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231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview
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231109 rm-p.l.research process – an overview

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  • 1. RESEARCH PROCESS – AN OVERVIEW DR. PREMILA LEE Professor Dept of Surgical Nursing, CNE & Research, College of Nursing, Christian Medical College, Vellore
  • 2. RESEARCH METHODS
    • Research methods are the techniques researchers use to structure a study & to gather and analyze information relevant to the research question
    • Research methods
    • - Quantitative research
    • - Qualitative research
  • 3. Phase 1: The conceptual phase Phase 2: The design and planning phase Phase 3: The empirical phase Phase 4: The analytic phase Phase 5: The dissemination phase
  • 4. PHASE I: THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE
    • Formulating and delimiting the problem
    • Reviewing the related literature
    • Undertaking Clinical field work
    • Defining the framework and developing conceptual definitions
    • Formulating hypotheses
  • 5. FORMULATING & DELIMITING THE PROBLEM
    • Identify an interesting, significant research problem
    • A research problem is a perplexing problem about which one is curious
    • Sources of research problems – clinical experience, nursing literature, social issues, theories & ideas from external sources
  • 6.
    • Communicating research problems – Problem statement, Research questions
    • A problem statement articulates the problem to be addressed
    • Research questions are the specific queries researchers want to answer in addressing the research problem
  • 7. REVIEWING THE RELATED LITERATURE
    • Research is conducted within the context of previous knowledge
    • Researchers strive to understand what is already known
    • A thorough literature review provides a foundation
  • 8. UNDERTAKING CLINICAL FIELD WORK
    • Beneficial to spend time in clinical settings, discussing with concerned people & observing current practices
    • Helps in developing methodologic strategies
  • 9. DEFINING THE FRAMEWORK & DEVELOPING CONCEPTUAL DEFINITIONS
    • Abstractions are called concepts
    • Concepts used in quantitative studies are called variables
    • Concepts in a study need to be defined
  • 10.
    • Two types of definitions – conceptual and operational
    • A conceptual definition presents the theoretical meaning of the concepts
    • An operational definition of a concept specifies the operations that researcher must perform to collect and measure the required information
  • 11. FORMULATING HYPOTHESES
    • A hypothesis is a prediction about the relationship between two or more study variables
  • 12. PHASE 2: THE DESIGN & PLANNING PHASE
    • Selecting a research design
    • Developing protocols for the intervention
    • Identifying the population
    • Designing the sampling plan
    • Specifying methods to measure the research variables
    • Developing methods to safeguard human or animal rights
    • Reviewing and finalizing the research plan
  • 13. SELECTING A RESEARCH DESIGN
    • Research design is the overall plan for obtaining answers to the research questions
    • Research design is the architectural backbone of the study
  • 14. DEVELOPING PROTOCOLS FOR THE INTERVENTION
    • In an experimental research t he intervention protocol for the study need to be developed
    • Goal is to have all subjects treated in some way
    • Not necessary in non experimental research
  • 15. IDENTIFYING THE POPULATION
    • Population is all the individuals with common, defining characteristics
  • 16. DESIGNING THE SAMPLING PLAN
    • Researchers collect data from a sample, which is subset of the population
    • Risk – if sample do not adequately reflect population traits
    • Appropriate sampling procedures can produce samples that are being representative
    • The sampling plan specifies in advance the method & number of sample to be selected
  • 17. SPECIFYING METHODS TO MEASURE THE RESEARCH VARIABLES
    • Researcher must develop or borrow methods to measure the research variables as accurately as possible
    • A variety of quantitative data collection approaches exist
  • 18. DEVELOPING METHODS TO SAFEGUARD HUMAN RIGHTS
    • Procedure need to be developed to ensure that the study adheres to ethical principles
    • Ensure that the rights of subjects have been adequately protected
  • 19. REVIEWING & FINALIZING THE RESEARCH PLAN
    • Before actual data collection, researcher perform a number of “tests” to ensure that plans will work smoothly
    • E.g. evaluate the readability of written materials, pretest the measuring instruments
    • Have the research plan critiqued by peers, consultants or other reviewers
  • 20. PHASE 3: THE EMPIRICAL PHASE
    • Collecting the data
    • Preparing the data for analysis
  • 21. COLLECTING THE DATA
    • The actual data collection often proceeds according to the pre-established plan
    • Plan specifies procedures for the actual data collection
  • 22. PREPARING THE DATA FOR ANALYSIS
    • Quantitative researchers collect data in numeric form
    • Data collected in a quantitative study require coding & transfer onto computer files
  • 23. PHASE 4: THE ANALYTIC PHASE
    • Analyzing the data
    • Interpreting the results
  • 24. INTERPRETING THE RESULTS
    • Interpretation is the process of making sense of study results and examining their implications
    • Researchers explain the findings in the light of prior evidence, theory and clinical experience
    • Determine how the findings can be used in clinical practice, or what further research is needed
  • 25. PHASE 5: THE DISSEMINATION PHASE
    • Communicating the findings
    • Utilizing the findings in practice
  • 26. COMMUNICATING THE FINDINGS
    • Final task is the preparation of a research report that can be shared with others
  • 27. UTILIZING THE FINDINGS IN PRACTICE
    • Concluding step is to plan for its use in practice settings
    • Nurse researchers who are not in a position to implement a plan for utilizing research findings
    • - Include recommendations in the research
    • report
    • - Ensure that adequate information has been
    • provided for a meta-analysis
    • - Disseminate the findings to practicing
    • nurses
  • 28. REFERENCES
    • Burns, N. & Grove, S.K. (2005). The Practice of Nursing Research: conduct, critique and utilization, 5 th ed. St.Louis: Saunders Elsevier
    • Polit, D.F. & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Principles and Methods. 8 th ed. Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
    • Wood, G.L. & Haber, J.(2006). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence_Based Practice. 6 th ed. St.Louis: Mosby Elsevier

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