Dr. Vivek KumarDr. Vivek Kumar
ST. VINCENT PALLOTTI COLLEGE OFST. VINCENT PALLOTTI COLLEGE OF
ENGG. AND TECHENGG. AND TECH..
“Watershed can be defined as a unit of
area covers all the land which
contributes runoff to a common point
or outlet and surrounded by a ridge
Deterioration of watershed takes place due
to faulty and bad management through the
activity of man and his animals.
Causes of watershed
These activities are:
Faulty agriculture, forestry and pasture
(Grass land) management leading to
degradation of land.
Unscientific mining and quarrying.
Faulty road alignment and construction.
Apathy (less interest) of the people.
Results of watershed Deterioration:
Less production from agriculture, forests,
grass lands etc.
Erosion increases and decreases biomass
Rapid siltation of reservoirs, lakes and
Less storage of water and lowering of
Poverty as a result of less food production.
Possible range of treatment measures
Contour stone walls
Agro forestry with suitable species
Check dams (Temporary and
Farm ponds and Percolation ponds
Renovation of existing water bodies
and inlet channels
COMPONENTS OF WATERSHED
• Human Resource Development (Community
• Soil and Land Management
• Water Management
• Crop Management
• Pasture/Fodder Development
• Livestock Management
• Rural Energy Management
• Farm and non-farm value addition activities
All these components are interdependent and interactive.
It helps to bring sloping land into
different level strips to enable
It consists of construction of step
like fields along contours by half
cutting and half filling.
Original slope is converted into
level fields. The vertical and
horizontal intervals are decided
based land slope.
Methods for agricultural land
Broad beds and furrows
A low weir normally constructed across the
Constructed on small streams and long gullies
formed by erosive activity of flood water
It cuts the velocity and reduces erosive activity
The stored water improves soil moisture of the
adjoining area and allows percolation to
recharge the aquifers
Height depends on the bank height, varies
from a 1 m to 3 m and length varies from less
than 3m to 10m
To improve the ground water recharge.
Shallow depression created at lower
portions in a natural or diverted stream
Located in soils of permeable nature
Adaptable where 20-30 ground water
wells for irrigation exist with in the
zone of influence about 800 X 900 m
To conserve insitu moisture and
reduce soil loss
Circular basin of one meter dia for
level lands depending upon
infiltration and rainfall
Ditches of size 5m x 5m with trees
Saucer basins / semi circular bunds
with 2m diameter to a height of 15-
20cm across the slope
To control erosion and to conserve
soil moisture in the soil during
The broad bed and furrow system
is laid within the field boundaries.
Conserves soil moisture in dry
Controls soil erosion.
Acts as a drainage channel during
heavy rainy days.
To intercept the runoff flowing
down the slope by an embankment.
It helps to control runoff velocity.
It can be adopted in light and
medium textured soils.
It can be laid up to 6% slopes.
It helps to retain moisture in the
Gully plug is one of the simple method of
soil and water conservation. It plays an
important role in soil and water
Gullies are formed due to erosion of top
soil by the flow of rain water. In course of
time, a gully assumes a big shape and
erosion goes on increasing. To prevent
erosion, barriers or plugs of different types
of material are put across the gully, at
Instead of uneconomical agriculture,
farmers can grow grass in this hilly
area and can use that as a fodder for
Farmers can go for dairy development
if good quantity and quality of grass is
For soil and water conservation
this activity will help. Plantation on
common land will satisfy basic
need of fuel wood.
Cheapest method for soil and
Main objective of field
preparation is to control weeds
Facilitate easy sowing and to
establish good seed soil contact
For easy absorption of moisture
To provide sufficient aeration
To improve water holding
Agroforestry is an integrated
approach of using the interactive
benefits from combining trees and
shrubs with crops and/or livestock.
It combines agricultural and forestry
technologies to create more diverse,
productive, profitable, healthy and
sustainable land-use systems.
Roof top rainwater harvesting
To recharge the wells (open and
tube wells) particularly abandoned
wells by a runoff collection system.
Direct on-use of collected water if
storage facility is available.
RECHARGE TUBE WELL
To directly feed depleted aquifers
to fresh water from ground surface
so that the recharge is fast without
any evaporation loss
Depth of recharge tube well
depends on the present depth of
bore wells in the area