Sustainability in Software DevelopmentDocument Transcript
SAPSustainabilityBy Designin SoftwareThis paper elicits the key principles required for a software development organization tobuild sustainability as a value proposition in their operations, products and services andproposes implementation strategies that can enable them to design software that aresustainableSathiyam, Visvapriya4/5/2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of contents........................................................................................................................................................2 Motivation...................................................................................................................................................................3 The Key Drivers and Principles of Sustainable Organizations.....................................................................................4 Sustainability By Design in software – implementation strategies............................................................................7 Background Information...........................................................................................................................................12 ..................................................................................................................................................................................15 References.................................................................................................................................................................16 Further Reading.........................................................................................................................................................16 Online Resources......................................................................................................................................................16
MOTIVATIONTwo incidents intrigued me to question how a company can build innovative products that not only meet theneeds of its customers, but also is built in a socially responsible and sustainable way. The first incident happenedduring one of my customer visits last year. I learnt that the administrative department in the customer’sorganization suddenly had a surge in expenses since they were buying ink cartridges every forty five days afterinstalling their new ERP software. This was because the Business Reports generated by the software hadunnecessary background colors on its table’s cells consuming more ink than a white-background report whenprinted. The customer soon learnt to work around the problem by smartly (and patiently) exporting reports to MSExcel and printing them from there with no background colors.The second incident was when I was at the Industrial Design Center (IDC), Indian Institute of Technology inNovember 2009 participating in the country’s first Design centric conference on sustainability. For a change, thepresentations were not centered on showcasing products, technology and business innovation that reducedcarbon footprint. Instead, we discussed about even more fundamental challenges that make or break sustainableliving a reality such as culture, identity, education, thinking and creativity in every-day life.I came to understand that, while it is important to build special software for our customers to measure, monitorand act on various sustainability indices, it is equally important that we design all our products the right way withan in-depth understanding of the environment they are run in. This level of understanding, I believe, will help us innovate and design The main difference between sustainable design methods and products that not only deliver instant value to conventional design is incorporating the entire environment of the customers, but also projects stakeholders on the design team, essentially, and that calls for would enable us to new ways to explore connections and for more people and perspectives create great products to be taken into account. that run in a sustainable - Sustainability Design Standards way. First as humans and then as designers,this should be our primary goal for building great products and services.Though there is a lot of sustainability related research work around the areas of Product Design in IndustrialEcology, so far not much has been done in the Software Design. Green IT focus is on energy usage monitoring, datacenter efficiency, virtualization, and software architecture. These help in improving energy consumption throughoptimized hardware, telecommunication and performance. Green IT does not focus on the design aspects of thesoftware that also contribute to running an efficient IT landscape. The issue of ensuring software sustainability ‘bydesign’ is not even given a thought in most products and organizations (sparing a few initiatives such as Google’ssearch page design). Designing software sustainably will ensure that the IT landscape runs efficiently not just onenergy but also on other organization assets such as paper, time and man power. This paper is a result of anattempt in finding out how sustainability can be built-in ‘by design’ in the software we create, 1. First by identifying the key drivers and principles that an organization should adopt to bring sustainable thinking into their culture and practice 2. And second by finding strategies that aids the design process in creating sustainable design
THE KEY DRIVERS AND PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE ORGANIZATIONSAn in-depth study of the key principles that made sustainability a reality was done based on methods used bypublic, private and social organizations that were diverse in size and function. The study included case studieswritten by or written on social organizations that built industrial products, research organizations that studiedsustainability, non-profit organizations that made a social impact through their sustainability initiatives andinstitutions that educated sustainable development. This gave a deeper understanding of implementation andmanagement strategies used by these organizations to sustain effectively. These patterns clearly showed threemain characteristics an organization should have to think sustainable - Participatory outlook, Diverse Thinking andAdaptability Potential. Here below is a summary of what these different characteristics mean and the principlesthat aids in building these characteristics.PARTICIPATORY SYSTEMGUIDING PRINCIPLES1. Build on co-operation, co-ownership and trusteeshipCo-operation as a virtue thereby has graduated from being a text book subject in schools to being one of thedriving forces that make highly successful organizations. National Governance, Corporate Performance, Naturalselection all have relied in the principle of co-operation in sustaining themselves. The nature of cooperation is suchthat it brings along benefits that a competitive strategy could not bring. The expertise of the participators brings indiversified perspectives and ideas to the table. This helps in taking well informed decisions that are more adept inadapting to changes in the long-term. While participatory systems take time to establish initially, overtime as thegroup matures, it makes more quicker and effective decisions. Co-ownership (having a stake in the costs andbenefits of the activity) and trusteeship ensures that conflicts are resolved within the group organically withoutcausing any disruption to the activity.*A brilliant example of a successful Participatory system in Indian social sector is the case study of Lijat Papad, awomen-only enterprise that is now studied in B-schools across the globe for their strategies on building a co-operative enterpriseMULTI-DIMENSIONAL THINKINGGUIDING PRINCIPLES2. Develop critical and systemic thinking3. Learn from multi-disciplinary knowledge base4. Tap on knowledge gathered from local cultural and traditional practices5. See the impact of a change at micro, macro and global levels within and across ecosystems6. Watch and echo nature as a model, mentor and measureMulti-dimensional thinking can open up new ways of looking at a problem. It helps seeing new patterns and inter-disciplinary links between existing concepts that could not be identified by looking at them individually. It alsohelps smartly reinventing and adapting solutions that worked in a different context at a different time. All of these
finally help in making well-informed decisions and in developing solutions that are sustainable in the long term andadaptable to unforeseen changes.*An interesting case study is how the Sinhalese people in Srilankan rural villages who had moderate knowledge intechnology used a systemic integrated thinking approach in bringing together their local wisdom and scientificenquiry to run and sustain their villages. Their philosophy that integrates cultural, social, economic, religious andecological dimensions is called the Sarvodaya Model and has helped build 15,000 villages in Srilanka.ADAPTABILITY POTENTIALGUIDING PRINCIPLES7. Embrace unpredictability as a way of understanding8. Continuously learn and share new information and insights9. Monitor and analyze scope for improvement and potential risksThe tendency to see things as results of short-term events undermines our ability to see things on a grander scale.Cave men needed to react to events quickly for survival. However, the biggest threats we face nowadays are rarelysudden events, but slow, gradual processes, such as environmental changes. - The Fifth Discipline, Peter SengeAs an individual, the ability to think far beyond the current scope is a skill that has to be nurtured consciously. Thisrequires values such as openness, flexibility, fearlessness, immunity to failures, striving attitude and commitmentto continuous learning. As an organization, adaptability includes dealing with unanticipated changes and handlingcrisis and risky situations. In order to sustain such changes, people should be able to adapt quickly to newer rolesand responsibilities. Adaptive systems fundamentally rely on active learning from research and development andfrom the feedback they receive by monitoring and measuring the system to make interventions in the system thatis non-disruptive and sustainable.*The complexity of building adaptability into a system can be understood well from how Governments adapt to globalchallenges, security risks, dwindling resources and increasing environmental problems by measuring andmonitoring their Sustainability Governance Indicators. While the process of developing such a metrics andimplementing it is a humongous task, it gives hope that if such an initiative can be accomplished at a national level,it could be achieved at an organizational level.
A list of specific papers based on which these principles were derived is listed under the section ‘Background Information’. TheHannover’s Principles are of specific importance that influenced the formulation of these principles to fit the context ofsoftware design organizations.
SUSTAINABILITY BY DESIGN IN SOFTWARE – IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIESThis section details out the implementation strategies to build the right design process and empower designers tobuild sustainability into software by-design. The term by-design means that sustainability is not a byproduct of thedesign process, but built consciously with awareness and sensitivity to ecological resources and the demands ofthe ecosystem. These strategies are based on the principles and characteristics detailed in the previous section.EMBRACING PARTICIPATORY DESIGN ALONG WITH USER CENTRIC DESIGNParticipatory design (PD) is a design methodology that attempts to actively involve all stakeholders (designers,developers, partners, customers and key decision makers) in the design process. The process is different fromUser-Centric Design in the extent of engagement of the stakeholders in the process. In UCD customers areconsulted on regular intervals and their feedback is ‘considered’ for the next iteration of design. They are notinvolved in decision making. In PD, customers have an important stake and are involved in the design and decisionmaking steps co-operatively with other stakeholders. The other difference is the size of the user group. In UCD asmall group of users are consulted during the design process at the time of initial research, whereas in PD the usergroups are usually huge. This is because PD has been predominantly used in community-based-initiatives such asComputer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), running social enterprises where bigger groups of usersparticipate in the system. The purist version of PD may not be practical for all types of design setup (due to reasonsdiscussed below). However embracing the spirit and values of PD and using it in appropriate places can add valueto the design process that UCD alone cannot deliver. Here below are key issues of executing PD strictly andsolutions that can overcome them.1. “Participatory processes are usually slow”As a participatory group mandates consensus from all stake holders who typically have diverse opinions, theprocess of decision making could become extremely arduous. This is especially true during the initial stages of thedesign process until the stakeholders learn to adopt a common set of values, roles and responsibilities are clarified,expectations are matched and the goals become clear overtime. However, it has also been found that over time asthe group spends more time together it becomes more effective. A few ways of avoiding delayed decisions is to a. Ensure the roles and responsibilities are clarified within the group very early b. Clearly communicate the goals and ensure they are understood by the group c. Train the group on the principles of a participatory process that mandates a common set of values (trusteeship, co-ownership, mutual respect and sharing). d. Understand that inculcating a common set of group values is always hard to achieve within a short span and prepare for handling conflict resolution constructively.2. “A fairly huge group of users is hard to mobilize”Though this is essential for PD in practice so far, this is not required in all design setups.
a. Reach out to as many users as possible at different stages of software development to get diverse perspectives. This can be done using the UCD approach by consulting with different end users at different stages of the design and development process. The methods include contextual enquiry, concept validation, usability testing and benchmarking. b. Build a closed-loop communication channel to get continuous feedback from a small fixed set of users regularly. This can follow the PD approach where end users sit with other stake holders and make combined decisions. Discussing the iterated design with the same set of users ensures that design evolves in the direction the user wants. Ensure the group is diverse in knowledge, experience and expertise. This along with long term commitment and clear focus ensures that most complex and unanticipated parameters are resolved during the early iterations of design, reducing potential risk in future.3. “Ensuring that the group’s commitment and spirit of involvement lasts is a challenge”Some researchers in PD disagree on this statement saying that PD actually ensures long term commitment if theroles, responsibilities and values of the participants are made clear and the costs and benefits are fairly shared.The group also gets more involved when the communication barriers are low. To ensure active participation of thegroup a. Provide a common platform and the necessary tools (communication and collaboration) for the end users, designers and other stake holders to get together supported by a with a streamlined process (usually there are several legal and operational overhead in getting all these people together, that should be eliminated) b. Share all relevant material (prototypes, design sketches) at regular intervals. Users feel more involved when they can give feedback on working concepts than on finished products or power point presentations. c. Keep the communication channel open and make all decisions transparent.4. “It is not always practical to have all stake holders agree on every single decision”While PD mandates mutually agreed decision in any kind of setup, it may not be possible in organizations wherethe user groups are huge and distributed over the globe. Software organizations that build products have such akind of setup. A service organization that serves one or a small bunch of customers has greater chances ofimplementing PD in its truest sense. a. Keep in mind, the fundamental motive of participatory design is to understand the context (ecosystem) of the user end-to-end in making informed decisions. While being democratic is important, it is not a mandate to provide decision making power in the hands of the end users. Users are interested in getting value and not in getting control.5. “PD requires the designers and end users to be co-located. This might be hard to achieve in a distributed organization” a. Decentralize the design and development process, offering maximum possible control to local setup. Offer minimal and required central intervention. Decentralization as a strategy has always been successful in sustainability management across all sizes of organizations.
b. Distributed PD is an evolving concept (since 2009) that tries to address exactly this problem. Currently there is not much easily accessible information on this topic. However it is worth keeping track of its progress and see if some of its principles can be reused.ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE INTERACTION DESIGN PATTERNSIn December, Ford announced its new Fusion hybrid, which was rated an impressive 41 mpg city and 36 mpghighway. But then something interesting happened. In one of the earliest reviews, Pulitzer Prize-winning auto criticDan Neil reported getting 52 mpg. Other journalists reported similar numbers, averaging at least nine miles moreper gallon. A review today at Auto Insane reported an astounding 59 mpg. The reason? The innovative newinstrument panel thats collaboration between Smart Design and IDEO. The Ford SmartGauge uses better interfacedesign to influence driver behavior by showing when and how theyre getting the best energy efficiency. Thanks togood design, the Fusion is actually training its driver to increase performance.IDEO conducted ethnography research on hybrid owners, and introduced the idea of "coaching" drivers by showingthem when the car was performing at its peak. Smart Design ran with the idea, creating what Formosa calls astrategy for a "car and driver ecosystem" with constant feedback from the car to the driver that focused on fourconcepts: Inform Enlighten, Engage, and Empower. When the car is at its most efficient, leaves and vines begin tounfurl out from the right side of the panel, named the Eco-Guide. They can also track their efficiency over time withdata crunched into various graphs and charts. "We really played into peoples instincts," knowing that betterefficiency actually made drivers happier, says Formosa. "People are naturally motivated by reward."http://www.fastcompany.com/blog/alissa-walker/designerati/fords-smartgauge-helps-hybrid-drivers-increase-mileage-better-instrumThere are a couple of interesting inferences one can draw from this story. Revisiting and analyzing existingsolutions (through ethnographic research or other research mechanisms) from a different perspective can producebeneficial outcomes. The moment we think of sustainability in design, newer insights and ideas flow that were notknown before.Sustainable IT in today’s context encompasses security, privacy, accessibility and environmental impact (Green IT).Green IT focus is on energy usage monitoring, data center efficiency, virtualization, and software architecture.These help in improving energy consumption through optimized hardware, telecommunication and performance.Green IT does not focus on the design aspects of the software that also contribute to running an efficient ITlandscape. For example, let us take the case of paper and find if the design of the software is good enough tooptimize on paper consumptions. The immediate questions to answer could be:1. Does the software allow me to archive documents and print them only when required? (less paper)2. Does the software provide me with easily accessible collaboration tools to review documents with my peer online? (less printouts)3. Does the software provide me a way to electronically send documents? (less printouts)4. Does the software provide me options to print documents with no images and backgrounds? (less ink)5. Does my software provide me options to compress archived documents? (less storage space)6. Do I get immediate feedback on the energy and paper consumption of the document I am about to print?
7. Do I get to know if I the document I am about to print has been printed recently (in which case I might rummage through my desk rather than print it again)?8. Can the software smartly choose the right options such as layout, orientation and scale? (less paper)9. Can the software intelligently identify the closest available printer? (less time, less network crawl)10. How many clicks does it take to print a document? (less power, less human intervention)The more we think, more we find opportunities where the design can be optimized. If we can consider all theaspects of design such as human intervention (manual vs. automation, response time), interaction and navigationmodels, visual design and information structuring from the perspective of sustainability we could come up withnewer ideas and design patterns that could be prove to be more efficient. This coupled with detailed study of theend user’s ecosystem (software, hardware, people, space, processes) through elaborate ethnographic or designresearch can give us insightful information for making our software design more sustainably. Lastly, learning fromother disciplines in industrial ecology and design and from nature’s models can bring reusability of ideas that haveworked successfully in the past.ECOSYSTEM POWERED KNOWLEDGE REPOSITORY FOR SHARED AND CONTINUOUS LEARNINGSustainability Education has gained an increasing amount of attention especially in this decade and it is notsurprising that 2005-2014 has been declared by UN as the Decade of Sustainable Development. Under thisumbrella initiative is Ecosystem Based Sustainable Development (ESD, initiated by UNESCO) that aims at briningsustainability thinking into the mindset of every person in the planet be it a child, student, teacher, researcher or apractitioner. On one side it is important that we make use of these initiatives, universities, online communities andtraining institutes to educate ourselves. On the other side it is important to contribute and share the knowledgegained back with the society.Ecosystem powered Knowledge repository aims at building a shared platform where all the members in the system(designers, developers, customers, partners, decision makers, policy makers) come together in sharinginformation, insights and best practices. There are three significant impact of building such a shared repository.1. When all the stake holders in the design process are on the same page in terms of information, it becomes easier to collaborate together and make well informed decisions (participatory decisions).2. It provides every member in the group with richer context and diverse perspectives which helps in continuous learning (diverse learning),3. The group is sufficiently equipped to quickly adapt solutions to changing contexts and needs (adaptability potential).The current problem in most organizations today is that this level of cross-boundary sharing and collaboration ismissing. Both customers and developers/designers have slices of the information pie and as a result theirexpectations and understanding of design solutions do not match. From the perspective of education, the first stepis to bridge this knowledge gap by adopting shared and continuous learning. The knowledge repository can be anonline collaborative portal where every member is able to produce and consume information (similar to a WIKI,but a little more structured in terms of content). The content could be
1. Case studies on design that had a positive or negative impact in the customer’s ecosystem. These case studies, unlike success stories that fit popular media, should be more detailed in eliciting the exact methods and ideas that created an impact.2. Up-to-date information on new and continuing initiatives in research, design, process and technology that is relevant to sustainability, from any member or sub-group.3. Beta releases, and intermediate design artifacts of ongoing projects, so that non-members of a project can provide their valuable insights4. Key learning from Design evaluations5. Best Practices of sustainable proposals in customer’s IT landscape. These are mostly solutions that do not have software viability yet and are worth investigating more time in finding improvements.6. New developments in technology and software that the customer ecosystem can leverage. For e.g. with a printer company has come up with a smarter print mechanism that is energy efficient, make it known to customers.7. Cross-disciplinary Information, ideas, stories and design solutions from other fields (industrial design, industrial ecology, biomimicry, sustainability management and governance, etc…)8. Information Links and updates from outside communities that do not have a direct impact on software design, but are relevant from a sustainability perspective. These would include organizations like X, Y, Z9. Information Links of blogs, articles, newsletters, websites, research papers, upcoming conferences, book releases and reviews that are of relevance to sustainability and software design.10. And finally a space to share personal thoughts with the community or within sub-groups
BACKGROUND INFORMATIONThis section highlights a list of methods created or adopted by organizations for enabling sustainability, based onwhich the principles and implementation strategies in this paper are proposed. The examples highlighted herehave been selected such that they offer diversified views on sustainability in varied fields and sizes of ecosystemsfrom sustainability of micro enterprises to sustaining villages and nations.Method Main Impact Field SizeHannover’s Principle Environmental Product Sustainability MicroCo-operative Organizations Social, Economic Enterprise / Business Sustainability MicroAppropriate Technology Social, Economic Village Sustainability MacroSustainability Governance Indicators Social, Economic National Sustainability MacroEducation for Sustainable Development Social, Environmental Ecosystem Sustainability GlobalHANNOVER’S PRINCIPLES – A CASE ON SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT DESIGNWilliam McDonough and Michael Braungart presented work on principles of ethics and ecology to be followed inthe design process, during the World Fair, EXPO 2000 in Hannover in 1992. These principles soon became adirective for designers and design firms towards building sustainable products and started appearing in books anduniversity curriculum as references. The principles encouraged designers to engage in a collaborative and cross-disciplinary approach that brought diverse set of ideas and realistic sustainable models. In addition, designers alsostarted bringing in the wisdom of the local, decentralizing design process and enriching the design solutionsmodels that worked globally as well locally. It also made designers develop a long-term impact analysis and visionfor the products they built. The design philosophy cradle-to-cradle instead of the conventional cradle-to-graveapproach soon became ingrained among these designers. Many manufacturing organizations such as Ford Motorsand Nike have successfully transformed their design and manufacturing process based on this approach. Thesepeople are also the authors of the two widely acclaimed books on sustainability Cradle-to-Cradle: Remaking theway we make things and Hannover’s Principles of Design: Design for Sustainability.The nine principles1. Insist on human rights and sustainability.2. Recognize the interaction of design with the environment.3. Consider the social and spiritual aspects of buildings and designed objects.4. Be responsible for the effect of design decisions.5. Ensure that objects have long-term value.6. Eliminate waste and consider the entire life-cycle of designed objects.7. Make use of "natural energy flows" such as solar power and its derivatives.
8. Be humble, and use nature as a model for design.9. Share knowledge, strive for continuous improvement, and encourage open communication among stakeholders.Link to Original PaperPARTICIPATORY DESIGN: A CASE ON SUSTAINABILITY OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISEThe World Food Programme (WFP) and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in collaborationwith a local NGO called Indian Grammen Services focused on studying successful models of businesses in the ruralareas of India that enhanced the livelihood of the poor significantly. The aim was to identify the processes,organizational structures and the support systems that made such interventions scale and sustainable and at thesame time replicable. There were five detailed case studies and each one of them evinced a strong need for aparticipatory and democratic process within a group of highly committed individuals who shared the ideals ofcollectivity, equality and mutual respect. One of the case studies needs a mention here for their pertinent businessstrategies and the magnitude of social impact they had on their community.Case study of Lijat Papad: A women enterprise that provided livelihood options by making Papads*Lijat Papad is now one of the business models studied in Harvard University to understand the strategies of aparticipatory model of running business. Here is a story of a group of seven household women who got togetherand made papads to earn their livelihoods. Despite initial losses, within six months these women soon made aprofit that helped them buy 5 grams of gold (if you bring the subject of ‘wise’ investments to any Indian woman,the first thing they would say is ‘gold’). Soon they understood the potential of the business and started recruitingwomen from neighborhoods. Now after four decades, the enterprise is run by 42,000 women, whose core valueslie in co-ownership and trusteeship. Secondly, they quickly leveraged on decentralizing their production units totheir homes, engaging a larger community of women in neighboring villages and states. Thirdly, these wondrouswomen adapted to quickly taking up newer roles of managing and leading, helping the organization to scale up tothe demands of the market. Women who had little formal education started handling bank transactions of 3000million rupees daily. This is a strong case study of co-innovation and sustainability becoming byproducts of aneconomic model by creating the right organizational structures and aligning the needs and values of the people.Link to Original Paper* A papad is an Indian version of a crispy, think crackerAPPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY: A CASE ON SUSTAINABILITY OF VILLAGESSarvodaya is Srilanka’s largest people organization dedicated to rural development and empowerment ofSinhalese. Sarvodaya’s model emphasizes on integrated thinking that encompasses economic, social, cultural andreligious dimensions. They strongly believe in local wisdom of the Sinhalese and discourage strategies that haveworked in other lands, other countries. This is a reflection of the Gandhian concept they follow called ‘appropriatetechnology’ (also later was adopted by several scientists and architects like Buckminster Fuller). AppropriateTechnology differentiates itself from advanced modern technology by working with people involved whereas thelatter works with systems at a generic level. They chose technology that worked for people rather than choosingtechnology for which people worked. Today they are a network of over 15,000 villages with a volunteer populationof 200,000 who run educational institutes, micro-credit organizations and welfare organizations using technology
and local expertise to run their enterprises. Their understanding of technology is rather practical, contextual totheir local needs and adaptive than being generalized, borrowed elsewhere or even proved to be impracticalsometimes.Link to Original SourceSUSTAINABILITY GOVERNANCE INDICATORS – A CASE ON SUSTAINABILITY OF NATIONSIn the light of changing economy, new global challenges, security risks, dwindling resources and increasingenvironmental problems, National Governance plays a key role in ensuring sustainability of a country.Governments implement a wide spectrum of strategies and reformations to cope up with these challenges.However, there existed no way of evaluating if these strategies contributed to a successful reformation or not. In2009, the 30 OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) countries that includes USA, Canada,many EU nations, UK, Korea, Japan and Australia came together and formulated detailed Sustainability GovernanceIndicators (SGI) to find evidence-based factors that contributed to successful transformations. SGI measures twokey aspects of national governance. One is the Status index that measures the extent of need for reform on atimely basis and the other is the Management index that analyses the capacity of a government to make the rightkind of reforms. The results indicated a high score for the Nordic countries and New Zealand while countries likeItaly, Mexico and Greece ranked poorly in the performance of their governance. On analyzing deeper, two trendsseem to be differentiating the top scoring nations from the low scoring onesa. Active Involvement of civil servants, political parties and citizens in decision makingb. Capacity of the nation to institutional learning and self-monitoringThis shows that the driving factors of building sustainable nations or sustainable software design are the same -participatory processes, education (diversified thinking) and measurement (for adaptability).Link to Original PaperEDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – A CASE ON SUSTAINABILITY OF THE PLANETThe UN declared 2005-2014 as the Decade of Education for Sustainable Developed (DESD). One of the initiativesunder this umbrella project was to evaluate the current practices in various international communities and nationson Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). ESD supports five types of learning:1. Learning to know.2. Learning to Do.3. Learning to Be.4. Learning to live together.5. Learning to transform oneself and the society.ESD tries to achieve this by providing various educational programs for different target groups1. Early education for children
2. Higher professional university education in sustainability development3. Teacher’s education on sustainability4. Research and Education in SD.TA review was done on the success of ESD. The results showed that ESD has been a value-driven approach that hasempowered people to participate in society and understand its complexity from social, economic, ecological andcultural dimensions. While different nations had different definitions and implementations of ESD they all reflecteda common understanding of the need of such a programme that made it successful and effective.1. creation of awareness2. Building Local and global vision3. Inculcating responsibility4. Learning to change5. Becoming participative6. Believing in lifelong learningLink to Original Paper
REFERENCES1. Towards a New Literacy of Cooperation in Business, Institute of the Future, 20042. World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Vision 20503. Global Footprint Network4. The Living Planet Report on Biodiversity5. Principles of Ecosystem Approach, Convention on Biological Diversity6. Ecosystem Based Management, Marine Sustainability7. Scenarios for SustainabilityFURTHER READING1. Hannover’s Principles of Design: Design for Sustainability2. Cradle-to-Cradle3. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired By Nature, Janine M. Benyus(1997)4. PERMACULTURE: A Designer’s Manual5. Do Good Design: How Designers can Change the World, David Berman(2009)6. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Senge, Peter M. (1990)7. Robert Axelrod, The Evolution of Cooperation8. Richard Dawkins, Selfish Genes9. Participatory IT Design: Designing for Business and Workplace Realities10. Recommended Readings from Society of Organizational Learning (Peter Senge)ONLINE RESOURCESIn keeping with the third principle of SSD as written in this paper, I present to you a sample of the infiniteresources (institutions, papers, case studies and online networks) available in the field of Sustainability andManagement for readers who are interested in expanding their understanding of the subjectSUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES (ORGANIZATIONS, NETWORKS, INDIVIDUALS)1. World Food Programme
2. Marine Sustainability: Ecosystem Based Management3. Sarvodaya: Rural Sustainability4. McDononough’s Home Page5. Sustainability Governance Indicators6. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (30 nations)7. Social Design NotesSUSTAINABILITY IN EDUCATION1. International Green computing conference2. UNESCO3. Society for Organization Learning (Peter Senge)4. Design Accord5. Minneapolis College of Art And Design, Sustainable Design Online Certificate6. Center for Environmental Education in India7. Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), a UN initiative8. Social Design Site9. Natural Step, Sustainability Education in collaboration with Universities all over the world