Reclamation presentation 2

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Reclamation presentation 2

  1. 1. LAND SUPPLY AND RECLAMATION 填 RECLAMATION “SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT” 海CHAN Kong Yau // CHANG Enoch // LAI Cho Lee // LAM Hoi Yi // LAM Yuet Ting // SO YukWa // YIM Natalie
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• Reclamation is the creation of new land from lakes, rivers or the sea• Crucial to the socioeconomic development of Hong Kong• less than 25% of Hong Kong’s land is developed• 6% of Hong Kong’s land is reclaimed
  3. 3. HISTORY Reclamation for agricultural purposes -206-9 BCE beaches reclaimed for salt production British occupation of Hong Kong; private land owners reclaimed land 1841 without planning or governmental authorization, leading to the irregular coastline
  4. 4. Bonham Reclamation Scheme - first official reclamation project adding land 1851 to Sheung Wan and the West island area 文咸填海計劃 Intensive reclamation from Kennedy1860-1900 Town to Causeway Bay Non-government authorized reclamation around the peninsula and 1867-76 Yau Tsim Mong area by private land owners
  5. 5. Praya Reclamation Scheme - first large 1868-73 scale reclamation scheme adding a significant amount of land to Central Second project of the scheme; 59 acres1890-1904 added to the waterfront of Central 海旁填海計劃
  6. 6. 1916 Reclamation for Kai Tak Airport Expansion of peninsula due to 1917 construction of East Rail Line Praya East Reclamation Scheme - expansion between Central and Wan1921-31 Chai. Allowed for cross-harbor pipeline for fresh water supply from NT Wan Chai, 1920 海旁東填海計劃
  7. 7. More intensive reclamation after WWII: -Sha Tin (Shing Mun River) by private landowners (first major project in NT)1951-60 -Causeway Bay (Victoria Park) -East island (Chai Wan, Siu Sai Wan) -Kwun Tong, Hung Hom -Expansion of Kai Tak Airport Causeway Bay, 1950
  8. 8. Tuen Mun and Castle Peak Bay 1961-70 reclamation (New Town Development Scheme) Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung, Sha Tin, expansion of Kowloon peninsula, 1971-80 Aberdeen, Ap Lei Chau, Cyberport - mainly for residential developmentSha Tin, 1973 Sha Tin, late 1970s Sha Tin, today
  9. 9. -Tai Po Industrial area -East of Hong Kong island (Taikoo, Sai 1981-90 Wan Ho, Shao Kei Wan, Heng Fa Chuen) Airport Core Programme (Port and Airport Development Strategy) - reclamation for the site of HKIA (Chek 1989-98 Lap Kok) and improving transportation infrastructure - North Lantau, TungChek Lap Kok before and after reclamation. WestWest Kowloon, 1995 Chung, Central and Kowloon
  10. 10. Central, Wan Chai, Kowloon peninsula, 1991-2000 Kai Tak and expansion of outlaying islands Protection of Harbour Ordinance, Cap. 1997 531 was passed, setting many constraints on harbor reclamation 2003-9 Penny’s Bay Reclamation 2003- Central Phase III/Wan Chai Phase IIPenny’s Bay, 2010 Central, today
  11. 11. GENERAL TREND and remarks.• Around the coastlines on either side of the harbor• New Territories with the new town development with continual development around the harbor• Further urban development and the creation of urban infrastructure• Implementation of the PHO to limit development• General struggle with essential balance between socioeconomic development and sustainability and environmental sustainability• Reclamation is a result of land supply challenges
  12. 12. WHY RECLAIM LAND?• Land use challenges lead to the need of reclamation• Financial prosperity - helps facilitate economic development of Hong Kong as it allows urban development• Extra supply of land - 40% of the land are country parks and nature reserves• More land would mean cheaper land• Land is mountainous - hard to develop on
  13. 13. EFFECTS OF RECLAMATION• Marine pollution - endangering marine life• Increase in air pollution• Further increases the urban heat island effect and disrupts airflow into these area• Loss of cultural and historical heritage • Beyond the narrowing of the harbour - i.e. destruction of the Queen’s Pier, which is historically significant
  14. 14. • Harbour is getting smaller - less vessels are allowed through which can hinder relevant industries• Increase in job opportunities• Is a solution for waste management - major issue in Hong Kong• Increase space for visually appealing recreative facilities (i.e. greenery and promenade) to increase social and living standards• Helps develop the tourism industry
  15. 15. TOWN PLANNING ORDINANCE 城市規劃條例
  16. 16. BACKGROUND of Hong• Town Planning Ordinance (TPO), Cap. 131, is a part Kong law that has been amended throughout the years• Designation of land use by regulating land use• Meeting the specific development criteria for different land use whilst preserving natural environment• Some sites only allow agricultural or conservation related activity• Preserving the natural character of Hong Kong’s landscape and natural habitats• Accommodating the scientific interest in these areas
  17. 17. COUNTRY PARKS ORDINANCE 郊野公園條例 WILD ANIMALS PROTECTION ORDINANCE 保護野生動物條例
  18. 18. BACKGROUND• Country Parks Ordinance (CPO), Cap. 208, is a part of Hong Kong law• Enacted in 1976• Aims to preserve natural environment - promotes environmental sustainability• Platform for educational purposes• Addresses recreational needs of the community - increases social sustainability
  19. 19. BACKGROUND• Wild Animals Protection Ordinance (WAPO), Cap. 170, is a part of Hong Kong law that has been amended throughout the years• Reduce the loss of natural habitats due to urbanization• Decrease in biodiversity• Protect wild animals and their habitats• Set up restricted areas to isolate from any disturbance
  20. 20. POLICY GAPS• Conserving these areas does not eliminate disturbance • People are attracted to natural environments • Visitors may not be educated about wildlife protection • May disrupt the natural environment through feeding animals and littering
  21. 21. POLICY GAPS• Lack of administration in restricted areas - policy is counterproductive • Such as Tai Long Sai Wan • Large area of flat land near Tai Long Sai Wan demolished in construction • Dilemma - improved administration may disrupt natural environment; original purpose is not maintained
  22. 22. Recommendations• Foster closer communication and planning between governmental departments for future development projects • Prevent human interference (i.e. noise pollution or construction) in nearby areas that are restricted• Strategize better conservation techniques to improve administration without disrupting the environment• Increase in public education about environmental protection
  23. 23. PROTECTION OF HARBOUR ORDINANCE 保護海港條例
  24. 24. BACKGROUND• Protection of Harbour Ordinance (PHO), Cap. 531 is a part of Hong Kong law• Proposed in 1996 by The Society for Protection of Harbour (SPH)• Officially approved in 1997 by the Legislative Council• Aims to limit reclamation activity outside the Victoria harbour• Protection and preservation of the heritage for the public
  25. 25. CONSTRAINTS• Supervises and affects all reclamation projects proposed after 1997• Not applicable to projects already approved or commenced (i.e. first two phases of Central-Wanchai reclamation unaffected as they were approved in the 1980s)• Major hindrance to all development - causing delays and increasing costs to relevant projects
  26. 26. Central-wan chai Reclamation• Feasibility report completed in 1989; construction commenced in 1993• Former Land Development Policy Committee agreed to divide the project into five separate phases: • Central I-III • Wan Chai I-II• So far, projects have provided improved transport infrastructure for the HKIA, Tamar naval base and HKCEC
  27. 27. • Improve transportation infrastructure to alleviate congestion during busy hours• Central-Wan Chai Bypass, connecting to Eastern Corridor Link• Aims to provide extra land for the MTR Railway • Shatin-Central Link • North Island Line• Promenade to be constructed above - increase social standards and creates a more pleasant environment• Targeted completion date: 2017
  28. 28. • The Society for Protection of Harbour raised a judicial review to oppose Wan Chai II• Final Appeal announced that the SPH won and the government had to stop the project• Project is now currently under review
  29. 29. KAITAK RECLAMATION• Hong Kong’s official airport until 1998• Covers 328 hectares• Has since been temporarily used for fill banks, bus depots, car parks, car sales exhibitions and recreational grounds• Many plans and proposals for what to do with Kai Tak since 1998 (Outline Zoning Plan)
  30. 30. • Repeatedly refused and reconsidered due to: • Town Planning Ordinance • Protection of Harbour Ordinance • Pending the completion of the study of South East Kowloon Development • Objections from the public and other parties during exhibition periods of these plans• Though initially approved Chief Executive in Council in 2002, plans were refused after public inspection
  31. 31. • 1998 - Outline Zoning Plan proposed reclamation of 299 hectares• 2001 - Proposed reclamation reduced to 133 hectares• 2004 - PHO restricted ANY further reclamation • Development strategies used zero reclamation as a starting point• Kai Tak Planning Review in 2004 due to the change of criteria by the PHO; finalized scheme after extensive planning and public participation - approved in 2007
  32. 32. • The plan for the project considered... Urban design, landscape and cultural heritage Traffic and transport review Infrastructure and utilities Marine uses Infrastructural capacity and development threshold Development requirements• Final plan will consist of a cruise terminal, parks, housing, a hospital, a stadium, district cooling systems and space for MTR development
  33. 33. POLICY GAPS.• PHO aims to promote social and environmental sustainability by restricting reclamation in the harbour but is hindering the progression of many projects • Causes many delays → increase of costs• Governmental departments are still proposing projects with reclamation as a way to address land supply issues• Different departments within the government are not in alignment of each other, causing inconsistencies, conflict and waste of time
  34. 34. Recommendations.• Must compromise between the government’s notions to develop Hong Kong and the environmentalists/people who wish to preserve cultural heritage• Redevelop older areas in Kowloon (i.e. former government buildings, Kai Tak, etc.)• Strategically develop land reserves - there are about 386 hectares of land in NT and about 360 in other areas of Hong Kong
  35. 35. • Town Planning Board should have comprehensive consultation with all relevant parties before commencing such projects • Comprehensive planning has been shown to be effective especially in ensuring sustainability (i.e. Kai Tak) by addressing various social, economic and environmental challenges Hong Kong is put in• WWF states that damage done by reclamation is irreversible - should be only considered as a last resort• The Environmental Protection Department can improve the criteria used in the Environmental Impact Assessment Report which should be same as the international standard.• Standardized development strategy and criteria (for example, zero- reclamation as a starting point?) written with comprehensive consultation with different departments and the public for future projects can save time in planning, consultation and reduce conflicts.
  36. 36. FUTURE OF LAND SUPPLY ISSUES • CE announced in latest Policy Address (2011-12) to innovate to expend land resources and to build up a land reserve • $300 million allocated for conducting studies relevant to reclamation and rock cavern development • Civil Engineering and Development Department has conducted an extensive feasibility report on land supply options as part of the Enhancing Land Supply Strategy • Prepared for public engagement • Flexibility in land supply strategies
  37. 37. Reclamation Outside of Victoria Harbour• Considering reclamation outside of the harbour• ‘Public digest’ - parts of the study based on public feedback/involvements• Key challenge: Mitigation of the impact on marine ecosystem
  38. 38. • 64% of Hong Kong is well-suited for rock cavern• development Challenges include ecosystems, and people not CAVERNS willing to live their daily lives in caverns• For facilities such as parking, storage, water/sewage treatment, etc. such that there is more space on land• Must consider the three aspects of sustainability, feasibility and impacts on the community• Example: HKU’s Centennial Campus caused the relocation of the Western Salt Water Service Reservoirs
  39. 39. thank you.

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