The Green Revolution_Technological change by Vivek Gupta
THE GREEN REVOLUTION A Technological ChangePresented by – Group #9 Sandip Sinha - 2012SMN6667 Santosh Kumar - 2012SMN6722 Vivek Gupta - 2012SMN6719 Presented by – Group #9 Sandip Sinha - 2012SMN6667 Santosh Kumar - 2012SMN6722 Vivek Gupta - 2012SMN6719
Aims of this Presentation What is meant by "The Green Revolution“ What are the basic inputs of the Green Revolution How Technology brought green revolution Green Revolution in India Consequences of the Green Revolution
Introduction After WWII there was shortage of food to World-wide which became very threatening United State had launched a food aid for poorer countries Stated aim was to improve relation with other countries Unstated goal of US was to find outlets for agricultural surplus produced by US farmers and enhance US geographical interests.
Inevitability of Famines Neo-Malthusians like Lester Brown have again warned of impending famines
What is Green Revolution • Increase in cereal productivity by change in agricultural technology”. • “Green Revolution” technology was developed by Norman Borlaug in 1950s. • Further research was enhanced by “International Rice Institute” in Philippines
Objective of Green Revolution Increasing agriculture product (obey purpose) Waste dispostal (hidden purpose)
Technologies used in Green Revolution • Seed with improved genetic • Qualitative expansion of Farm Land • Double Cropping of crop • Pesticides • Farming machinery i.e. Tractors, electric pumps
Seed Selection-How was it done?• Introduction of high-yielding varieties (HYVs) – Modification of genes of plants and animals for certain advantages resulting in hybrid varieties. – With genetic modification • IR8 – a semi-dwarf rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation. • IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice.
How was it done? ( Cont..) • Introduction of modern techonoloy – HYVs were adapted to particular growing conditions. • Eg use of irrigation or various chemical fertilisers – With the help of modern technology HYVs were capable of maturing faster.
Expansion of farming areas • The area of land under cultivation was being increased , but this was not enough in meeting with the rising demand. • Other methods were required to increase resources. Yet, the expansion of cultivable land also had to continue. • So, the Green revolution continued with this quantitative expansion of farmlands, even though it was not the most striking feature of the revolution.
Double-cropping existing farmland • Double-cropping was a primary feature of the Green Revolution. • Instead of one crop season per year, to have two crop seasons per year. The one-season-per-year practice was based on the fact that there is only natural monsoon per year. • So, there had to be two "monsoons" per year. One would be the natural monsoon and the other an artificial monsoon’. • The artificial monsoons were created by huge irrigation facilities. Dams were built to arrest large volumes of natural monsoon water which were earlier being wasted. Simple irrigation techniques were also adopted. • So many crops are raised on same piece of land in the same season to avoid the risk factor or reduce the risk factor.
Model for analysis of mono Crop for an Individual Year
Green Revolution in INDIA • Started in the late 1960s. With the success of it, India attained food self-sufficiency within a decade by the end of the 1970s . • It was confined only to wheat crop and in northern India such as Punjab. • Developed new strains of high yield value (HYV) seeds, mainly wheat and rice but also millet and corn. • Swami Nathan from India and Borlaug from Mexico combined high-yielding varieties with modern agricultural production techniques.
Green Revolution in INDIA Introducing higher- yielding varieties of seeds in 1965. Increased use of fertilizers & irrigation. GOAL make India self- sufficient in food grains. Indias "Green Revolution" allowed RICH farmers to triple their crop by using modern science and technology.
Green Revolution in INDIA • Because the diffusion of the Green Revolution was confined to wheat crop and in northern India such as Punjab, Haryana and the western part of Uttar Pradesh, it could not raise rural income and alleviate rural poverty in a wider area.
Need for Green Revolution (1/2) • India promoted heavy industrialization, especially after the second Five Year Plan (1956-57 to 1960-61), leaving the agricultural sector relatively neglected. • Severe two years‟ consecutive droughts attacked India in the mid-1960s. Agriculture recorded
Need for Green Revolution (1/2)• Import as much as 10 million tons of food (mainlywheat) for the two years
Effects of Green Revolution • Positive Effects - Increase food production & Self Sufficiency • The cereal production nearly doubled from 1965-1995 • Record grain output of 131 million tons in 1978-79. • No other country in the world which attempted the Green Revolution recorded such level of success. • India also became an exporter of food grains around that time. • Yield per unit of farmland improved by more than 30 per cent between 1975 and 1980 • Created other employment by Crop areas under high-yield varieties needed more water, more fertilizer, more pesticides, fungicides and other chemicals. This spurred the growth of the local manufacturing sector. Such industrial growth created new jobs and contributed to the countrys GDP. -Infrastructure Development – • Increase in irrigation created need for new dams and other ancilliary
Green Revolution in Rice The Green Revolution in the Nineteen Sixties in Wheat, Rice and Maize: a message of hope on striking a balance between the rates of growth in population and food production.
Growth Rate of Food Grain Production Annual Rate of Growth of Food Grain Production from 1961-62 to 1985 -86 7 6 5 4 3 2 Rate of Growth 1 0
Effects of Green Revolution Negative Effects Deteriorating soil quality Overuse of water Poisoning from biocides Decreasing genetic diversity