Visual Dictionary

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  • 1. VISUAL DICTIONARY
    Vitreous
  • 2. Air Barrier Paper
    A solid material, much life a permeable plastic, that is applied continuously over a building to help block airflow and outside forces that act upon a structure.
  • 3. Attic Ventilation
    Attic Ventilation is used to keep attics cold in the winter by blocking the entry of heat and moist air. During the summer, it helps to move hot air out of the attic.
    1.)Soffit Vent
  • 4. Attic Ventilation
    2.) Ridge Vent- Helps to provide evenly distributed ventilation to the underside of the roof.
    3.) Gable Vent- Provides ventilation by allowing heat to escape in the summer months and prevent condensation in the winter.
  • 5. Attic Ventilation
    4.) Roof Turbine- A passive ventilation system that removes air from the attic.
  • 6. Backhoe
    A piece of machinery that is used for digging on construction sites. The width of the bucket on this particular backhoe is 18 inches, or 1 and a half feet.
  • 7. Batter boards
    Boards that are set horizontally on stakes place in the ground to outline the perimeter of the building and the desired level of the foundation walls.
  • 8. Brick Arches
    Segmental Arch
  • 9. Brick Arches
    Rowlock Arch
  • 10. Brick Arches
    Arch (Jack) with keystone
  • 11. Brick Arches
    Centering- temporary bracing used to support an arch until the arch becomes self-supporting.
  • 12. Brick Bonds
    Stretcher- Rows of alternating stretchers
    Common-rows of alternating stretchers, with header rows every 6th row
  • 13. Brick Bonds
    1.) Rowlock
    2.)Header
    3.)Stretcher
    4.)Soldiers
  • 14. Brick Bonds
    5.) Sailor
  • 15. Brick Sizes
    Modular Brick: 3 5/8”x 2 1/4”x 7 5/8”
    Utility Brick:
    3 5/8”x 3 5/8”x 11 ½”
  • 16. Bulldozer
    A tractor-like piece of equipment that has a metal piece of equipment attached to the front that can push large amounts of soil and dirt.
  • 17. Cladding
    Brick Clad Structure
    EFIS Clad Structure
  • 18. Cladding
    Stone clad structure- random ashlar pattern
    Wood Board Clad Structure
  • 19. Cladding
    Wood shingle- Sawn wood that is uniform and doesn’t need hand dress.
    Wood shake- Pieces of pine usually that are split instead of sawn like typical shingles.
  • 20. Code Requirements
    Measurements: Width- 33”, Height- 26”, Area- 5.98 sq ft, Sill height- 24”
    IBC Requirements: Width- 20” minimum, Height- 24” minimum, Area- 5.7 sq ft minimum, Sill Height- 24” minimum
    The window meets the IBC requirements for an egress window.
  • 21. Code Requirements
    Measurements: Tread- 12”, Riser- 7”
    IBC Requirements: Tread- 11” minimum, Riser- 7 ¾” maximum
    The stairs meet the IBC requirements.
  • 22. Concrete Joints
    Isolation joint- An isolation joint is a joint that has the purpose of isolating the slab from something else, whether it be from a column or a wall.
    Isolation joint- isolating slab from wall
  • 23. Concrete Joints
    Control Joint- a groove cut into the surface of concrete to allow some cracking in the concrete that wont be easily visible.
  • 24. Concrete Masonry Unit
    CMU are large concrete brick blocks. They are made up of portland cement and aggregates, usually sand or fine gravel. The typical dimensions of a block are 8in x 8in x 16in.
  • 25. CMU
    Different sized CMU
  • 26. Decorative CMU
    Split Block
    Ribbed Block
  • 27. Doors
    Exterior Flush door
  • 28. Doors
    Exterior Panel Door
    Panel
    Stile
    Top Rail
    Lock Rail
    Bottom Rail
  • 29. Doors
    Transom- horizontal crosspiece that is used to separate a door from the windows directly above it
  • 30. Doors
    Sidelight- windows that vertically surround a door
  • 31. Electrical Components
    Transformer:
    Reduces the voltage from the power lines down to a voltage that is usable by homes
    Service Head:
    The entry point of the power line into the home
    Meter:
    Measures how much electricity is being used
  • 32. Electical Components
    Service Panel:
    Distributes the incoming power throughout the house and provides a point for overload protection and isolation for each circuit.
    Duplex Receptacle:
    A dual outlet for electrical devices to gain access to electricity.
  • 33. Framing Elements
    #2- Sill Plate
    #1- Anchor Bolt
  • 34. Framing Elements
    #4- Subflooring
    #3- Floor Joist
  • 35. Framing Elements
    #5- Sole plate
    #6- Stud
  • 36. Framing Elements
    #8- Ceiling Joist
    #7- Top Plate
  • 37. Framing Elements
    #10- Roof Decking
    #9- Rafter
  • 38. Framing Elements
    #12- Stringer
    #11- Sheathing
  • 39. Front End Loader
    A piece of equipment used to load loose material and move from one place to another or load onto another piece of machinery.
  • 40. Gypsum Board
    Board with a gypsum plaster core bonded to layers of paper, used to cover walls.
  • 41. Heat Pump
    1.)Compressor/Evaporator: The compressor reduces the pressure of the gas
    2.)Air Handling Unit- A system used to regulate and circulate air as part of the HVAC system.
    Advantage of a heat pump: Heat pumps save energy by multiplying the amount of heat energy it takes in, which saves on the energy bill.
    Disadvantage of a heat pump: High upfront cost
  • 42. Insulation
    The purpose of insulation is to regulates the flow of heat into a house or room. Insulation is rated by R-flow. The higher the R-flow, the more insulate a house is.
    1.)Batt/Blanket- precut pieces of insulation that usually have an R-factor of 3.1 to 4.2.
    2.)Loose Fill- small pieces of insulation that are blown in to create a seamless blanket. It has a R-factor of 2.3 to 2.8 usually.
  • 43. Insulation
    Foamed Insulation- used as an insulating and air-sealing product for wall cavities. Spray foam expands to reach all cracks and air spaces. It has a high R-rating.
  • 44. Insulation
    Rigid Board Insulation- Regulates flow of heat into structure. It has an R-value of 4 usually.
  • 45. Lintel
    The purpose of a lintel is to support the weight of the wall above an opening, such as a vent or window. It acts as a support beam and disperses the loads to either side of the opening.
    Concrete Lintel
  • 46. Mortar
    Mortar 1: Tooled,
    Size is 3/8 inch
    It is used on a retaining wall for a garden.
    Type of mortar is N, which is typically used for garden walls.
    Mortar 2: Tooled
    Size is 3/8 inch
    It is used on a brick clad building
    Type of mortar is M, which is used for heavy bearing walls.
  • 47. Oriented Strand Board
    A non-veneered panel product that is made by layering pieces of wood unevenly onto each other. It is manufactured from rectangular strips of wood compressed and bonded with wax and resin adhesive.
  • 48. Plumbing
    Water Closet- state size piping used to drain is 3”
    Lavatory- state size piping used to drain is 1 ½ “
  • 49. Plumbing
    The plumbing vent releses sewer gases into the air out of the house and helps equalize pressure in the plumbing pipes.
  • 50. Plumbing
    Drop in kitchen sink
  • 51. Plywood
    Plywood is an engineered wood that is made by gluing together pieces of wood veneers at alternate 90˚ angles to improve the strength.
    Veneer- thin covering over a surface
  • 52. Radiant Barrier
    Radiant barrier is a highly reflective material that reflects radiant heat rather than absorbing it.
  • 53. Rebar
    The surface of the rebar is so that it binds mechanically to the concrete.
    #4 size diameter
  • 54. Steep Roof Drainage
    Gutter: A channel that runs around the perimeter of a roof of a builing to collect rainwater and divert it away from the building.
    Downspout: A pipe that connects to the gutter and carries the water down to the ground and away from the house or structure.
  • 55. Steep Roof Drainage
    Splashblock- Helps direct rainwater away from the foundation, which helps prevent erosion or the soil and prevent moisture problems around the foundation.
  • 56. Steep Roof Materials
    Underlayment: Used to protect the roof sheathing and structure from moisture and outside forces.
    Shingle: A roof covering element that is overlapped to ensure water resisting and an extra layer of covering for the roof.
    Metal Shingles
  • 57. Steep Roof Materials
    Clay Tile Roof
  • 58. Steep Roof Materials
    Metal Panel Roof- Aluminized steel
  • 59. Steep Roof Shapes
    1.) Hip
    2.)Gable
  • 60. Steep Roof Shapes
    Gambrel Roof
  • 61. Steep Roof Terms
    1.)Valley- formed where two roofs join at an angle
    2.)Eave-the edge of a roof
    3.)Ridge-horizontal line formed by the sloping members at the top of a roof
  • 62. Steep Roof Terms
    2.)Rake- the inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall
    3.)Fascia- Any horizontal surface which goes across the top of a wall or structure
    4.) Soffit- the shown undersurface of any exterior overhanging roof eave
  • 63. Steep Roof Terms
    Roof without fascia- no overhang is present on this building. Fascia is any horizontal surface across the top of a wall or structure.
  • 64. Stone
    Coursed Rubble Pattern
    Random Rubble Pattern
  • 65. Stone
    Random Ashlar Pattern
    Coursed Ashlar
  • 66. Vapor Retarder
    A material that slows down the transmission of water vapor under specified conditions.
  • 67. Waterproofing
    Liquid applied waterproofing
    The waterproofing helps stop water from entering the basement.
  • 68. Weep Hole
    A small hole left in masonry to provide an outlet for water trapped between the building and masonry to move to the outside and evaporate.
  • 69. Welded Wire Fabric
    The size of the WWF is 6 by 6-8 by 8. Welded wire fabric is a series of wires arranged at right angles and welded together. It is used as a primary reinforcement in concrete, because concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension.
  • 70. Windows
    Encasement Window- Window that swing outward by turning a handle or crank.
  • 71. Windows
    Double Hung Window- Window with an upper and lower sash that slide vertically in separate grooves.
  • 72. Windows
    Awning Window- A window that opens outward and is positioned horizontally.