Introduction toSocial PsychologyModified by:Elizabeth T. Santosa, M.Psi, psi.
IntroductionWhen we talked about personality we talked aboutsimilarities in behaviour between and withinindividualsMost social psychologists don’t dispute theseindividual differences but they realize theimportance of the situation
IntroductionSocial psychologists are concerned with how weexplains others’ behaviour and how others’behaviour affects usMay be as important as the individual
Characterizing Social Psychology Social Psychology The scientific study of the feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of individuals in social situationsExplaining Behavior • What social psychologists study: - how people are influenced by others - how people make decisions - inferences we make about others attitudes & personalities - influence of situational variables on behavior - how we make sense of our world
Characterizing Social PsychologyComparing Social Psychology to Related Disciplines a. Personality psychology - stresses individual differences in behavior b. Cognitive psychology - study of how people think about, perceive, and remember aspects of the world c. Sociology - study of behavior of people in the aggregate (population level issues)
Attribution TheoryFritz Hieder (1958)Attribution is a concept in social psychology addressingthe processes by which individuals explain the causes ofbehavior and events.Heider subsequently extended his ideas to the questionof how people perceive each other, and in particularhow they account for each others behaviour, personperception. Three important roles in someone behavioris motives, intentions, sentiments.
Attribution Theory Two types of attribution:1. Explanatory attribution to understand the information; to find cause-effect of a situation ex: Your grandmother got tripped on the street and hospitalized; by making attribution too poor condition of the road. What if in reality because of her cataract and unclear vision?2. Interpersonal attribution two or more individuals ex: A and B have arguments. A said she try to avoid, B started. Others think that B provokes the arguments, while A is victim
Attribution TheoryTwo categories of attribution to explains human behavior:1. Locus of control Internal (personal) : ability, personality, mood, efforts, attitudes, or disposition2. Locus of control external (situational) attributions : task, other people, or luck.
Attribution TheoryWe tend perceive ourselves as GOOD. so whenwe do something we often blame the situationAttributions have negative effect When we blame a person or the situation, we often generalize it to next coming event that similar.
Attitude Can we change the way people think? Attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object).How to measure Attitude? Self-report Bipolar scales: (good-bad, favorable-nonfavorable, etc) Open ended q’s : “ i feel...” Likert scales
Attitude ChangeFactors that affect persuasion (process of guiding oneself or another toward the adoption of some attitude by some rational or symbolic means)1. Target Characteristics Intelligence Self-esteem (high – moderate- low) Mood2. Source Characteristics Expertise, trustworthiness. ex: Journal vs magazine Interpersonal attraction “sleeper effect”
Attitude ChangeFactors that affect persuasion3. Message Characteristics Pro’s and con’s are affective4. Cognitive Routes A message can appeal to an individuals cognitive evaluation to help change an attitude. Central route : self evaluation Perpheral route : focus on source Ex: expert, celebrities, etc.
Social Influence Social influence occurs when ones emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others Form of social influence: conformity, socialization, peer pressure , obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, and marketing. Herbert Kelman (1958) 3 varieties of social influence:1. Compliance when people appear to agree with others, but actually keep their dissenting opinions private. xx: social acceptance or expectancy2. Identification when people are influenced by someone who is liked and respected, such as a famous celebrity.3. Internalization when people accept a belief or behavior and agree both publicly and privately.
Social InfluenceConformity type of social influence involving a change in belief or behavior in order to fit in with a group.Minority influence Minority influence takes place when a majority is influenced to accept the beliefs of behaviors of a minority.Self-fulfilling prophecy a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, due to a positive feedback between belief and behavior.
Social InfluenceObedience a form of social influence that derives from an authority figure. Milgram Experiment, Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford prison experiment, Hofling hospital experiment