intellectual Integrity • Intellectual Courage  . . . it underlies the basic elements of • Intellectual Perseverance • Confidence in Reason •communication Intellectual Empathy • Fair-mindedness . . . .traitsit plays the development of a multi-cultural in social . . important to an important part world view and the diminishing of irrational thought! change. . .  . . . it is a path to freedom from half- truths and deceptions
  • 23. Characteristics of “cultivated” criticalGoal: to become cultivated critical thinkersthinkers Cultivated critical thinkers . ..
  • 24. A :well cultivated critical thinker . . . By --raising vital questions --formulating questions• clearly and precisely Raises vital questions and Raise vital questions problems, formulating them Formulate questions and problems clearly, precisely clearly and precisely;
  • 25. •Gather information•Analyze and assess it• Evaluate it • Gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to By: interpret itinformation, then --gathering effectively, --assessing it and determining what it means and what it is worth
  • 26. Draw conclusions Find solutions By: Use relevant criteria --drawing conclusions from to test them the information• Comes to well-reasoned presented --finding possible conclusions and solutions, solutions and testing them against relevant testing them with relevant criteria criteria and standards;
  • 27. Keep an openmind By --maintaining an open mind
  • 28. Network w/others; keep lines of communication open• Communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions By networking with others and to complex problems. maintaining open lines of communication with them and others.
  • 29. To become a cultivated critical thinker:Dare to think outside thebox!• Develop a sense of observation and curiosity• Become interested in finding new solutions• Share ideas• Ask pertinent questions• Assess statements and arguments• Seek understanding and information
  • 30. Also . . .• Examine beliefs, assumptions, andopinions; weigh them against truth• Listen to others, think about what they say,give feedback• Become an open-minded listener andreader
  • 31. Who are the critical thinkers? • Parents Who Thinks Critically ? • Nurses • Athletic coaches Parents • Doctors • Air traffic controllers Nurses commanders • Military • Lawyers, Judges Doctors • Supervisors • Accountants Athletic coaches • Day Care Providers Teachers/Professors
  • 32. Who SHOULD think critically?
  • 33. 7 Elements of the Speech Communication process Speaker Situation Message Interference Channel Feedback Listener
  • 34. Cultural Diversity & Public Speaking Avoiding Ethnocentrism
  • 35. Thank You babypoernomo2003@yahoo.com22/02/2013 35