Of animals and environment.....
St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering
and Technology, Nagpur
... Biodiversity ...
• Much before the appearance of human beings
in biosphere, million of other species have
evolved as a result of evolutionary processes.
The variety of climatic and geographical
conditions on the earth is the base to
evolutionary processes. Different structures,
shapes, defence mechanisms, feeding habits
Such variety if found in all forms of life :
animals, plants, fungi and unicellular
This variety and range of life forms on earth is
termed as ’ BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY’ or
• The great variety of life on earth has provided
for man’s needs over thousands of years. This
diversity of living creatures forms a support
system which has been used by each
civilization for its growth and development.
Those that used this bounty of nature
carefully and sustainably survived, while those
that overused or misused it disintegrated.
...Basic needs of animals...
• Food, water, warmth and a place to live.
IF YOU FOLLOW THE 5 FREEDOMS YOU CAN
NEVER GO GO WRONG:
• 1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst - by ready
access to fresh water and a diet to maintain
full health and vigour.
• 2. Freedom from Discomfort - by providing an
appropriate environment including shelter and
a comfortable resting area.
• 3. Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease - by
prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment.
• 4. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour - by
providing sufficient space, proper facilities and
company of the animal's own kind.
• 5. Freedom from Fear and Distress - by
ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid
...Uses of animals...
• uses of animals
animals providing food
• animals provide material for clothes
• animals as sources of medicines
• animals used for transportation
• animals useful in agriculture
• animals helps in pollination and dispersal of
• animals can be domesticated
• animals are used as beasts of burden.
• animal dung is used as fuel as well as fertilizer
...Threats to animals...
• Habitat Destruction & Fragmentation - The
destruction or splitting up of once continuous
habitat to enable humans to use the land for
agriculture, development of towns and cities,
construction of dams, or other purposes.
Climage Change - Human activities such as the
burning of fossil fuels, have altered the Earth's
atmosphere and have resulted in global
• Introduction of Exotic Species - Accidental and
intentional introduction of non-native species
into regions never before occupied by the
species have resulted in the extinction of
numerous endemic species. Pollution -
Pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, etc.)
released into the environment are ingested by
a wide variety of organisms. Over-Exploitation
of Resources - Exploitation of wild populations
for food has resulted in population crashes
(over-fishing, for example).
• Hunting, Poaching, Illegal Trade of
Endangered Species - Some endangered
species are targeted for their value on illegal
markets. Accidental Deaths - Car hits, window
collisions (birds), collisions with ships (whales).
...How to save animals...
• Report any instances of animal cruelty or neglect
that you may witness. Neglect includes dogs that
are constantly chained up or left alone in a yard
or cats that are pretty much left to fend for
• Report stray or injured animals to your local
animal shelter. If possible, pick up the animal
yourself and call around to see if a rescue or no-
kill shelter might have room before turning the
pet in to a city shelter.
• There are alternatives to city shelters including
boarding facilities that will charge lower rates
for rescued pets until homes are found for
them and people who foster pets.
• Adopt pets from shelters and rescues before
buying from a breeder, and never purchase a
dog or cat from a pet store.
• Avoid purchasing products that were tested on
animals and don't donate to organizations that
do unnecessary animal testing.