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  • 1. Measurement and Scaling Techniques
    • Measurement: -
      • Assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules
    • Measurement is done through Scales, Indices and Indicators
      • Index is a set of indicators
    • Indicators: -
      • Criteria for assigning individuals to certain categories
      • Provide basis for inferring something's
      • Help identifying concepts
        • Silence  Half consent
        • Smoke  Fire
        • Looking at Watch  Lecture is Boring
  • 2.
    • Constant Sum Scaling :
      • Respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units such as points, Rupees, Chits, Strikers among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion.
    • Q- Sort Scaling :
      • A Rank order procedure to sort objects based on similarity with respect to some criterion.
    • Continuous Rating Scales :
      • Also known as Graphic rating scales respondents rate the objects in which each stimulus object is scales independently of the other objects in the stimulus set.
  • 3. RANKING SCALES
    • Paired Comparison Scale
      • “ For each pair of middle level luxury car listed, place a check beside the one your most prefer if you had to choose between two”
      • Fiat ------ Matiz
      • Zen ------ Santro
      • Matiz ------ Zen
      • Fiat ------ Santro
      • Matiz ------ Fiat
      • Zen ------ Santro
  • 4. RANKING SCALES
    • Forced Ranking Scales
      • “ Rank the passenger car features in your order of performance. Place the no….
      • 1- Next is the most preference.
      • 2- Buy the second choices and so forth
        • Choice of colours
        • Fuel efficiency
        • Leg – space
        • Language
  • 5. RANKING SCALES
    • Comparative Scale
      • “ Compared with your previous two wheelers performance. The new one is”
    Superior 1 About the same 2 3 Inferior 4 5
  • 6. Semantic differential scale for analyzing candidates and an industry leadership position
    • E sociable (7) (1) Unsociable
    • P weak (1) (7) Strong
    • A Active (7) (1) Passive
    • E Progressive (7) (1) Regressive
    • P Yielding (1) (7) Tenacious
    • A Slow (1) (7) Fast
    • E True (7) (1) False
    • P Heavy (7) (1) Light
    • A Hot (7) (1) Cold
    • E Unsuccessful (1) (7) Successful
  • 7. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Evaluation Potency Activity Soc Prog. True Succ. Str. Tena. Heavy Act. Fast Hot Slow Cold Passive Light Yielding Weak Unsuccessful False Regressive Un secured
  • 8. BASIC SCALES
    • 1. 7 – Point Verbal Balanced Scale
    • Extremely acceptable/ pleasant
    • Quite
    • Slightly
    • Neither
    • Slightly unacceptable/ unpleasant
    • Quite unacceptable
    • Extremely unacceptable
  • 9.
    • 2. 11 – Point Numbered and Verbal Scale
    100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN STRONG POSSIBILITY SLIGHT POSSIBILITY ABSOLUTELY NO CHANGE
  • 10.
    • 3. 6 – Point Verbal Unbalanced
    EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR NOT SO GOOD POOR DON’T KNOW(D K) / CAN’T SAY
  • 11.
    • 4. 10 – point numerical scale
    • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    • 5. 5- point verbal
    • Strongly Agree
    • Agree
    • Undecided
    • Disagree
    • Strongly Disagree
    POOR EXCELLENT
  • 12.
    • 6. 7 – Point Scale
    • Extremely
    • Quite
    • Slightly
    • Neither
    • Slightly
    • Quite
    • Extremely
  • 13. MEASUREMENT
    • Assignments of numerals to objects or events according to ruler.
    • -: STEVENS
    • What do we measure?
      • Objects are not measured.
      • Characteristics of objects are not measured either.
      • It is the indicators of properties of the object that we measure.
  • 14.
    • Proposition about measurement-
      • Instruments appropriate to phenomenon being measured.
      • Measurement is seldom, if ever precise.
      • Precision vis – a – vis instrument.
      • Measurement are affected by instrument used and people using them.
      • Average of a no. of measures is likely to be a better indicator than any single measure.
  • 15.
    • LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT
      • NOMINAL
      • ORDINAL
      • INTERNAL
      • RATIO
  • 16. Scaling Techniques Comparative Non- Comparative Scales Scales Paired Rank Constant Q- Sort Continuous Itemized Comparison Order Sum Rating Rating Scales Scales Likert Semantic Stapel Differential
  • 17.
    • Paired Comparison:
      • A comparative scaling technique In which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criteria. The data obtained are ordinate in nature.
    • Rank Order Scaling:
      • Respondents are presented with several objectives simultaneously and asked to rank them according to some criteria.
  • 18. Rating Scale
    • 1 . Simple category scale :
    • I plan to purchase HP laptop in next 12 months.
    • 2. Multiple choice single balance :
    • What news paper do you read most often for finance news?
    No Yes No Yes
  • 19. Rating Scale
    • 3. Multiple choice multiple response :
    • what are your sources of knowledge?
    Other News Paper Radio T V Relative Friend
  • 20. Rating Scale
    • 4. Staple Scale :
    -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -5 Reputation Exciting product Technology leader +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +3 +3 +3 +4 +4 +4 +5 +5 +5
  • 21. Rating Scale
    • 4. Likert scale : Summated Rating
    • “The internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches”
    S D A Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly
  • 22. Rating Scale
    • Semantic differential scale
    • “Ebony department store”
    • Fast.………………………………………..slow
    • High…………………………………………low
    • Quality……………………...………….quantity
  • 23. Rating Scale
    • Numerical scale
    • Employees’ compensation in term ---
    • Employees’ knowledge of task ---
    • Employees’ planning effectiveness ---
    Unfavorable Favorable Extremely 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely
  • 24. Rating Scale
    • Multiple rating scale
    • “ Please indicate how important each service characteristic is”
    • Fast reliable repair
    • Service at my location
    • Knowledge of technicians
    • Service contract after warranty
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unimportant Important
  • 25. SCALING METHOD Scaling methods Ranking scales Rating scales Paired comparison Rank order numerical graphic Check list Rating scale : categorical Ranking scale : comparative RATING SCALER: We judge an object against some specified criteria (in absolute terms)
  • 26. RATING SCALER
    • Like- Dislike
    • Above average- Ar. - Below average
    • Like very much- Like some what- Neutral-Dislike some what- Dislike very much
    • Very effective- Some what effective- Not at all effective
    • Very useful- Some what useful- Not at all useful
    • Very alert - Some what alert- Not alert- Not at all alert
  • 27. ERRORS
    • Error of leniency
    • Error of central tendency
    • Error of Hallo effect