From Events to Situations: An Event-web perspective


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From Events to Situations: An Event-web perspective

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  • Aim is just to give enough background on event-web to motivate event-centricity in all that is going to follow.This leaves listeners without a clear idea of what you mean by eventweb – define it parallel to documentweb.
  • Sam Palmisano, IBM CEO
  • From Events to Situations: An Event-web perspective

    1. 1. From Events to Situations: AnEvent-web perspectiveVivek SinghAdvisor: Professor Ramesh JainUniversity ofCalifornia, Irvine
    2. 2. Event-web• Connecting real users, events and places rather than just documents.• Events and objects as basic organization and linking mechanism ▫ Multimodal ▫ Closer to real world• Users gain insights and experiences• IBM Smarter planet
    3. 3. Event-web (imminent signs)• Image and video sites for sharing experiential data related to events• Tweets about events of interest• Multimodal news broadcast of events• Detection of events in surveillance videos
    4. 4. Motivation: From events to situations…• Given a plethora of event data. How can we: ▫ Disambiguate relevant and irrelevant events? ▫ Combine events into meaningful representations ? ▫ Allow inference and cascading effects ▫ Support different interpretations based on application domain ▫ Support Control & decision making
    5. 5. Situation based control: Motivations1. Inherent support for event-based (temporal) reasoning2. The ability of the controller to reason based on symbols (rather than just signals)3. Explicit inclusion of domain semantics (to support multiple applications)
    6. 6. Applications• Energy efficient buildings: ▫ When to switch off air-conditioner?• Telepresence: ▫ Which camera feed to send out?• Business analysis: ▫ What should be the correct price for iPhone?• Earthquake rescue effort: ▫ Where to send out the next fire-fighter engine?
    7. 7. E2E communication: Project Overview Environment 1 Environment 2 Device to Device Sentient Sentient Information communication Web Information System SystemTowards Environment to Environment (E2E) multimedia communication systems, in Multimedia Tools and Applications Journal, Springer Netherlands, 2009.Also in: ACM Workshop on Semantic Ambient Media Experiences (SAME), ACM Multimedia workshop, 2008.
    8. 8. Environment: Node Architecture EventBase Sensors Situation Physical Environment Environment Network/ MMDB basedEnvironment Model Server Transmis controller sion Actuators /Presentation Actuator / Devices Presentation Model
    9. 9. Situation Calculus: Quick overview▫ enter(P1), startWork(P1)▫ enter(P1), exit(P1), enter(P1), startWork(P1), stopWork( P1), startWork(P1)- isInRoom(P1, s(k))- isWorking(P1, s(k)) isInRoom(P1, s) 1 0 isWorking(P1, s) 1 0isInRoom(P1, s) ˄~isWorking(P1, s) →IncreaseMusicVolume()Situation = Not events , nor sequence of events,but their assimilated descriptor
    10. 10. Situation calculus• Ω = {Actions, Situations, Objects, Fluents}• Situation: ▫ “The set of necessary and sufficient world state descriptors for undertaking control decision”.• D = Dfnd U Duna U ε U Dap U Dss U D0 ▫ Precondition axioms ▫ Successor-state axioms ▫ Initial situation• Do(action, situation): A X S → S
    11. 11. Control theoretic problem formulation• •• •• •
    12. 12. Situation modeling: E2E applicationLoc 1: Desk Loc2: Whiteboard Conditions Actions Move to Activity Selected Desired location Cam Volume Desk WorkOn 1 1Actions possible: PC1. Work on PC2. Work on Table Desk WorkOn 2 2 Table Whitebo - 3 3 ard User Model - 4 4 Loc 3: Engineering Model Situation based control for cyber physical environments, Accepted: IEEE workshop on situation management, MILCOM, 2009
    13. 13. Situ-itter: Large scale situations onTwitter• Looking beyond a room: ▫ Can an entire city or country be considered a cyber physical system.• Humans as sensors: ▫ Everywhere ! ▫ Perception, Censors, Rumors, Delays• Data has salient features:  Unstructured, Noisy, Humungous, Spatial semantics• Event detection is not well studied!
    14. 14. Situ-itter: First steps• Spatio-temporal visualization for insights• Spatio-temporal analysis for event detection• Combining with external sources of information for decision making• Applications ▫ Event detection ▫ Should iPhone price be increased/decreased? ▫ Where and when to launch an ATT roadshow?
    15. 15. Comparison with external data Aggregate interest on iPhone, Current ATT store location data
    16. 16. Where to have an ATT roadshow?(using spatial-temporal convolution) Location has semantics <geoname> <name>Sandy Big Bend Reservoir Number 1</name> <lat>42.5191149</lat> <lng>-109.4681887</lng> <geonameId>5837570</geonameId> <countryCode>US</countryCode> <countryName>United States</countryName> <fcl>H</fcl> <fcode>RSV</fcode> <fclName>stream, lake, ...</fclName> <fcodeName>reservoir(s)</fcodeName> <population>120,178<population/> <alternateNames/> <elevation>2194</elevation> <continentCode>NA</continentCode> <adminCode1>WY</adminCode1> <adminName1>Wyoming</adminName1> <adminCode2>035</adminCode2> <adminName2>Sublette County</adminName2> <timezone dstOffset="-6.0" gmtOffset="- 7.0">America/Denver</timezone> <distance>3.3639</distance> </geoname>
    17. 17. Future directions• Tip of the iceberg: ▫ Spatio-temporal event detection in social media• Reasoning/inference mechanisms• Combining spatial, temporal and social semantics into decision making• Considering multi-modal data, user and sensor based data• A cyber-physical event-web which connects real users and environments