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Wateshed management
 

Wateshed management

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Wateshed management

Wateshed management

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    Wateshed management Wateshed management Presentation Transcript

    • Dr. Vivek KumarDr. Vivek Kumar ST. VINCENT PALLOTTI COLLEGE OFST. VINCENT PALLOTTI COLLEGE OF ENGG. AND TECHENGG. AND TECH..
    • Watershed: Definition: “Watershed can be defined as a unit of area covers all the land which contributes runoff to a common point or outlet and surrounded by a ridge line”. Deterioration of watershed takes place due to faulty and bad management through the activity of man and his animals.
    • Causes of watershed Deterioration: These activities are: Faulty agriculture, forestry and pasture (Grass land) management leading to degradation of land. Unscientific mining and quarrying. Faulty road alignment and construction. Industrialization Forest Fires  Apathy (less interest) of the people.
    • Results of watershed Deterioration: Less production from agriculture, forests, grass lands etc. Erosion increases and decreases biomass production Rapid siltation of reservoirs, lakes and river beds. Less storage of water and lowering of water table. Poverty as a result of less food production.
    • WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT Possible range of treatment measures Contour bunding Contour trenching Contour stone walls Bench terraces Land levelling Summer ploughing
    • Agro forestry with suitable species Vegetative barriers Check dams (Temporary and Permanent) Retaining walls Farm ponds and Percolation ponds Renovation of existing water bodies and inlet channels
    • COMPONENTS OF WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT:   • Human Resource Development (Community Development) • Soil and Land Management • Water Management • Crop Management • Afforestation • Pasture/Fodder Development • Livestock Management • Rural Energy Management • Farm and non-farm value addition activities All these components are interdependent and interactive.
    • DEVELOPED WATERSHED
    • Methods for hill slopes CONTOUR TRENCHES AND STONE WALLS BENCH TERRACING
    • CONTOUR TRENCHES AND STONE WALLS
    • Suitable erosion control in hills Adopted for hill slopes >20% Continuous or interrupted
    • BENCH TERRACING
    • It helps to bring sloping land into different level strips to enable cultivation. It consists of construction of step like fields along contours by half cutting and half filling. Original slope is converted into level fields. The vertical and horizontal intervals are decided based land slope.
    • Methods for agricultural land Check dam Percolation pond Micro catchments Contour bund Broad beds and furrows Gully plugs Tree plantation Summer ploughing Agro forestry Vegetative barriers Farm ponds
    • Check dam
    • Check Dam
    • A low weir normally constructed across the gullies Constructed on small streams and long gullies formed by erosive activity of flood water It cuts the velocity and reduces erosive activity The stored water improves soil moisture of the adjoining area and allows percolation to recharge the aquifers Height depends on the bank height, varies from a 1 m to 3 m and length varies from less than 3m to 10m
    • Percolation pond
    • To improve the ground water recharge. Shallow depression created at lower portions in a natural or diverted stream course Located in soils of permeable nature Adaptable where 20-30 ground water wells for irrigation exist with in the zone of influence about 800 X 900 m
    • Micro catchments
    • To conserve insitu moisture and reduce soil loss Circular basin of one meter dia for level lands depending upon infiltration and rainfall Ditches of size 5m x 5m with trees planted centre Saucer basins / semi circular bunds with 2m diameter to a height of 15- 20cm across the slope
    • Broad beds and furrows
    • To control erosion and to conserve soil moisture in the soil during rainy days The broad bed and furrow system is laid within the field boundaries. Conserves soil moisture in dry land. Controls soil erosion. Acts as a drainage channel during heavy rainy days.
    • Contour bund
    • To intercept the runoff flowing down the slope by an embankment. It helps to control runoff velocity. It can be adopted in light and medium textured soils. It can be laid up to 6% slopes. It helps to retain moisture in the field.
    • Gully plugs
    • Gully plug is one of the simple method of soil and water conservation. It plays an important role in soil and water conservation. Gullies are formed due to erosion of top soil by the flow of rain water. In course of time, a gully assumes a big shape and erosion goes on increasing. To prevent erosion, barriers or plugs of different types of material are put across the gully, at certain intervals.
    • Tree plantation Instead of uneconomical agriculture, farmers can grow grass in this hilly area and can use that as a fodder for cattle. Farmers can go for dairy development if good quantity and quality of grass is available.
    • For soil and water conservation this activity will help. Plantation on common land will satisfy basic need of fuel wood. Cheapest method for soil and water conservation
    • Summer ploughing
    • Main objective of field preparation is to control weeds Facilitate easy sowing and to establish good seed soil contact For easy absorption of moisture To provide sufficient aeration To improve water holding capacity
    • Agro forestry Agroforestry is an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock. It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems.
    • Vegetative barriers
    • Vegetative barriers are also an effective inter-terrace land treatment in place of earthen barriers.
    • Farm ponds
    • Roof top rainwater harvesting To recharge the wells (open and tube wells) particularly abandoned wells by a runoff collection system. Direct on-use of collected water if storage facility is available.
    • RECHARGE TUBE WELL To directly feed depleted aquifers to fresh water from ground surface so that the recharge is fast without any evaporation loss Depth of recharge tube well depends on the present depth of bore wells in the area
    • Thank you