231109 rm-t.s.r.-ethics & research

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  • 1. Ethics & Research Prof .T.S.Ravi Kumar Head Department of A & E Nursing College of Nursing CMCH Vellore
  • 2. Research
    • Question
    • Systematic Scientific Study
    • Implementation, New Knowledge etc
  • 3. ? topics
  • 4. Ethics
    • What is the color of the world ?
  • 5.
    • Ethics
    • (Greek ethika, ethos,character,custom),
    • Principles or standards of human conduct,
    • sometimes called morals (Latin mores, custom)
    Ethics
  • 6. PRUDENCE, PLEASURE, OR POWER
    • Intellectual nature is superior to the sensual nature
    • Rhetoric, logic, and civil affairs, were skeptical of moral absolutes
    • virtue is knowledge
  • 7. Concepts of Ethics
    • Values
    • Belief systems
    • Morality
  • 8. Utilitarianism
    • Utilitarianism holds that
    • actions or policies
    • that
    • achieve good results—
    • particularly the greatest good
    • for the greatest number of people—
    • are judged to be moral
  • 9. casuistry
    • casuistry, a case-based approach
  • 10. Principles of Ethics
    • Value of life
    • Goodness & Rightness
    • Justice or fairness
    • Truth telling or Honesty
    • Individual freedom
  • 11. Ethical framework
    • Based on four principles :
      • duty to alleviate suffering
      • duty to show respect for persons
      • duty to be sensitive to cultural differences
      • duty not to exploit the vulnerable
    • Local social, cultural and economic contexts must be taken into account
  • 12.
    • Genuine Consent
    • Standards of care
    • Ethical review of research
    • What happens once research is over?
  • 13. Bioethics
    • A sub discipline of ethics
    • The study of life science morality
  • 14. Bioethics
    • Descriptive Bioethics
    • - the way people view life
    • Prescriptive bioethics
    • - to tell others what is good
    • Interactive bioethics
    • - debate between people
  • 15. Standards of care
    • International debate about standard of care that should be provided to control group in research:
      • Universal (the best treatment available anywhere in the world)
      • Non-universal (the treatment available in a defined region)
  • 16. Value Systems
    • A set of related values
    • Intrinsic values
    • Extrinsic values
    • Personal values
    • Professional values
  • 17. Value Formation
    • Values are learned
    • Values change with maturity and experience
    • The number of values an individual holds is not as important as what values they consider important
  • 18. When you are doing something wrong, Do You Know that it is wrong?
  • 19. Respect for Human Dignity
    • Right to self determination
      • No Coercion
      • No incentive
    • Right to full disclosure
    • Informed consent
      • Consent Form
    • Issues related to respect
      • Eg Cultural
  • 20. Nuremberg Code and The Declaration of Helsinki
    • Honesty
      • honesty in all scientific communications
    • Objectivity
      • Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing,
  • 21. Nuremberg Code and The Declaration of Helsinki
    • Integrity
      • Keep your promises and agreements;
    • Carefulness
    • Openness
    • Respect for Intellectual Property
    • Confidentiality
    • Responsible Publication
  • 22.
    • Responsible Mentoring
    • Respect for colleagues
    • Social Responsibility
    • Non-Discrimination
    • Competence
    • Legality
    • Animal Care
    Nuremberg Code and The Declaration of Helsinki
  • 23. Nuremberg Code and The Declaration of Helsinki
    • Human Subjects Protection
  • 24. Directions
    • Discussion of case studies
    • Ethics Rounds
    • Ethics Committee
      • Institutional Philosophy
      • Policy
  • 25.
    • Discussion