Public Speaking Chapter 1Dra. Baby Poernomo, M.ADepartment of Human Services
Chapter 1a. The Power of Public Speakingb. Similarities between Public Speaking & Conversationc. Differences between Public Speaking & Conversationd. Developing Confidencee. Public Speaking & Critical Thinkingf. Cultural Diversity & Public Speaking
The Power of Public SpeakingDuring modern times many women and menAround the globe have spread their ideasAnd influence through public speaking.
Similarities between Public Speaking & Conversationa. Organizing your thought logicallyb. Tailoring your message to your audiencec. Telling a story for maximum impactd. Adapting to listener feedback
Differences between Public Speaking & Conversationa. Public Speaking is more highly structuredb. Public Speaking requires more formal languagec. Public Speaking requires a different method of delivery
Developing your confidenceNervousness is normal “Rather than trying to eliminate every trace of stage fright, you should aim at transforming it from a negative force into what one expert calls positive nervousness - azesty, enthusiastic”
6 ways to turn your nervousness Turn From a negative force into a positive one1. Acquire speaking experience2. Prepare-Prepare-Prepare3. Think Positively4. Use the Power of Visualization (VIDEO)5. Know that most nervousness is not visible6. Don’t Expect Perfection
Think PositivelyNegative Thought Positive Thought(1) I wish I didn’t have to give (1) This speech is a chance for me to this speech share my ideas and gain experience as a speaker(2) I’m not a great public (2) No one’s perfect, but I’m getting speaker better with each speech I give(3) I’m always nervous when I (3) Everyone’s nervous. If other give a speech people can handle it, I can too(4) No one will be interested (4) I have a good topic and I’m fully prepared. Of course they’ll be in what I have to say interested.
“Disciplined,self-directedthinking . . . ”*The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987.
In “everyday” language:• Thinking “outside” the box• Thinking about thinking• “Unlimited” thinking• Divergent thinking
“The intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information.”** The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987.
“Critical thinking is the art of analyzingand evaluating thinking with a viewto improving it.”**The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking:Concepts And Tools, 5 ed. The Foundation forCritical Thinking, 2008.
“Critical thinking is . . . • Self-disciplined • Self-monitored • Self-corrective thinking.”**The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking:Concepts and Tools, 5th ed. The Foundationfor Critical Thinking, 2008.
It concerns itself with 8 elements of thought • Point of view • Purpose • Questions at issue • Implications and consequences • Information • Interpretation and Inference • Concepts • Assumptions*The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Conceptsand Tools, 5 ed. The Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2008.
Point of ViewWhat are the . . . –Frames of reference –Perspectives – OrientationsAnd how do they influence “point of view”?
PurposeWhat are the• Goals• ObjectivesAnd how do they relate to point of view?
What does critical thinking involve? • Making logical inferences (based upon the information presented) • Drawing logical conclusions (based upon the information presented) • Higher levels of thinking, such as . . .
• Conceptualizing — developing a “mind picture”• Conceptualizing to use • Applying—putting conceptual info• •Applying orexamining, to Analyzing—closely tearing apart breaking down• Analyzingreally look at• •Synthesizing things together in a well- organized Synthesizing—pulling logical way• Evaluating decisions • Evaluating—making about; reviewing; assessing; Etc.
ACTIVITIESWhy is Critical ThinkingTIME PERMITTING, WORK THROUGH ACTIVITIES IN YOUR BOOKLET. Important? BE SURE TO THINK CRITICALLY!
Critical thinking helps us develop:Why Is Critical Thinking Important? • • Intellectual Humility Intellectual Autonomy • Intellectual Integrity • Intellectual Courage . . . it underlies the basic elements of • Intellectual Perseverance • Confidence in Reason •communication Intellectual Empathy • Fair-mindedness . . . .traitsit plays the development of a multi-cultural in social . . important to an important part world view and the diminishing of irrational thought! change. . . . . . it is a path to freedom from half- truths and deceptions
Characteristics of “cultivated” criticalGoal: to become cultivated critical thinkersthinkers Cultivated critical thinkers . ..
A :well cultivated critical thinker . . . By --raising vital questions --formulating questions• clearly and precisely Raises vital questions and Raise vital questions problems, formulating them Formulate questions and problems clearly, precisely clearly and precisely;
•Gather information•Analyze and assess it• Evaluate it • Gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to By: interpret itinformation, then --gathering effectively, --assessing it and determining what it means and what it is worth
Draw conclusions Find solutions By: Use relevant criteria --drawing conclusions from to test them the information• Comes to well-reasoned presented --finding possible conclusions and solutions, solutions and testing them against relevant testing them with relevant criteria criteria and standards;
Keep an openmind By --maintaining an open mind
Network w/others; keep lines of communication open• Communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions By networking with others and to complex problems. maintaining open lines of communication with them and others.
To become a cultivated critical thinker:Dare to think outside thebox!• Develop a sense of observation and curiosity• Become interested in finding new solutions• Share ideas• Ask pertinent questions• Assess statements and arguments• Seek understanding and information
Also . . .• Examine beliefs, assumptions, andopinions; weigh them against truth• Listen to others, think about what they say,give feedback• Become an open-minded listener andreader
Who are the critical thinkers? • Parents Who Thinks Critically ? • Nurses • Athletic coaches Parents • Doctors • Air traffic controllers Nurses commanders • Military • Lawyers, Judges Doctors • Supervisors • Accountants Athletic coaches • Day Care Providers Teachers/Professors