The Research Report By Vishal Singh (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Outline First, we will discuss the general format of the research report. Secondly, we will study the style and format of writing the research report logically and objectively. Finally we will discuss the procedure which is followed in typing different sections of the report.
Meaning of research report: The research report is called either a thesis or dissertation. The oxford dictionary defines thesis as a proposition to be maintained or proved especially by candidate for degree. A knowledge of the rules and principles involved in writing a research report will help the researcher to write better thesis .
The research report format mainly consists of three main sections: – The preliminary section – The body of the report – The reference section
The Preliminary Section1. Title Page2. Preface, including acknowledgement3. Table of contents4. List of tables (if any)5. List of figures, maps and illustrations (if any)
Body of the Report(a.) Introduction• Statement of the problem• Analysis of previous research• Relation of present problem to theoretical position of the previous research• Significance of the problem• Limitations of the study• Assumptions under hypothesis• Statement of hypothesis• Definition of important terms
(b.) Design of the study1. Procedures employed2. Sources of data3. Data gathering instruments4. Sampling and methods of data gathering
(c.) Analysis and Interpretation of Data• Text• Tables• Figures
(d.) Summary and conclusions• Brief restatement of problem and procedures• Principal findings and conclusions with their practical implications• Suggestions for further research
Reference Section1. Bibliography2. Appendix3. Index (if any)
Preliminary section Title page: several pages of preliminary material are presented prior to the body of research report which consists of- – Title of the study – Name of the institution to which the report is being submitted – Name of the candidate – Date of submission
Preface: The preface usually include a brief statement and scope of the report. A preface should include thanks for those who gave researcher the guidance for study but if the researcher has little to say than he should used “Acknowledgment” instead of “Preface”.
Table of contents: The table of contents includes the major divisions of the report; The introduction, the chapter with their sub-sections, the bibliography and the appendix. The preface or acknowledgement, list of figures and list of tables are also entered in the table of contents.
Body of the Report Introduction : The introduction of the report should be simple, complete and concise. In introduction the researcher defines, analyses and states the nature of the problem. He also review the related studies so as to lay the foundation for research. The review of the result of the previous researcher bring out the area of agreement and disagreement and shows how present studies arose from the previous investigation. It includes significance of the problem and need for conducting the investigation. After reviewing the background of the problem, its scope and delimitations, the researcher present the hypothesis and the assumptions on which the hypothesis are based. He then defines the terms used in the study that have the special meaning and significance for the investigation.
Design of the study : This section explain the design of the study in detail. It includes detailed description about the type of data needed for study and tools and devices need for their collection. A researcher may present definition of the population, the size of the samples, the method of sampling, when and where what type of data were collected. The design and methods of conducting the experiments giving full details about the assumptions. The type of data analyses made, the statistical methods employed and how data will be organized and presented for analysis and interpretation.
Analysis and interpretation of data: This section is the heart of the report. The data analysis and interpretation may be either presented in separate chapters or may be in one chapter. The tables and figures should be listed in such a way that they are self explanatory. Tables which are lengthy should be placed in appendix. The text should not repeat all the information given in the tables. (only important facts). The formulae and statistical procedure used should be clearly specified and explained in detail. Statistical analysis may be presented in the form of ratios, proportions, percentages, variances, SD etc. Any weakness in the research design, tools, techniques that have come to the light during conduct of study should be discussed frankly along with the manner they have affected the findings of the study.
Summary and conclusions: This section includes a brief re-statement of the problem, a description of the procedures used and discussion of findings and conclusions of the study. The summary and conclusion section is the most widely used part of the report as it reviews all the information that has been presented in its previous sections.
Reference section: The reference section includes bibliography and appendix. – The bibliography is the record of those sources and materials that have been used for the study. If the number is large the researcher may divide the bibliography into various sections, one for book, one for periodical and journals etc. – An appendix follows the bibliography. All the relevant supporting material that are important but not essential to understanding of report are presented in appendix.
General rules for typing research report1. Material should typed on one side of the paper.2. The right margin should 1 inch, the aft margin 1.5 inches, the top margin 1.25 inches and the bottom margin 1.5 inches.3. All textual material should be double spaced, triple spaced between paragraphs and single space in quotations4. Dividing the words at the end of the line should be avoided as far as possible.
A researcher should master the following abbreviations bk,bks book, books Chap,chaps chapter, chapters P.,pp page, pages Col,cols column, columns E.g for example et al and others Ibid same reference Vol,vols volume, volumes