Translation in video games localisation dipinto vito
Key Aspects of a Localisation Process: Translation in video game localisation Dipinto Vito 12096695
Some definitions of what is video game translationThe translator’s role and required skillsTranslation procedures and techniques used byvideo game translatorsCompensation technique in the Italian localisationof Far Cry 3Linguistic variation in the Italian localisation ofWord of WarcraftExperimental video game translation: Dear Easter
Video game Translation• Video game translation is the process of modifying linguistically an existing video game to make it accessible, usable and culturally suitable to a target locale.• The process of translation of video games concerns the sphere of cultural localisation: that is the adaption of visuals, sound and scripts conceived in one language by members of one community to another language and another culture• The process can be considered as an adaption rather than a translation. Adaption is meant to recreate the Message, to give it the look and feel of the equivalent local product.• Video game translation is performed by translators. Individuals who do not just transfer words or sentences as unit of texts, but act as cultural mediators who are responsible for successful cross-cultural communication and for the creation of functionally optimal target texts in target cultures.
‘The main priority of video gametranslators is to produce aversion that will allow theplayers to experience the gameas if it were originally developedin their own language and toprovide enjoyment equivalent tothat felt by the players of theoriginal versions’(Magiron & O’Hagan 2006)
Controversial issues about video game localisationVideo game localisation supports the role of Translation as ‘domestication’= THE TRANSALTED TEXT TO PASS FOR THE ORGINAL(Mangiron & O’Hagan 2006)Cultural localisation is about unsettling, recombination, hybridization, ‘cutand mix’(Di Marco 2007)Video game localisation creates neutral translations (Gutiérez 2012)
Translator’s role and required skills The Translator should Translators should be Be familiar with thebe able to deal with the aware of the software specific features of different kind of text age ratings. (Europe: screen translationtypes displayed in video PEGI; Unites States: (dubbing and subtitling) games ESRB; Germany: USK) Mastering of natural and idiomatic language. We really need this by They should not today, can you do it translate word for faster? words!
Cultural awareness.“Please be careful not to Video games are packed break the variables with pop culture reference throughout the text” , which can be challenging to localise! ARE YOU A FAN? SURE, I JUST WROTE AFANFIC, WOULD YOU LIKE Familiar with the globalTO READ IT? SURE, THAT’S pop culture.HOW YOU MAKE A GREAT TRANSLATION, ISN’T IT? CREATIVITY
Tools Description Useful for:Translation Memory Fuzzy matching Reusing datasystems: SDL Trados, Reduce translation time,Wordfast, OmegaT etc. improves consistency and quality.Terminology management Extracting terminology Maintaining gamesystems Creation of glossaries glossariesShared folders. Dropbox Storing Reference, Source Text, Work in Progress, finalised files etc.Project management Tracking and managing Planning, scheduling etc.Software: Microsoft projectsProject, qdPM,Speech recognition tools: Dictation, text-to-speech Improves productivity,Dragon Naturally and command input reduce translation,Speaking mistakes, Improve qualityApSIC XBench Quality assurance tool Terminology search. Terminology check, Creation of translation
Translation procedures and techniques used by video game translators Linguistic variation (use of Compensations techniques dialects, accents, idiolects used to achieve a comic effect ) Borrowing Re-naming of key terminology Literal or word for word and character names translation Contestualisation by addition (to Calques make clearer a concept to the player) Rewriting Recreation of play on words, puns, jokes, rhymes and idioms
Compensation technique in FAR CRY 3 English Source Text You see. The thing is, up there, you thought you had a chance way up in the fucking skies you thought you had your finger on the pussy trigger. But hermano, down here, down here…? You hit the ground. Italian Target Tex Vedi, il fatto è, lassù credevi di avere una chance. Là. Tra quelle nuvole di merda pensavi davvero di aver il dito sul grilleto. Ma hermano, quaggiù..quaggiù. Hail il culo per terra. FINGER ON THE PUSSY TRIGGER = The Play on words with sexual reference in the Italian language doesn’t have an equivalent and it’s lost in translation. The translator, compensates for that lost by introducing in the following sentence an Italian expression: ‘Hai il culo per terra’ = BT ‘are on the ground’.
Word of Warcraft (in a nutshell) • Company: Blizzard Entertainment (USA) • MMORPG • The player impersonates a character • Stratified word: race and creatures • Idea of progression often through missions • Lots of interactions between users • WoW the most successful of all times • 12 millions of subscribers in March of 2011 and Guiness Record! • The game has been fully localised into different languages and locale: German; French, Spanish, Russian, Korean, both Traditional and Simplified Chinese and recently into Italian.
What is a linguistic variation?• It’s the introduction in the target text of language depending on geographical, social cultural and/or historical conditions (Gutiérez 2012) Choice of words Linguistic structures Accents Dialects Idiolects (a variety of language that is unique to a person)
The localisation of game’s races into Italian: The Neaples ConnectionRaces in WOW English Version Italian localicationHumans of Glineas London accent Standard Italian LanguageDwarves Scottish accent Standard Italian LanguageTrolls Jamaican accent Neapolitan dialect Troll ‘The savages trolls of Azeroth are infamous for their cruelity, dark mysticism, and seething hatred for all other races’
ReceptionThe solution to use Neapolitan dialect has been criticised by many players in theofficial forum of WoW• Neapolitan dialect introduces un undesirable comic effect• The Neapolitan accent is judged by game players as out of context• It contributes to break the suspension of disbelief• Some players complained about the absence of other dialects. Why not make dwarves speak with a dialect from North of Italy? For example Milanese dialect (spoken in Milan and the surrounding area)• It contributed to some generate among players some form of racism• It reinforced existing stereotypes about people from Naples: criminal, cruel, corrupted, immoral, deplorable
What does this teach us?• Before reproducing any linguistic variation in the target locale, translators should research any possible implication and effect.• Translators should act as geopolitical strategists and suggest the best solution to developers.• In Video games accents, dialects and idiolects act as a jarring link to reality (real word)• The solution is to remove the accent altogether, using standard language NEUTRALISATION
Italian LocalisationExperimental video game = Experimental translation
The reception• The Italian players didn’t like the translation• Many players say that ‘it’s a bad translation’.• It doesn’t make easy to follow. Very hard to understand.
A bad work?• Not at all! The translation is extremely careful and clearly the translator had to work hard during the process of creation.• But, it feels artificial and disjointed.
ConclusionIn video game localisation, translators have the freedom to makeany change they want.• Translators can choose to create ‘domesticated translations’ , that rely on fluent strategies (standard translation / easy translation. Extensive use of adaption and rewriting.• Translators can choose to create ‘ hybrid translations’, trying to maintain some flavor of the foreign culture• Translators can choose to create ‘non standard translations’, by deviating from the norm (the standard) (Community translation)
ReferencesArsludica.org (2012). Lo strano caso della traduzione in Italiano di Dear Esther. [Online] Accessed: 29 November 2012). Available at:http://arsludica.org/2012/02/27/lo-strano-caso-della-traduzione-in-italiano-di-dear-esther/Costales, A.F. (2011). Adapting humor in video game localization. Multilingual. Volume 22, Issue 6. pp. 33-35Dellepiane, A. (2012). Podcast: Videogame Localization special feature on Outcast.it. [Online] Accessed: 27 November 2012). Available at:http://localization.it/podcast-videogame-localization-special-on-outcast-it/Dellepiane, A (2012). (not so) Funny accents, the case of Jamaican in the Italian Videogame Translations . [Online] Accessed: 27 November 2012).Available at: http://localization.it/not-so-funny-accents-the-case-of-jamaican-in-italian-videogame-translations/Bernal-Merino, M. (2007) .Challenges in the translation of video games. Revista tradumàtica. Numero 5: Localizacio de videojocs. [Online] Accessed: 26November 2012). Available at: http://www.fti.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num5/articles/02/02art.htmBernal-Merino, M. (2008). Where terminology meets literature. Multilingual. Volume 19 Issue 7. pp.42-44Chandler, H. (2005). The Game Localization Handbook. Massachusetts: Charles River Media.Crosignani, S. (2008). Preserving the spell in games localization. Multilingual. Volume 19 Issue 7. pp. 78-41Dellepiane, A. (2012). Writing for game translators: Dear Esther, the (ghost) in the (game) machine. . [Online] Accessed: 29 November 2012). Available at:http://localization.it/writing-for-game-translators-dear-esther-the-ghost-in-the-game-machine/Di Marco, F. (2007). Cultural Localization: Orientation and Disorientation in Japanese Video Games. Revista tradumàtica. Numero 5: Localizacio devideojocs. [Online] Accessed: 26 November 2012). Available at: http://www.fti.uab.es/tradumatica/revista/num5/articles/06/06art.htmMangiron, C. & O’Hagan, M. (2006) “Game Localization: unleashing imagination with ‘restricted translation’. The Journal of Specialised Translation 6: 10-21. [Online] Accessed: 25 November 2012) Available at:http://www.jostrans.org/issue06/art_ohagan.pdfMangiron, C. (2009). Video Games Localisation: Posing new Challenges to the Translator. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. [Online] Accessed: 29November 2012). Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09076760708669046
O’Hagan, M., Ashworth, D. (2012). Translation-Mediated Communication in a Digital World: Facing the Challenges of Globalization and Localization.Clevedon: Multilingual Matters LTD.