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Afraid to look fake?

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • “ The Fake Nation” Report
    • Methodology: Questionnaires (over 2,000 people) and 9 focus-groups
    • Counterfeit phenomena:
    • 34% indicated that they had purchased counterfeit goods once
    • 7% of those surveyed had never bought fake goods but
    • thought they might in the future
    • Counterfeit fashion goods:
    • Consumer Demographics
    • 32% aged 16-20,
    • 27% aged 21-30,
    • 46% female
    • 32% with household income < 15K
    • Motivations and comments
    • - Cost was the most frequently cited motivation
    • - Low product quality of counterfeit fashion items was not generally perceived to be a common problem.
    • Commonly, people judge whether a fashion item is counterfeit
    • not by the product itself but by who is wearing it.
    • Source : Anti-Counterfeiting Group (ACG)
    • The Intellectual Property Theft and Organised Crime (IPTOC), Dr Jo Bryce and Dr Jason Rutter
    • Source : Anti-Counterfeiting Group
  • 3.
    • ACG focus group’s participants claimed that
    • they recognise counterfeit fashion goods
    • not by the product quality but by who is wearing it.
    • Social motivations (need of recognition, status seeking, personal gratification)
    • has been found to hinge on purchase ( Wilcox K., Hyeong M. K., and Sen S. ,2009)
    • Since counterfeit goods influence one’s image, normative social influence
    • may be a barrier to purchase ( Oneto S. and Sundie J. M. ,2006 ; Phau I., and Teah M., 2009)
    • We wanted to investigate whether purchase intentions of counterfeit luxury goods are driven more by social motivation or by social influence.
    • RQ : Are purchase intentions of counterfeit luxury products more driven by social needs or by social influence?
  • 4.
    • Convenient sample of middle-income female university students
    • aged 18-25 (according to ACG data).
    • We will focus specifically on counterfeit fashion bags since:
      • They are products familiar to the sample chosen
      • They are non- functional goods
  • 5.
    • 5 Interviews
    • Aims :
    • To uncover the role of social needs and social influence in relation to counterfeit luxury products.
    • To identify and understand the main components of each variable according to respondents.
      • To use responses to design the questionnaire
      • Using personal depht interviews we aimed to avoid the rise of socially acceptable responses.
  • 6.
    • Sex : Female
    Age Ethnicity Education Annual Income Int 1 24 British Postgraduate Less than £20,000 Int 2 25 Polish Postgraduate £30,000 cca Int 3 23 Turkish Postgraduate £16,000- £30,000 Int 4 22 Asian Undergraduate More than £ 30,000 Int 5 22 Helvetian Undergraduate £ 25,000 cca
  • 7.
    • Attitudes towards
    • counterfeit luxury products
    • Purchase Motivations
    • Social Needs
    • Social Susceptibility
    • Social Influence on
    • Purchase Decisions
    • (positive or negative?)
    • Set according to the Literature &
    • Research Question
  • 8.
    • What do you think about the phenomenon of counterfeit luxury products?
    • Do you know anyone who has ever bought a counterfeit luxury bag?
    • What do you think may be the motivations behind these purchases?
    • Do you think there is any kind of social need behind the purchase? For example?
    • In your opinion, before purchasing a counterfeit luxury bag, people take into account what others ( friends, colleagues ect.) may think of it? 
    • Do you think that owning , carrying or purchasing counterfeit luxury bags may affect the image other people have of you? How?
    • Would this aspect  be a barrier to purchasing this kind of products?
  • 9.
    • Critically Negative
    • “ The quality of the original ones does not differ that much anymore.
    • But it’s still a fraud ”
    • Interviewee 2
    • “ I may sometimes think to get one because they are convenient.
    • But it’s illegal”
    • Interviewee 4
    • Negative
    • “ They damaged the industry and put at risk the work of many people”
    • Interviewee 1
    • “ It is shameful. Why you have to buy something you cannot afford? People would find you fake “
    • Interviewee 3
    • “ It’s a shocking and harsh phenomenon that people think they need to buy fake products”
    • Interviewee 5
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • 4/5 Participants addressed others ‘opinions as a personal barrier to the purchase intention.
    • However, it has been indicated that in certain social groups may be otherwise.
    • “ My friends and collegues would think that I am a tasteless chav , I wouldn’t”
    • Interviewee 1
    • “ I would never buy a counterfeit luxury bag if I know
    • that someone can discover it. But I know for certain people it looks clever ”
    • Interviewee 2
    • “ I wouldn’t want to buy a fake bag. If other would find out it’d be shameful.
    • They would think that I cannot afford anything and all I have it’s fake”
    • Interviewee 3
    • “ I wouldn’t buy it . I don’t wanna look like I need to seem richer than I am.”
    • Interviewee 4
    • “ If I could afford original ones I won’t care about others opinions and go also for the fake one”
    • Interviewee 5
  • 13.
    • Generally negative attitudes towards counterfeit luxury products.
    • Some critical opinions on the phenomenon though.
    • Half consider it negative for its legal aspects, half immediately mentioned the social ones.
    • Most of the interviewee indicated need of recognition as the main social motivations of the purchase
    • 3/5 think that normative social influence affects the purchase intentions.
    • 4/5 participants think that the fear of others’ opinion /shame may be a barrier to their purchase .
    • Difference in different social classes have been mentioned
  • 14.
    • 50 Online Questionnaires
      • 47 Responses
    • Aims :
    • Quantitatively measure the influence, as emerged in the questionnaires, of :
    • Need of Recognition
    • Social Susceptibility
    • Examine which indicator influence the most purchase intentions of counterfeit luxury products
    • H1 :Purchase intention of counterfeit product is positively correlated to social recognition need
    • H2 :Purchase intention of counterfeit product is negatively correlated to social influence
    • H3 : Need of social recognition drives purchase of counterfeit luxury products more than social influence
    • Adapted scales:
      • Beardens Social Susceptibility
      • Rockeach Need of Recognition
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.
    • 1.Main:
    • H1:Correlation of purchase intention and social recognition needs- Spearman's rho
    • H2:Correlation of purchase intention and social influence- Spearman's rho
    • H3:Linear Regression- influence of social recognition need and social susceptibility on purchase intention
    • 2. Additional:
    • Correlation between annual income and social influence- Spearman's rho
    • Correlation between annual income and need of social recognition- Spearman's rho
  • 20.
    • Correlation of purchase intention and social recognition needs- -0,02 ( not statistically significant )
    • Positive Correlation of purchase intention and social influence- 0,247 (statistically significant)  H2 REJECTED!
    • Linear Regression: influence of need of recognition and social influence on purchase intention- Y= -0,01x 1 + 0,51x 2 +2,5
    • (not statistically significant)
    • Negative Correlation between annual income and Need of recognition -0,264 ( statistically significant )
    • In direct question- respondents indicated that social recognition is more important than social influence for purchase intention
  • 21.
    • Our main limitation was to use a convenient and very small sample
    • No statistical significance to support our main hypothesis .
    • We cannot state whether social recognition and social susceptibility drive purchase intentions and which one does more.
    • H2 was rejected :
    • Social Susceptibility is positively correlated to purchase intentions.
    • A possible explanation may be that social susceptibility is not necessarily a barrier . It may cause emulation. It can act as a sort of social pressure, either by reference or aspiration groups, as mentioned by interviewees. The purchase may be perceived as not bad by certain groups (eg. Students)
    • The ambiguity of this variable is reflected in the fact that quantitative and qualitative data here differ
    • Ambiguos role of Social susceptability in positively and negatively influence the purchase of counterfeit luxury product should be investigated more accurately (testing this specific aspect).
    • Need of recogniton has been indicated repetitevely as the main social motivations either in interviewees and questionnaire responses.
    • Need of recognition and income are negatively correlated as repetitevely mentioned in the interviewes.
    • Need of further analysis on larger sample to investigate the contradictions emerged and run a more representative analysis of the two variables.
    • Campaigns may stress the fake or negative recognition caused by the purchase of counterfeit products to disincentive purchases.
  • 22.
    • References
    • Schiffman L.G., Kanuk L.L., Hansen H. (2008) Consumer behaviour, a European outlook, Harlow : Pearson Education.
    • Bearden, W.O, Netemeyer R.G, Teel J. E. (1989) “Measurements of Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence” Journal of Consumer Research , vol. 15 : 473- 481.
    • Reports by the Anti- Counterfeiting Group (ACG) are available at:
    • http://www.a-cg.org/guest/index.php
    • Bryce, J. and Rutter, J. Fake Nation, The Intellectual Property Theft and Organised Crime (IPTOC)
    • Wilcox, K., Min Kim, H. and Sen, S. (2009)“Why do Consumers buy counterfeit luxury brands? Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XLVI (April 2009), 247–259
    • Oneto, S. and Sundie, J. (2006) “Perceptions of Counterfeit Consumers” Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 33, p 341
    • Phau, I. and Teah, M. (2009)“Devil wears (counterfeit) Prada: a study of antecedents and outcomes of attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands” Journal of consumer marketing, Vol 26-1, pp 15-17