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231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
231109 rm-r.j.-research question
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231109 rm-r.j.-research question

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  • 1. DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTION, RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Mrs. Rosaline Jayakaran Professor Community Health Nursing
  • 2. WHAT IS A RESEARCH QUESTION? <ul><li>AN EXPLICIT QUERY ABOUT A PROBLEM OR ISSUE THAT CAN BE CHALLENGED, EXAMINED AND ANALYZED AND THAT WILL YIELD USEFUL NEW INFORMATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>IN SOME CASES , DIRECT WORDINGS OF STATEMENT OF PURPOSE PHRASED IN THE QUESTION FORM RATHER THAN AS A STATEMENT. </li></ul>
  • 3. RESEARCH QUESTION <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Research question is a concise interrogative </li></ul><ul><li>statement that is worded in the present tense </li></ul><ul><li>and it include one or more variables or </li></ul><ul><li>concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Research questions are queries about </li></ul><ul><li>relationships between variables. </li></ul>
  • 4. MAIN FOCUS OF RESEARCH QUESTION <ul><li>Description of Variable (s) </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of relationships among variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Determinations of differences between 2 or more groups regarding selected variables </li></ul>
  • 5. SOURCES OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS/QUESTIONS <ul><li>EXPERIENCE AND CLINICAL FIELD WORK </li></ul><ul><li>NURSING LITERATURE </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>IDEAS FROM EXTERNAL SOURCES </li></ul>
  • 6. CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING A QUESTION <ul><li>SIGNIFICANCE AND RELEVANCE </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCHABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>FEASIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL CURIOSITY </li></ul>
  • 7. ADVANTAGES OF RESEARCH QUESTION <ul><li>MAKES STUDY SIMPLE </li></ul><ul><li>GIVES DIRECTION TO STUDY </li></ul><ul><li>INVITES AN ANSWER </li></ul><ul><li>HELPS FOCUS ATTENTION OF RESEARCHER AND READER ON KIND OF DATA TO BE COLLECTED </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWERS ADD TO OUR GENERAL KNOWLEDGE </li></ul>
  • 8. LEVELS OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS <ul><li>LEVEL I - WHEN VERY LITTLE KNOWLEDGE IS AVAILABLE. </li></ul><ul><li>LEVEL II -TO LOOK FOR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES </li></ul><ul><li>LEVEL III -ASSUMES RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES AND ASKS ‘WHY?’ </li></ul>
  • 9. LEVEL I EXAMPLE <ul><li>WHAT ARE THE EXPERIENCES OF FATHERS WHO ARE IN THE DELIVERY ROOM WITH THEIR WIVES? </li></ul><ul><li>ONE VARIABLE -EXPERIENCES </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION - FATHERS IN THE DELIVERY ROOM </li></ul>
  • 10. LEVEL II EXAMPLE <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF PATIENT EDUCATION TO PATIENT COMPLIANCE IN CARDIAC REHABILITATION PROGRAM? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VARIABLES - PATIENT EDUCATION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PATIENT COMPLIANCE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POPULATION –CARDIAC REHABILITATION PATIENTS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. LEVEL III EXAMPLE <ul><li>WHY DO SELF CARE BEHAVIOURS INCREASE THE FEELINGS OF WELLBEING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ILLNESS? </li></ul><ul><li>VARIABLES- CAUSE -SELF CARE BEHAVIOURS EFFECT–FEELINGS OF WELLBEING </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION - PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ILLNESS </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECTION - INCREASE </li></ul>
  • 12. TYPES OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS <ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS ABOUT PREVALENCE,FREQUENCIES,AVERAGE VALUES ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIVARIATE QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS ABOUT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES </li></ul>
  • 13. MULTIVARIATE QUESTIONS <ul><li>EXISTENCE OF RELATIONSHIP: IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP? </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECTION OF RELATIONSHIP: WHETHER THERE IS AN INCREASE OR A DECREASE? </li></ul><ul><li>STRENGTH OF RELATIONSHIP: HOW STRONG? </li></ul><ul><li>NATURE OF RELATIONSHIP : DOES IT CONTRIBUTE? </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATED RELATIONSHIP : IS THERE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN? </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIATED RELATIONSHIP: DOES IT DIRECTLY HAVE AN EFFECT? </li></ul>
  • 14. FORMULATION OF QUESTION <ul><li>SELECT TOPIC </li></ul><ul><li>NARROW TOPIC BY ASKING QUESTIONS –WHAT? WHEN? WHY? HOW? WHO? </li></ul>
  • 15. DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTION <ul><li>Steps : </li></ul><ul><li>Idea emerges </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Storming </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying variables </li></ul><ul><li>Research question formulation </li></ul>
  • 16. CHARATERISTICS OF FULLY DEVELOPED RESEARCH QUESTION <ul><li>Identifies variables </li></ul><ul><li>Specific population </li></ul><ul><li>Implies possibility of empirical testing </li></ul>
  • 17. EXAMPLE <ul><li>PURPOSE :TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF INFERTILITY ON PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING OF MARRIED COUPLES. </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT PERCENTAGE OF HUSBANDS AND WIVES IN INFERTILE COUPLES SUFFER FROM DEPRESSION? </li></ul><ul><li>DO HUSBANDS IN INFERTILE COUPLES DIFFER FROM WIVES WITH RESPECT TO THEIR LEVELS OF DEPRESSION? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ARE THE COPING STRATERGIES USED BY HUSBANDS AND WIVES TO DEAL WITH THEIR INFERTILITY? </li></ul>
  • 18. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Research objectives is a clean, concise, </li></ul><ul><li>declarative statement that is expressed in the </li></ul><ul><li>present tense. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on one or two variables and indicates whether they are to be identified or described. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies relationships among variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Determines differences between two groups regarding selected variables. </li></ul>
  • 19. <ul><li>1 . To describe the incidence of cocaine use in 18-40 year old persons seen in a hospital emergency department with complaints of chest pain. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the relationship between the demographic data of patient and cocaine use. </li></ul>EXAMPLES
  • 20. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>A hypotheses is a formal statement of the expected relationships between two or more variables in a specified population. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses are proposed solutions or answers to research queries. </li></ul>
  • 21. CHARACTERISTICS OF A HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>It is a declarative statement that identifies relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Testability </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with an existing body of theory and research findings. </li></ul>
  • 22. FUNCTIONS OF HYPOTHESES <ul><li>Translates research problem and purpose into clear explanations or predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Includes variables to be manipulated or measured </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies the population to be examined </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates the proposed outcomes for the study </li></ul><ul><li>Influences study design ,sampling technique, data collection and analysis methods ,and interpretations of findings </li></ul>
  • 23. TYPES OR CATEGORIES <ul><li>Associative versus causal </li></ul><ul><li>Simple versus complex </li></ul><ul><li>Non directional versus directional </li></ul><ul><li>Null versus research </li></ul>
  • 24. PREDICTION PHRASE <ul><li>Less than </li></ul><ul><li>More than </li></ul><ul><li>Greater than </li></ul><ul><li>Different from </li></ul><ul><li>Related to </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with </li></ul><ul><li>Positively related </li></ul><ul><li>Negatively related </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses, ideally should be on sound justifiable rationals . </li></ul>
  • 25. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION <ul><li>Operational Definition is the definition of a </li></ul><ul><li>concept or variable in terms of the procedures </li></ul><ul><li>by which it is to be measured </li></ul><ul><li>It specifies how the concept will be measured </li></ul><ul><li>that is, what instruments will be used to </li></ul><ul><li>capture the concept. </li></ul>
  • 26. ASSUMPTIONS <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions are statements that are taken for granted or are considered true, even though they have not been scientifically tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : </li></ul><ul><li>Universally accepted truths </li></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Research </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing Practice </li></ul>
  • 27. LIMITATION <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations are restrictions or problems in a study that may decrease the generalizability of the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Theoritical Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological Limitations </li></ul>
  • 28. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Properly formulated research question, research objectives and research hypothesis and properly stated operational definition are essential for the success of a study </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of assumptions and limitations helps in smooth conduction of the study </li></ul>

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