LINE AND STAFF,
DECENTRALISATION
LINE AND STAFF…
 DEALS WITH THE AUTHORITY
RELATIONSHIPS
 i.e THE PROBLEMS OF LINE AND
STAFF
 WHAT IS POWER, RESPONSIBIL...
AUTHORITY AND POWER



1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

POWER IS THE ABILITY OF INDIVIDUALS
OR GROUPS TO INDUCE OR INFLUENCE
THE BELIEFS ...
AUTHORITY AND POWER
 AUTHORITY IN AN ORGANISATION IS
THE POWER IN A POSITION ( AND
THROUGH IT THE PERSON
OCCUPYING THE PO...
LINE AND STAFF
 LINE FUNCTIONS ARE THOSE WHICH HAVE
DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY FOR
ACCOMPLISHING THE OBJECTIVES OF THE
ENTERPR...
LINE AND STAFF..
 STAFF FUNCTIONS : PURCHASE,
ACCOUNTING, PERSONNEL, &
QUALITY CONTROL.

 LINE: PRODUCTION, MARKETING &
...
LINE AND STAFF…
 THERE IS A LINE OF AUTHORITY
FLOW FROM SUPERIOR TO
SUBORDINATE KNOWN AS THE ‘
‘
SCALAR PRINCIPLE
 THE CLEARER THE LINE OF AUTHORITY

FROM THE ULTIMATE AUTHORITY FOR
MANAGEMENT IN AN ENTERPRISE TO
EVERY...
STAFF…
 STAFF RELATIONSHIP IS ADVISORY.
 THE FUNCTION OF PEOPLE IN STAFF
POSITION IS TO INVESTIGATE ,
RESEARCH AND GIVE ...
LINE AND STAFF…
 LINE AND STAFF ARE DISTINGUISHED
BY THEIR AUTHORITY
RELATIONSHIPS AND NOT WHAT
THEY DO
 E.g. THE PR DEP...
FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY
 IT IS THE POWER WHICH AN
INDIVIDUAL OR DEPARTMENT MAY
HAVE DELEGATED TO IT OVER
SPECIFIED PROCESSES...
BENEFITS OF STAFF:
1. THEIR ADVICE IS CRITICAL AS THEY

HAVE SPECIALISED KNOWLEDGE IN
THEIR AREAS
2. THE ADVICE COULD BE C...
LIMITATIONS OF STAFF:
 DANGER OF UNDERMINING LINE
AUTHORITY
 LACK OF RESPONSIBILITY
 THINKING IN A VACUUM
 MANAGERIAL ...
MAKING STAFF WORK
EFFECTIVELY:
 UNDERSTANDING AUTHORITY





RELATIONSHIPS
MAKE LINE LISTEN TO STAFF
KEEP STAFF INFOR...
DECENTRALISATION
DECENTRALISATION..
 IT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL ASPECT OF
DELEGATION
 IT IS MORE OF HOW MUCH OF
AUTHORITY IS TO BE DELEGATED
R...
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
 THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF
DELEGATION IS TO MAKE
ORGANISATION POSSIBLE
 ENABLES DECISION MAKING
 E...
HOW IS AUTHORITY
DELEGATED?
1. WHEN DECISION MAKING POWER IS
VESTED IN A SUBORDINATE BY A
SUPERIOR
2. SUPERIORS CANNOT DEL...
PROCESS OF DELEGATION..
 THE DETERMINATION OF RESULTS
EXPECTED FROM PERSONS IN A POSITION
 THE ASSIGNMENT OF TASKS TO PE...
PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION:
 PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY RESULTS







EXPECTED
PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION
SC...
PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY
RESULTS EXPECTED
 AUTHORITY DELEGATED TO AN

INDIVIDUAL MANAGER SHOULD BE
ADEQUATE TO ENSURE T...
PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL
DEFINITION
 THE MORE A POSITION OR A DEPARTMENT HAS

CLEAR DEFINITIONS OF RESULTS EXPECTED ,
ACTI...
AUTHORITY LEVEL PRINCIPLE
 MAINTAINANCE OF INTENDED
DELEGATION REQUIRES THAT
DECISIONS WITHIN THE AUTHORITY
COMPETENCE OF...
**
PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OF
COMMAND
 THE MORE COMPLETELY AN INDIVIDUAL

HAS A REPORTING RELATIONSHIP TO A
SINGLE SUPERIOR , THE...
PRINCIPLE OF ABSOLUTENESS
OF RESPONSIBILITY
 THE RESPONSIBILITY OF SUBORDINATES

TO THEIR SUPERIORS FOR PERFORMANCE
IS AB...
PRINCIPLE OF PARITY OF
RESPONSIBILITY AND
AUTHORITY
 THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACTIONS
CANNOT BE GREATER THAN THAT IMPLIED
B...
THE ART OF DELEGATION
 RECEPTIVENESS
 WILLINGNESS TO LET GO
 WILLINGNESS TO LET OTHERS MAKE
MISTAKES
 WILLINGNESS TO T...
FACTORS DETERMINING
DEGREE OF
DECENTRALISATION:
 COSTLINESS OF THE DECISION
 UNIFORMITY OF POLICY
 HISTORY OF THE ENTER...
RECENTRALISATION
 WHAT IS IT?
 HOW MUCH TO DECENTRALISE?
1. Verifiable objectives
2. Technique of organisation i.e. stat...
EFFECTIVE ORGANISATION.
SOME MISTAKES IN
ORGANISING..
 FAILURE TO PLAN PROPERLY
 FAILURE TO DELEGATE AUTHORITY
 FAILURE TO BALANCE DELEGATION
...
THE END.
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Line and staff decentralasation

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Line and staff decentralasation

  1. 1. LINE AND STAFF, DECENTRALISATION
  2. 2. LINE AND STAFF…  DEALS WITH THE AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS  i.e THE PROBLEMS OF LINE AND STAFF  WHAT IS POWER, RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY?  WHAT ARE AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS?
  3. 3. AUTHORITY AND POWER   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. POWER IS THE ABILITY OF INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS TO INDUCE OR INFLUENCE THE BELIEFS OR ACTIONS OF OTHER PERSONS OR GROUPS POWER: LEGITIMATE EXPERT REFERENT REWARD COERCIVE
  4. 4. AUTHORITY AND POWER  AUTHORITY IN AN ORGANISATION IS THE POWER IN A POSITION ( AND THROUGH IT THE PERSON OCCUPYING THE POSITION ) TO EXERCISE DISCRETION IN MAKING DECISIONS AFFECTING OTHERS.  IT IS POWER, BUT IN AN ORGANISATIONAL SETTING
  5. 5. LINE AND STAFF  LINE FUNCTIONS ARE THOSE WHICH HAVE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCOMPLISHING THE OBJECTIVES OF THE ENTERPRISE.  STAFF REFERS TO THOSE ELEMENTS OF THE ORGANISATION THAT HELP THE LINE TO WORK MOST EFFECTIVELY IN ACCOMPLISHING THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF AN ENTERPRISE.
  6. 6. LINE AND STAFF..  STAFF FUNCTIONS : PURCHASE, ACCOUNTING, PERSONNEL, & QUALITY CONTROL.  LINE: PRODUCTION, MARKETING & SALES, FINANCE.  WHY CONFUSION?
  7. 7. LINE AND STAFF…  THERE IS A LINE OF AUTHORITY FLOW FROM SUPERIOR TO SUBORDINATE KNOWN AS THE ‘ ‘
  8. 8. SCALAR PRINCIPLE  THE CLEARER THE LINE OF AUTHORITY FROM THE ULTIMATE AUTHORITY FOR MANAGEMENT IN AN ENTERPRISE TO EVERY SUBORDINATE POSITION , THE MORE EFFECTIVE WILL BE REPONSIBLE DECISION MAKING AND ORGANISED COMMUNICATION. *
  9. 9. STAFF…  STAFF RELATIONSHIP IS ADVISORY.  THE FUNCTION OF PEOPLE IN STAFF POSITION IS TO INVESTIGATE , RESEARCH AND GIVE ADVICE TO LINE MANAGERS TO WHOM THEY REPORT.
  10. 10. LINE AND STAFF…  LINE AND STAFF ARE DISTINGUISHED BY THEIR AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS AND NOT WHAT THEY DO  E.g. THE PR DEPT IS PURELY STAFF.. BUT WITHIN THE DEPT THERE WILL BE LINE AND STAFF RELATIONSHIPS
  11. 11. FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY  IT IS THE POWER WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL OR DEPARTMENT MAY HAVE DELEGATED TO IT OVER SPECIFIED PROCESSES , PRACTICES, POLICIES , OR OTHER MATTERS RELATING TO ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN BY PERSONNEL IN DEPARTMENTS OTHER THAN ITS OWN.
  12. 12. BENEFITS OF STAFF: 1. THEIR ADVICE IS CRITICAL AS THEY HAVE SPECIALISED KNOWLEDGE IN THEIR AREAS 2. THE ADVICE COULD BE CRITICAL IN SOLVING A PROBLEM
  13. 13. LIMITATIONS OF STAFF:  DANGER OF UNDERMINING LINE AUTHORITY  LACK OF RESPONSIBILITY  THINKING IN A VACUUM  MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS
  14. 14. MAKING STAFF WORK EFFECTIVELY:  UNDERSTANDING AUTHORITY     RELATIONSHIPS MAKE LINE LISTEN TO STAFF KEEP STAFF INFORMED COMPLETED STAFF WORK - i.e ADVICE NOT CONTROL MANAGERS HAVE RESPONSIBILITY AND ARE ACCOUNTABLE
  15. 15. DECENTRALISATION
  16. 16. DECENTRALISATION..  IT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL ASPECT OF DELEGATION  IT IS MORE OF HOW MUCH OF AUTHORITY IS TO BE DELEGATED RATHER THAN WHAT KIND OF AUTHORITY IS TO BE DELEGATED.
  17. 17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY  THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF DELEGATION IS TO MAKE ORGANISATION POSSIBLE  ENABLES DECISION MAKING  EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION
  18. 18. HOW IS AUTHORITY DELEGATED? 1. WHEN DECISION MAKING POWER IS VESTED IN A SUBORDINATE BY A SUPERIOR 2. SUPERIORS CANNOT DELEGATE AUTHORITY WHICH THEY DO NOT HAVE.
  19. 19. PROCESS OF DELEGATION..  THE DETERMINATION OF RESULTS EXPECTED FROM PERSONS IN A POSITION  THE ASSIGNMENT OF TASKS TO PERSONS IN A POSITION  THE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY FOR ACCOMPLISHING THESE TASKS  THE HOLDING OF PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THESE TASKS.
  20. 20. PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION:  PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY RESULTS       EXPECTED PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION SCALAR PRINCIPLE AUTHORITY PRINCIPLE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OF COMMAND PRINCIPLE OF ABSOLUTENESS OF RESPONSIBILITY PRINCIPLE OF PARITY OF AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY  GOTO
  21. 21. PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY RESULTS EXPECTED  AUTHORITY DELEGATED TO AN INDIVIDUAL MANAGER SHOULD BE ADEQUATE TO ENSURE THE ABILITY TO ACCOMPLISH RESULTS EXPECTED. BACK
  22. 22. PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION  THE MORE A POSITION OR A DEPARTMENT HAS CLEAR DEFINITIONS OF RESULTS EXPECTED , ACTIVITIES TO BE UNDERTAKEN , ORGANISATIONAL AUTHORITY DELEGATED, AND AUTHORITY AND INFORMATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER POSITIONS UNDERSTOOD, THE MORE ADEQUATELY THE RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUALS CAN CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS ACCOMPLISHING ENTERPRISE OBJECTIVES. BACK
  23. 23. AUTHORITY LEVEL PRINCIPLE  MAINTAINANCE OF INTENDED DELEGATION REQUIRES THAT DECISIONS WITHIN THE AUTHORITY COMPETENCE OF INDIVIDUALS BE MADE BY THEM AND NOT BE REFERRED UPWARD IN THE ORGANISATION STRUCTURE.
  24. 24. **
  25. 25. PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OF COMMAND  THE MORE COMPLETELY AN INDIVIDUAL HAS A REPORTING RELATIONSHIP TO A SINGLE SUPERIOR , THE LESS THE PROBLEM OF CONFLICT IN INSTRUCTIONS AND THE GREATER THE FEELING OF PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR RESULTS.  BACK
  26. 26. PRINCIPLE OF ABSOLUTENESS OF RESPONSIBILITY  THE RESPONSIBILITY OF SUBORDINATES TO THEIR SUPERIORS FOR PERFORMANCE IS ABSOLUTE , ONCE THEY HAVE ACCEPTED AN ASSIGNMENT AND THE POWER TO CARRY IT OUT, AND THE SUPERIORS CANNOT ESCAPE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ORGANISATION ACTIVITIES OF THEIR SUBORDINATES.  BACK
  27. 27. PRINCIPLE OF PARITY OF RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY  THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACTIONS CANNOT BE GREATER THAN THAT IMPLIED BY AUTHORITY DELEGATED NOR SHOULD IT BE LESS.  BACK
  28. 28. THE ART OF DELEGATION  RECEPTIVENESS  WILLINGNESS TO LET GO  WILLINGNESS TO LET OTHERS MAKE MISTAKES  WILLINGNESS TO TRUST SUBORDINATES  WILLINGNESS TO ESTABLISH AND USE BROAD CONTROLS
  29. 29. FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREE OF DECENTRALISATION:  COSTLINESS OF THE DECISION  UNIFORMITY OF POLICY  HISTORY OF THE ENTERPRISE  MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY  ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES  AVAILABILITY OF MANAGERS
  30. 30. RECENTRALISATION  WHAT IS IT?  HOW MUCH TO DECENTRALISE? 1. Verifiable objectives 2. Technique of organisation i.e. state each manager’s duites and responsibilities 3. Character of top leadership 4. Stretch span of management to the maximum 5.Promote managers only when they have good subordinates to take their place
  31. 31. EFFECTIVE ORGANISATION.
  32. 32. SOME MISTAKES IN ORGANISING..  FAILURE TO PLAN PROPERLY  FAILURE TO DELEGATE AUTHORITY  FAILURE TO BALANCE DELEGATION  GRANTING AUTHORITY WITHOUT RESPONSIBILITY  HOLDING PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE WHO DO NOT HAVE AUTHORITY
  33. 33. THE END.
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