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# Marketing Research Ppt

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### Transcript

• 1. Measurement and Scaling Techniques
• Measurement: -
• Assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules
• Measurement is done through Scales, Indices and Indicators
• Index is a set of indicators
• Indicators: -
• Criteria for assigning individuals to certain categories
• Provide basis for inferring something's
• Help identifying concepts
• Silence  Half consent
• Smoke  Fire
• Looking at Watch  Lecture is Boring
• 2.
• Constant Sum Scaling :
• Respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units such as points, Rupees, Chits, Strikers among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion.
• Q- Sort Scaling :
• A Rank order procedure to sort objects based on similarity with respect to some criterion.
• Continuous Rating Scales :
• Also known as Graphic rating scales respondents rate the objects in which each stimulus object is scales independently of the other objects in the stimulus set.
• 3. RANKING SCALES
• Paired Comparison Scale
• “ For each pair of middle level luxury car listed, place a check beside the one your most prefer if you had to choose between two”
• Fiat ------ Matiz
• Zen ------ Santro
• Matiz ------ Zen
• Fiat ------ Santro
• Matiz ------ Fiat
• Zen ------ Santro
• 4. RANKING SCALES
• Forced Ranking Scales
• “ Rank the passenger car features in your order of performance. Place the no….
• 1- Next is the most preference.
• 2- Buy the second choices and so forth
• Choice of colours
• Fuel efficiency
• Leg – space
• Language
• 5. RANKING SCALES
• Comparative Scale
• “ Compared with your previous two wheelers performance. The new one is”
Superior 1 About the same 2 3 Inferior 4 5
• 6. Semantic differential scale for analyzing candidates and an industry leadership position
• E sociable (7) (1) Unsociable
• P weak (1) (7) Strong
• A Active (7) (1) Passive
• E Progressive (7) (1) Regressive
• P Yielding (1) (7) Tenacious
• A Slow (1) (7) Fast
• E True (7) (1) False
• P Heavy (7) (1) Light
• A Hot (7) (1) Cold
• E Unsuccessful (1) (7) Successful
• 7. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Evaluation Potency Activity Soc Prog. True Succ. Str. Tena. Heavy Act. Fast Hot Slow Cold Passive Light Yielding Weak Unsuccessful False Regressive Un secured
• 8. BASIC SCALES
• 1. 7 – Point Verbal Balanced Scale
• Extremely acceptable/ pleasant
• Quite
• Slightly
• Neither
• Slightly unacceptable/ unpleasant
• Quite unacceptable
• Extremely unacceptable
• 9.
• 2. 11 – Point Numbered and Verbal Scale
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN STRONG POSSIBILITY SLIGHT POSSIBILITY ABSOLUTELY NO CHANGE
• 10.
• 3. 6 – Point Verbal Unbalanced
EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR NOT SO GOOD POOR DON’T KNOW(D K) / CAN’T SAY
• 11.
• 4. 10 – point numerical scale
• 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
• 5. 5- point verbal
• Strongly Agree
• Agree
• Undecided
• Disagree
• Strongly Disagree
POOR EXCELLENT
• 12.
• 6. 7 – Point Scale
• Extremely
• Quite
• Slightly
• Neither
• Slightly
• Quite
• Extremely
• 13. MEASUREMENT
• Assignments of numerals to objects or events according to ruler.
• -: STEVENS
• What do we measure?
• Objects are not measured.
• Characteristics of objects are not measured either.
• It is the indicators of properties of the object that we measure.
• 14.
• Instruments appropriate to phenomenon being measured.
• Measurement is seldom, if ever precise.
• Precision vis – a – vis instrument.
• Measurement are affected by instrument used and people using them.
• Average of a no. of measures is likely to be a better indicator than any single measure.
• 15.
• LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT
• NOMINAL
• ORDINAL
• INTERNAL
• RATIO
• 16. Scaling Techniques Comparative Non- Comparative Scales Scales Paired Rank Constant Q- Sort Continuous Itemized Comparison Order Sum Rating Rating Scales Scales Likert Semantic Stapel Differential
• 17.
• Paired Comparison:
• A comparative scaling technique In which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criteria. The data obtained are ordinate in nature.
• Rank Order Scaling:
• Respondents are presented with several objectives simultaneously and asked to rank them according to some criteria.
• 18. Rating Scale
• 1 . Simple category scale :
• I plan to purchase HP laptop in next 12 months.
• 2. Multiple choice single balance :
• What news paper do you read most often for finance news?
No Yes No Yes
• 19. Rating Scale
• 3. Multiple choice multiple response :
• what are your sources of knowledge?
Other News Paper Radio T V Relative Friend
• 20. Rating Scale
• 4. Staple Scale :
-1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -5 Reputation Exciting product Technology leader +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +3 +3 +3 +4 +4 +4 +5 +5 +5
• 21. Rating Scale
• 4. Likert scale : Summated Rating
• “The internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches”
S D A Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly
• 22. Rating Scale
• Semantic differential scale
• “Ebony department store”
• Fast.………………………………………..slow
• High…………………………………………low
• Quality……………………...………….quantity
• 23. Rating Scale
• Numerical scale
• Employees’ compensation in term ---
• Employees’ knowledge of task ---
• Employees’ planning effectiveness ---
Unfavorable Favorable Extremely 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely
• 24. Rating Scale
• Multiple rating scale
• “ Please indicate how important each service characteristic is”
• Fast reliable repair
• Service at my location
• Knowledge of technicians
• Service contract after warranty
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unimportant Important
• 25. SCALING METHOD Scaling methods Ranking scales Rating scales Paired comparison Rank order numerical graphic Check list Rating scale : categorical Ranking scale : comparative RATING SCALER: We judge an object against some specified criteria (in absolute terms)
• 26. RATING SCALER
• Like- Dislike
• Above average- Ar. - Below average
• Like very much- Like some what- Neutral-Dislike some what- Dislike very much
• Very effective- Some what effective- Not at all effective
• Very useful- Some what useful- Not at all useful