Speaking Skills
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Speaking Skills






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    Speaking Skills Speaking Skills Presentation Transcript

    • Improving Oral Presentations
    • The most important thing in a Oral Presentation is….? Audience You Content Topic Time Visual Aids
      • Planning the Presentation
      • Organizing the Presentation
      • Developing Visual Aids
      • Practicing the Presentation
      • Delivering the Presentation
      Preparing an Oral Presentation
      • 1. Identify your purpose: reporting, explaining, persuading, motivating etc.
        • Decide what you want your audience to believe, remember, or do when you finish.
        • Aim all parts of your talk toward your purpose.
      • 2. Analyze the audience: identify demographic factors, their level of knowledge about your topic and psychological needs.
      • 3. Timing
      • 4. Delivery Method: Memorizing, Reading, Speaking from the notes
      Planning the Presentation
      • 1. Introduction
        • Get the audience involved.
        • Capture attention by opening with a promise, story, startling fact, question, quotation, relevant problem, or visual aid.
        • Opening should introduce the topic, identify the purpose, and preview the main points of the presentation.
        • Establish your credibility by identifying your position, expertise, knowledge, or qualifications.
      Organizing the Presentation
      • 2. The Body of the Presentation.
      • Organize the body logically, according to the topic and audience needs.
      • Develop four to five main points. Streamline your topic and summarize its principal parts.
      • Arrange the points logically: chronologically, from most important to least important, by comparison and contrast, or by some other strategy.
      Organizing the Presentation
      • Organize the body.
        • Prepare transitions.
          • Use “bridge” statements between major parts (I’ve just discussed three reasons for X; now I want to move to Y).
          • Use verbal signposts (however, for example, etc.).
        • Have extra material ready.
          • Be prepared with more information and visuals if needed.
      Organizing the Presentation
      • 3. Organize the conclusion.
        • Finish on a strong, upbeat note, leaving your audience with a clear and simple message.
        • Review/Summarize your main points.
        • Provide a final focus. Tell your listeners how they can use this information, why you have spoken, or what you want them to do.
        • Plan a graceful exit.
        • Questions/discussions should be handled by all team members.
      Organizing the Presentation
      • 1. A promise
        • By the end of this presentation, you will be able to . . . .
      • 2. Drama
        • Tell a moving story; describe a serious problem.
      • 3. Eye contact
        • Command attention at the beginning by making eye contact with as many people as possible.
      Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention
      • 4. Movement
        • Leave the lectern area. Move toward the audience.
      • 5. Questions
        • Ask for a show of hands. Use rhetorical questions.
      • 6. Demonstrations
        • Include a member of the audience.
      Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention
      • 7. Samples/gimmicks
        • Award prizes to volunteer participants; pass out samples.
      • 8. Visuals
        • Use a variety of visuals.
      • 9. Self-interest
        • Audience wants to know “What’s in it for me?”
      Preparing an Oral Presentation Nine Techniques for Gaining and Keeping Audience Attention
    • Building Audience Rapport
      • Use effective imagery. Analogies, metaphors, similes, anecdotes, statistics, worst-and best-case scenarios
      • Include verbal signposts. Previewing, summarizing, switching directions
      • Send positive nonverbal messages. Look terrific, animate your body, punctuate your words, move about, vary your expression
      • Select the medium.
        • Consider the size of the audience and the degree of formality desired.
        • Consider cost, ease of preparation, and potential effectiveness.
      • Highlight the main ideas.
        • Focus on major concepts only.
        • Avoid overkill. Showing too many graphics reduces effectiveness.
        • Keep all visuals simple.
      Designing and Using Graphics
      • Ensure visibility.
        • Use large type for transparencies and slides.
        • Position the screen high enough to be seen.
        • Be sure all audience members can see.
      • Enhance comprehension.
        • Give the audience a moment to study a visual before discussing it.
        • Paraphrase its verbal message; don’t read it.
      Designing and Using Graphics
      • Practice using your visual aids.
        • Rehearse your talk, perfecting the handling of your visual aids.
        • Practice talking to the audience and not to the visual.
      Designing and Using Graphics
    • Presentation Enhancers
      • Multimedia Slides
      • Overhead Transparencies
      • Handouts
      • Flipchart
      • Write-and-wipe Board
      • Video
      • Use slides only to summarize major points.
      • Explain what each point means.
      • Allow time for audience to absorb meaning.
      Using PowerPoint Effectively
      • Keep the lights as bright as possible.
      • Don’t rely totally on PowerPoint.
      • Prepare for the worst; have transparencies or alternate media ready.
      • Don’t let your slides upstage you!
      Using PowerPoint Effectively
    • Overcoming Stage Fright
        • Stomach butterflies
        • Pounding heart
        • Shortage of breath
        • Sweaty palms
        • Dry throat
        • Unsteady voice
        • Trembling hands
        • Wobbly knees
        • Tied tongue
      Overcoming Stage Fright Symptoms of Stage Fright
        • Select a familiar, relevant topic. Prepare 150 percent.
        • Use positive self-talk.
        • Convert your fear into anticipation and enthusiasm and positive eneegy.
        • Shift the focus from yourself to your visuals.
        • Focus on familiar faces.
      Overcoming Stage Fright Ways to Overcome Stage Fright
        • Give yourself permission to make an occasional mistake.
        • Ignore stumbles; keep going. Don’t apologize.
        • Make the listeners your partners. Get them involved. Use natural gestures.
        • Just before you speak, practice deep breathing.
      Overcoming Stage Fright Ways to Overcome Stage Fright
        • Reading from the slides
        • Eye Contact/Posture
        • Hand in the pockets
        • Speed/Tone
        • Highlight on main issues and not on unimportant ones.
        • A group presentation should reflect good teamwork.
        • Strong Introduction with the agenda for the presentation.
        • Consistency in the information presented by all members.
        • Inadequate rehearsal time
        • Enforce time limits strictly
        • How can internet be used to find a job?
        • How can your organization or institution improve its image?
        • Why should people invest in a company or scheme?
        • Should employees be able to use computers in a work environment for anything other than work-related business?
        • What are the pros and cons of videoconferencing for an organization?
        • What is your opinion of the statement, “Advertising steals our time, defaces the landscape, and degrades the dignity of public institutions”?
        • Read chapter 15. for the next class.