Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of thebronchi in the lungs .
It is defined clinically as a persistent cough thatproduces sputum and mucus, for at least threemonths per year in two consecutive years.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Bronchitis may be indicated by a cough thatproduces sputum (also known as a productivecough), shortness of breath ( dyspnea ) andwheezing.
DIAGNOSIS A physical examination will often reveal diminishedbreath sounds, wheezing and prolonged exhalation. A variety of tests may be performed in patientspresenting with cough and shortness of breath:
Pulmonary Function Tests or spirometry A chest X-ray that reveals hyperinflation; collapseand consolidation of lung areas would support adiagnosis of pneumonia A sputum sample showing neutrophil granulocytes(inflammatory white blood cells) and cultureshowing that has pathogenic A blood test would indicate inflammation (asindicated by a raised white blood cell count andelevated C-reactive protein). Damage caused by irritation of the airways leads toinflammation and leads to neutrophils being present
TREATMENT Smoking cessation is of benefit as cigarette smokeparalyzes the cilia comprising the mucociliaryescalator. Antibiotics Bronchodilators
ISSUE IN ECUADOR chronic bronchitis are highly prevalent diseases.Studies designed to analyze the economic impactof these diseases in Latin American countries havenot previously been published. In the present studywe analyzed the direct health care costs of treatingpatients with exacerbations of chronic bronchitisand COPD inArgentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela, applying the real cost of drugsand medical acts in those 7 countries to the patternof treatment and outcomes obtained from a studycarried out in primary care settings in Spain.