Measurement and Scaling Techniques <ul><li>Measurement: - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment of numerals to objects or event...
<ul><li>Constant Sum Scaling : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units such as ...
RANKING SCALES  <ul><li>Paired Comparison Scale  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ For each pair of middle level luxury car listed, ...
RANKING SCALES <ul><li>Forced Ranking Scales  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rank the passenger car features in your  order of pe...
RANKING SCALES <ul><li>Comparative Scale  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Compared with your previous two wheelers performance. Th...
Semantic differential scale for analyzing candidates and an industry leadership position <ul><li>E  sociable  (7)  (1)  Un...
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Evaluation Potency Activity Soc Prog. True Succ. Str. Tena. Heavy Act. Fast Hot Slow Cold Passive Light Yiel...
BASIC  SCALES <ul><li>1.  7 – Point Verbal Balanced Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely acceptable/ pleasant </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>2. 11 – Point Numbered and Verbal Scale </li></ul>100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN STRONG POSSI...
<ul><li>3. 6 – Point Verbal Unbalanced </li></ul>EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR NOT SO GOOD POOR DON’T KNOW(D K) / CAN’T SAY
<ul><li>4. 10 – point numerical scale </li></ul><ul><li>1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  </li></ul><ul><li>5. 5- point verba...
<ul><li>6. 7 – Point Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely </li></ul><ul><li>Quite </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly </li></ul><ul><l...
MEASUREMENT <ul><li>Assignments of numerals to objects or events according to ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>  -: STEVENS </li><...
<ul><li>Proposition about measurement- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments appropriate to phenomenon being measured. </li></...
<ul><li>LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOMINAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORDINAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Scaling Techniques Comparative  Non- Comparative Scales  Scales Paired  Rank  Constant  Q- Sort  Continuous  Itemized Comp...
<ul><li>Paired Comparison: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A comparative scaling technique In which a respondent is presented with t...
Rating Scale <ul><li>1 . Simple category scale : </li></ul><ul><li>I plan to purchase HP laptop in next 12 months. </li></...
Rating Scale <ul><li>3. Multiple choice multiple response : </li></ul><ul><li>what are your sources of knowledge? </li></u...
Rating Scale <ul><li>4.  Staple Scale : </li></ul>-1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -5 Reputation Exciting product...
Rating Scale <ul><li>4. Likert scale : Summated Rating </li></ul><ul><li>“The internet is superior to traditional librarie...
Rating Scale <ul><li>Semantic differential scale </li></ul><ul><li>“Ebony department store” </li></ul><ul><li>Fast.…………………...
Rating Scale <ul><li>Numerical scale </li></ul><ul><li>Employees’ compensation in term --- </li></ul><ul><li>Employees’ kn...
Rating Scale <ul><li>Multiple rating scale </li></ul><ul><li>“ Please indicate how important each service  characteristic ...
SCALING METHOD Scaling methods Ranking scales Rating scales Paired comparison Rank order numerical graphic Check list Rati...
RATING SCALER <ul><li>Like- Dislike </li></ul><ul><li>Above average- Ar. - Below average  </li></ul><ul><li>Like very much...
ERRORS <ul><li>Error of leniency  </li></ul><ul><li>Error of central tendency </li></ul><ul><li>Error of Hallo effect </li...
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Marketing Research Ppt

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  1. 1. Measurement and Scaling Techniques <ul><li>Measurement: - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurement is done through Scales, Indices and Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index is a set of indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indicators: - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria for assigning individuals to certain categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide basis for inferring something's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help identifying concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silence  Half consent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke  Fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking at Watch  Lecture is Boring </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Constant Sum Scaling : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units such as points, Rupees, Chits, Strikers among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q- Sort Scaling : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Rank order procedure to sort objects based on similarity with respect to some criterion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous Rating Scales : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as Graphic rating scales respondents rate the objects in which each stimulus object is scales independently of the other objects in the stimulus set. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. RANKING SCALES <ul><li>Paired Comparison Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ For each pair of middle level luxury car listed, place a check beside the one your most prefer if you had to choose between two” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiat ------ Matiz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zen ------ Santro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matiz ------ Zen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiat ------ Santro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matiz ------ Fiat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zen ------ Santro </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. RANKING SCALES <ul><li>Forced Ranking Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rank the passenger car features in your order of performance. Place the no…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1- Next is the most preference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2- Buy the second choices and so forth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of colours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leg – space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. RANKING SCALES <ul><li>Comparative Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Compared with your previous two wheelers performance. The new one is” </li></ul></ul>Superior 1 About the same 2 3 Inferior 4 5
  6. 6. Semantic differential scale for analyzing candidates and an industry leadership position <ul><li>E sociable (7) (1) Unsociable </li></ul><ul><li>P weak (1) (7) Strong </li></ul><ul><li>A Active (7) (1) Passive </li></ul><ul><li>E Progressive (7) (1) Regressive </li></ul><ul><li>P Yielding (1) (7) Tenacious </li></ul><ul><li>A Slow (1) (7) Fast </li></ul><ul><li>E True (7) (1) False </li></ul><ul><li>P Heavy (7) (1) Light </li></ul><ul><li>A Hot (7) (1) Cold </li></ul><ul><li>E Unsuccessful (1) (7) Successful </li></ul>
  7. 7. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Evaluation Potency Activity Soc Prog. True Succ. Str. Tena. Heavy Act. Fast Hot Slow Cold Passive Light Yielding Weak Unsuccessful False Regressive Un secured
  8. 8. BASIC SCALES <ul><li>1. 7 – Point Verbal Balanced Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely acceptable/ pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Quite </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly </li></ul><ul><li>Neither </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly unacceptable/ unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Quite unacceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely unacceptable </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>2. 11 – Point Numbered and Verbal Scale </li></ul>100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN STRONG POSSIBILITY SLIGHT POSSIBILITY ABSOLUTELY NO CHANGE
  10. 10. <ul><li>3. 6 – Point Verbal Unbalanced </li></ul>EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR NOT SO GOOD POOR DON’T KNOW(D K) / CAN’T SAY
  11. 11. <ul><li>4. 10 – point numerical scale </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 </li></ul><ul><li>5. 5- point verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Agree </li></ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul><ul><li>Undecided </li></ul><ul><li>Disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Disagree </li></ul>POOR EXCELLENT
  12. 12. <ul><li>6. 7 – Point Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely </li></ul><ul><li>Quite </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly </li></ul><ul><li>Neither </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly </li></ul><ul><li>Quite </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely </li></ul>
  13. 13. MEASUREMENT <ul><li>Assignments of numerals to objects or events according to ruler. </li></ul><ul><li> -: STEVENS </li></ul><ul><li>What do we measure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects are not measured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of objects are not measured either. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the indicators of properties of the object that we measure. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Proposition about measurement- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments appropriate to phenomenon being measured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement is seldom, if ever precise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision vis – a – vis instrument. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement are affected by instrument used and people using them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average of a no. of measures is likely to be a better indicator than any single measure. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOMINAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORDINAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INTERNAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RATIO </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Scaling Techniques Comparative Non- Comparative Scales Scales Paired Rank Constant Q- Sort Continuous Itemized Comparison Order Sum Rating Rating Scales Scales Likert Semantic Stapel Differential
  17. 17. <ul><li>Paired Comparison: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A comparative scaling technique In which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criteria. The data obtained are ordinate in nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rank Order Scaling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents are presented with several objectives simultaneously and asked to rank them according to some criteria. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Rating Scale <ul><li>1 . Simple category scale : </li></ul><ul><li>I plan to purchase HP laptop in next 12 months. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Multiple choice single balance : </li></ul><ul><li>What news paper do you read most often for finance news? </li></ul>No Yes No Yes
  19. 19. Rating Scale <ul><li>3. Multiple choice multiple response : </li></ul><ul><li>what are your sources of knowledge? </li></ul>Other News Paper Radio T V Relative Friend
  20. 20. Rating Scale <ul><li>4. Staple Scale : </li></ul>-1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -5 Reputation Exciting product Technology leader +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +3 +3 +3 +4 +4 +4 +5 +5 +5
  21. 21. Rating Scale <ul><li>4. Likert scale : Summated Rating </li></ul><ul><li>“The internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches” </li></ul>S D A Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly
  22. 22. Rating Scale <ul><li>Semantic differential scale </li></ul><ul><li>“Ebony department store” </li></ul><ul><li>Fast.………………………………………..slow </li></ul><ul><li>High…………………………………………low </li></ul><ul><li>Quality……………………...………….quantity </li></ul>
  23. 23. Rating Scale <ul><li>Numerical scale </li></ul><ul><li>Employees’ compensation in term --- </li></ul><ul><li>Employees’ knowledge of task --- </li></ul><ul><li>Employees’ planning effectiveness --- </li></ul>Unfavorable Favorable Extremely 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely
  24. 24. Rating Scale <ul><li>Multiple rating scale </li></ul><ul><li>“ Please indicate how important each service characteristic is” </li></ul><ul><li>Fast reliable repair </li></ul><ul><li>Service at my location </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Service contract after warranty </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unimportant Important
  25. 25. SCALING METHOD Scaling methods Ranking scales Rating scales Paired comparison Rank order numerical graphic Check list Rating scale : categorical Ranking scale : comparative RATING SCALER: We judge an object against some specified criteria (in absolute terms)
  26. 26. RATING SCALER <ul><li>Like- Dislike </li></ul><ul><li>Above average- Ar. - Below average </li></ul><ul><li>Like very much- Like some what- Neutral-Dislike some what- Dislike very much </li></ul><ul><li>Very effective- Some what effective- Not at all effective </li></ul><ul><li>Very useful- Some what useful- Not at all useful </li></ul><ul><li>Very alert - Some what alert- Not alert- Not at all alert </li></ul>
  27. 27. ERRORS <ul><li>Error of leniency </li></ul><ul><li>Error of central tendency </li></ul><ul><li>Error of Hallo effect </li></ul>

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