VRA 2014 Case Studies in International Copyright, Sarvilahti

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Presented by Marika Sarvilahti, at the Annual Conference of the Visual Resources Association, March 12-15, 2014 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Session 9, Case Studies in International Copyright Compliance: Untangling the Web of Publishing and Sharing Copyrighted Content Online
ORGANIZERS:
Cara Hirsch, Artstor
Allan Kohl, Minneapolis College of Art and Design (on behalf of the VRA Intellectual Property Rights Committee)
Vicky Brown, University of Oxford (on behalf of the VRA International Task Force)

MODERATOR:
Allan Kohl, Minneapolis College of Art and Design
Vicky Brown, University of Oxford

PRESENTERS:
• Matthias Arnold, University of Heidelberg (Germany)
• Vicky Brown, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
• Marta Bustillo, National College of Art and Design, Dublin (Ireland)
• Lavinia Ciuffa, American Academy in Rome (Italy)
• Marika Sarvilahti, Aalto University, Helsinki (Finland)

Teachers, students and scholars have long been able to rely on fair use in making content available for teaching, research and study within the United States. However, such protections don’t exist outside the United States. This session explores the various ways that visual resource professionals have addressed copyright compliance issues when making images available for educational and scholarly purposes outside of the United States. Using various case studies, the session will address the sharing of image resources between and among different institutions, determining when and how images can be made available to the general public, creating image-based research collaborations across national boundaries, and the international aspects of publishing with images.

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  • Dear colleagues,  I am very pleased to have this opportunity to present at this years Visual Resources Association conference, Case Studies in International Copyright Compliance session. I’d like to give my thanks to the International Task Force for all the arrangements and the especially to Vicky Brown for her dedication in setting up this special session of us VRA Internationals! In my presentation I will focus on discussing the situation of how copyright issues affect the preservation and access to, and ultimately the impact, of academic achievements in art and design. My perspective comes Finnish copyright law.
  •  Let me begin by introducing my organization, the Aalto University in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Aalto University has merged together three universities in the Helsinki capital region. University of Art and Design Helsinki Helsinki School of EconomicsHelsinki University of Technology
  • Here are some of the areas of excellence at the University. Just as an example the wood program at the department of architecture is a one year intensive programme focusing on wood and wooden architecture. The Program explores the ecological, technical and architectural properties of wood, providing a thorough and all-round view on the whole chain of wood construction, beginning with the tree in the forest and ending up with an experimental wooden building. The processes are often documented and presented via visual means.
  • Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture comprise five departments of research, teaching and artistic activities: the departments of Art, Design, Media, Architecture, and Motion Picture. The university has the largest art and design school in the Nordic countries and has a long tradition in combining a practice orientation with research; students engage in design and art projects through dialogue with theoretical discussion. They seek both visual and textual information during their studies and research activities, and they themselves add to this information as graduates.
  • Here are some project highlights:1. A documentary film How to Pick Berries by M.A. student Elina Talvensaari has recently been awarded in many festivals, for example San Sebastian International Film Festival. 2. The Luukku zero energy house was among the top five in the Solar Decathlon 2010 competition in Madrid.
  • Aalto University students designed the new visual appearance for Scandinavian Airlines Blue1 aircrafts.
  • The deliverables of academic studies and activities at an arts university typically comprise physical and born-digital visual and audio-visual objects that alongside textual documents should be systematically collected, managed and preserved long-term as textual documents are extensively today.
  • At Aalto University the archive and library have joined together in the development of an image repository system that is currently acting as a system for collection management for the archive visual collection. Digitisation and cataloguing of the historic collections are also well underway. 
  • This is a viewfromourdigitisation studio.
  • Activities at the university typically result in textual and visual documents that have been collected in order to: Capture the university’s academic and artistic output for preservation and future access. To document the university’s academic and artistic activities by storing art and design objects as well as images that document them (analogue and digital). And to provide access to objects for current and future evaluation of research and activities for researchers, stake holders and possible revenue sources. We also preserve the objects as part of cultural and educational history thus providing a memory of the university’s changing organization and roles in higher education. -And promote research into Finnish art and design education by providing rich information resources.
  • In Finland Copyright is valid during the lifetime of the author and 70 years after the year of the author's death. Use of works whose period of protection has expired is free. Photographs that meet the prerequisites of independence and originality, receive copyright protection as works for 70 years after the death of the photographer. So called ordinary photographs, in many cases documentary photographs, are protected for fifty years after the photograph was taken.  Students hold the copyrights to their works regardless of who owns the physical objects unless otherwise agreed by contracts.  Students at the moment grant the university the right to exploit the works they create during their studies for non-commercial activities (this is the case from 2004 onwards). For works older than this there are very few specific contracts that grant the university any special use rights.  In Finland there are limitations to the copyright for memory organizations. An archive, library or a museum may communicate a digitized work that is in copyright from its collections on the premises of the organization, i.e. a local image repository or database.  Copyright is limited forther so that for works in copyright it is permissible for the user to make a citation in an academic work by crediting the author. Copies can also be made for private use.  
  • The implications of this situation are that, only a proportion of visual resources can be published openly on the internet leaving some key collections of cultural heritage value available only on the premises of the Library and Archive until copyright is cleared.  University’s investments in developing services that are only available locally need to be very well justified. It is somewhat difficult to find funding for such exclusive services at a time when just about everything is expected to be openly and freely available.  For current born-digital materials, developing a repository for self-archiving born-digital material seems to be the most viable option to support continuing ingest into the visual collections.  
  • Capturing born-digital material is becoming a challenge: a systematic self-archiving process is needed.  The archive collections have been gathered by archivists and academic staff dedicated to collecting a pedagogical collection. This interest is still relevant but the media themselves and means in which such collections could be collected in the future have dramatically changed. There is constant need to capture a variety of current (born-digital and analogue) visual materials.  The benefits of self-archiving are that:-Students and staff make contractual access and copyright agreement at deposit into the repository.- Quality of contextual and descriptive information is improved.- Quality of stored digital objects is improved.- And eventually. The library or archive develops a consultation role for of training users, overseeing and assisting in the archiving process.
  • We are currently planning new library and information services where we hope to have a visual resources service that could also help in depositing into the repository. We need to make local Visual Resources services on premises of future Learning Center attractive, specialized, relevant and fit for the digital natives.  We need to co-operate closely with University legal team, communications, IT-services, academic and teaching staff to keep processes up to date.  We should also promote a University wide policy and culture of self-archiving throughout the institution both for text and image resources (by this I’m referring to Open Access).  We should aim to be in a situation in the future where born-digital material are saved into the repository with verifiable copyright and contextual information by authors themselves.  
  • We should also promote and teach the use of Creative Commons licensing to students and staff. We have also begun to co-operate with the Open Galleries Libraries Archives and Museums community to open up cultural heritage data for reuse and remix following such endeavours at Europeana and others. We will also publish openly licensed, public domain, images in shared services such as National Digital Library Finna.or internationally in Flickr Commons.  We intend to co-operate with artists, designers and photographers associations in rights clearance projects and as far as possible always stay legal with written contracts and professional legal advice in making agreements.  As a profession we should create processes for capturing, sharing and measuring the impact of the institutions visual resources too, not just scholarly text.
  • Thankyou for yourattention! I wishyouall agreatconference, I hope to attend the conferenceagainalsophysicallyperhapsnextyear!
  • VRA 2014 Case Studies in International Copyright, Sarvilahti

    1. 1. Towards open visual resources for impact Marika Sarvilahti Information Specialist Aalto University Helsinki, Finland Remote presentation for VRA 32, A Visual Approach March 14, 2014, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Session 9, Case Studies in International Copyright Compliance
    2. 2. Aalto University - Where Science and Art meet Technology and Business
    3. 3. A merger of leading Finnish universities in 2010 University of Art and Design Helsinki Helsinki School of Economics Helsinki University of Technology A community of: • 75,000 alumni • 20,000 students • 4,700 faculty & staff • with 340 professors
    4. 4. Olli Varis Global and international water issues Riitta Hari Systems Neuroscience and Neuroimaging Esko I. Kauppinen High-performance thin- film transistors on plastic substrate Maarit Karppinen Materials Chemistry of Energy Conversion Pekka Heikkinen the use of wood as a modern building material Areas of excellence Nina Granqvist Emergence of new industries and technologies and renewal of existing industries 1. Maarit Karppinen, Academy Professor, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry Photo by Adolfo Vera 2. Riitta Hari, Neuroscientist, Academy Professor, Low Temperature Laboratory Illustration by C. Carl Jaffe 3. Olli Varis, Professor, Water & Development Research Group Photo by Aalto University 4. Esko I. Kauppinen, Professor, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials Photo by Aalto University 6. Nina Granqvist, Academy of Finland Research Fellow, Department of Management and International Business Image by Nina Grandqvist 7. Pekka Heikkinen, Professor, The Wood Program Photo by Aalto University 1 2 3 4 5 6
    5. 5. School of Art and Design Art I Design | Media | Motion Picture, TV and Production Design One of the world’s most respected schools in its field • Degree students 1,800 • Doctoral students 250 • Personnel 410 • Professors 46 • Departments
    6. 6. Project highlights How to Pick Berries Documentary film 1. Miten marjoja poimitaan (How to Pick Berries) Documentary film How to Pick Berries by M.A. student Elina Talvensaari from School of Art and Design has received many awards at various festivals, for example Bratislava International Film Festival, San Sebastian International Film Festival and Tromsø International Film Festival. Photo by Mauno Farinas (School of Art and Design). The Luukku Zero-energy house 2. The Luukku zero-energy house The Luukku house, designed by Aalto University students, was one of the three winners of the Architecture Prize and among the top five in the Solar Decathlon 2010 competition in Madrid.
    7. 7. Project highlights Blue1 aircrafts New appearance 1. Aalto University students designed a new appearance for Blue1 aircrafts Aalto University students of graphic design came up with a new physical appearance and concept for the planes during their course on corporate identity design.
    8. 8. Visual resources Aalto events for the Aalto community The end result of academic and artistic activities especially at the School of Art, Design and Architecture are typically combinations of text and visual objects; photographs, artworks, design objects, print or web publications or film. How should art universities answer to demands for publicly funded research and other deliverables to become publicly available?
    9. 9. Images are essential sources of information for students, staff, researchers and tutors. The University Archive and Library have the role of preserving samples of student works, diploma works and documentary images.
    10. 10. Digitisation activities at Aalto University Archive
    11. 11. Function of the visual collections • Document the University’s academic and artistic activities by storing art and design objects as well as images that document them (analog and digital). • Provide access to objects for current and future evaluation of research and activities for researchers, stake holders and possible revenue sources. • Preserve the objects as part of cultural and educational history thus providing a memory of the university’s changing organisation and roles in higher education. • Promote research into Finnish art and design education by providing rich information resources.
    12. 12. Copyright situation • Students hold the copyrights to their works regardless of who owns the physical objects. • Students grant the university the right to exploit the works they create during their studies for non-commercial activities (from 2004 onwards) • An archive, library or a museum may communicate a work that is in copyright from its collections on the premises of the organization, i.e. a local image repository or database. • For works in copyright it is permissible for the user to make a citation in an academic work by crediting the author. Copies can also be made for private use.
    13. 13. Implications of copyright situation • Only a proportion of visual resources can be published openly on the internet leaving some key collections of cultural heritage value available only on the premises of the Library and Archive until copyright is cleared. • University’s investments in developing services that are only available locally need to be very well justified. • Developing a repository for self-archiving born-digital material seems to be the most viable option to support continuing ingest into the visual collections.
    14. 14. Photo by Lari Haataja Aalto Center for Entrepreneurship and Aalto Venture Garage Capturing born-digital material is becoming a challenge: a systematic self-archiving process is needed.
    15. 15. • Make local Visual Resources services on premises of future Learning Center attractive, specialized, relevant and fit for the digital natives. • Co-operate with University legal team, communications, IT-services, academic and teaching staff. • Promote a culture of self-archiving throughout the institution both for text and image resources (Open Access). • Born-digital material are saved into the repository with verifiable copyright and contextual information by authors themselves. Our future strategies
    16. 16. Our future strategies • Promote and teach the use of Creative Commons licensing to students and staff. • Co-operate with the OpenGLAM community to open all cultural heritage data and openly licensed images in shared services such as National Digital Library Finna. • Co-operate with artists, designers and photographers associations in rights clearance projects. • Stay legal with written contracts and legal advice. • Create processes for capturing, sharing and measuring the impact of the institutions visual resources too, not just scholarly text.
    17. 17. Thank you for your attention Photo by Tuuli Sotamaa Aalto University

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