Measurement and Scaling Techniques
Assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules Measurement is done through Scales, Indices and Indicators Index is a set of indicators Criteria for assigning individuals to certain categories Provide basis for inferring something's Help identifying concepts
Looking at Watch Lecture is Boring
Respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units such as points, Rupees, Chits, Strikers among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion. A Rank order procedure to sort objects based on similarity with respect to some criterion. Continuous Rating Scales :
Also known as Graphic rating scales respondents rate the objects in which each stimulus object is scales independently of the other objects in the stimulus set.
“ For each pair of middle level luxury car listed, place a check beside the one your most prefer if you had to choose between two”
RANKING SCALES “ Rank the passenger car features in your order of performance. Place the no…. 1- Next is the most preference.
2- Buy the second choices and so forth
RANKING SCALES Superior 1 About the same 2 3 Inferior 4 5
“ Compared with your previous two wheelers performance. The new one is”
Semantic differential scale for analyzing candidates and an industry leadership position E sociable (7) (1) Unsociable E Progressive (7) (1) Regressive P Yielding (1) (7) Tenacious
E Unsuccessful (1) (7) Successful
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Evaluation Potency Activity Soc Prog. True Succ. Str. Tena. Heavy Act. Fast Hot Slow Cold Passive Light Yielding Weak Unsuccessful False Regressive Un secured
BASIC SCALES 1. 7 – Point Verbal Balanced Scale Extremely acceptable/ pleasant
Slightly unacceptable/ unpleasant
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN STRONG POSSIBILITY SLIGHT POSSIBILITY ABSOLUTELY NO CHANGE
2. 11 – Point Numbered and Verbal Scale
EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR NOT SO GOOD POOR DON’T KNOW(D K) / CAN’T SAY
3. 6 – Point Verbal Unbalanced
4. 10 – point numerical scale
MEASUREMENT Assignments of numerals to objects or events according to ruler. Objects are not measured. Characteristics of objects are not measured either.
It is the indicators of properties of the object that we measure.
Proposition about measurement- Instruments appropriate to phenomenon being measured. Measurement is seldom, if ever precise. Precision vis – a – vis instrument. Measurement are affected by instrument used and people using them.
Average of a no. of measures is likely to be a better indicator than any single measure.
Scaling Techniques Comparative Non- Comparative Scales Scales Paired Rank Constant Q- Sort Continuous Itemized Comparison Order Sum Rating Rating Scales Scales Likert Semantic Stapel Differential
A comparative scaling technique In which a respondent is presented with two objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criteria. The data obtained are ordinate in nature.
Respondents are presented with several objectives simultaneously and asked to rank them according to some criteria.
Rating Scale 1 . Simple category scale : I plan to purchase HP laptop in next 12 months. 2. Multiple choice single balance : No Yes No Yes
What news paper do you read most often for finance news?
Rating Scale 3. Multiple choice multiple response : Other News Paper Radio T V Relative Friend
what are your sources of knowledge?
Rating Scale -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -5 Reputation Exciting product Technology leader +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +3 +3 +3 +4 +4 +4 +5 +5 +5
Rating Scale 4. Likert scale : Summated Rating S D A Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly
“The internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches”
Rating Scale Semantic differential scale Fast.………………………………………..slow
Rating Scale Employees’ compensation in term --- Employees’ knowledge of task --- Unfavorable Favorable Extremely 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely
Employees’ planning effectiveness ---
Rating Scale “ Please indicate how important each service characteristic is” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unimportant Important
Service contract after warranty
SCALING METHOD Scaling methods Ranking scales Rating scales Paired comparison Rank order numerical graphic Check list Rating scale : categorical Ranking scale : comparative RATING SCALER: We judge an object against some specified criteria (in absolute terms)
RATING SCALER Above average- Ar. - Below average Like very much- Like some what- Neutral-Dislike some what- Dislike very much Very effective- Some what effective- Not at all effective Very useful- Some what useful- Not at all useful
Very alert - Some what alert- Not alert- Not at all alert
Error of central tendency