VRA 2014 Brave New World Cataloging, Harpring

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Presented by Patricia Harpring at the Annual Conference of the Visual Resources Association, March 12-15, 2014 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. …

Presented by Patricia Harpring at the Annual Conference of the Visual Resources Association, March 12-15, 2014 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Session 11, Brave New World Cataloging: Using RDF and Linked Open Data for the Semantic Web
ORGANIZER: Sheryl Frisch, California Polytechnic State University
MODERATOR: Trish Rose-Sandler, Center for Biodiversity Informatics, Missouri Botanical Garden
PRESENTERS:
• Trish Rose-Sandler, Center for Biodiversity Informatics, Missouri Botanical Garden
• Jeffrey Mixter, Kent State University Research Support
• Georgina Goodlander, Smithsonian American Art Museum
• Patricia Harpring, Getty Vocabulary Program, Getty Research Institute

RDF (Resource Description Format) and LOD (Linked Open Data) are two key components in the ongoing development of the Semantic Web (the structured linking of web-based information to enable users anywhere to find, share, and combine information more easily). Although we are used to working in information silos much of the time, the Semantic Web can allow data to be discovered, shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. The speakers will demonstrate how our existing data (from both VR collections and museums) can be transformed to the RDF format; how the effort can be shared in a community; and how LOD will affect and expand the tools we use daily to provide controlled vocabulary terms.

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  • 1. Patricia Harpring Managing EditorPatricia Harpring, Managing Editor Getty Vocabulary Program 15 March 2014 Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 2.  Linked Data Linked Data › A set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web to enable the interlinking possibilities. › It builds upon standard Web technologies such as HTTP and URIs. › But, rather than using them to serve web pages for human readers, it extends them to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers.  Open data Open data › The idea that certain data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.  Linked Open Data (LOD) › A community project, sponsored by the Semantic Web Education and Outreach group of the W3C, to extend the Web with a data commons by publishing various open datasets as RDF on the WEB and by settingy p g p y g RDF links between data items from different data sources. › Both linked and open. Patricia Harpring , thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 3. Li k d D t th W b Linked Documents on the Web › Connected by hypertext › Allows users to traverse via Web browsers › Data is made available in formats such as CSV XML or› Data is made available in formats such as CSV, XML, or marked up as HTML tables  Linked Data on the Web › Connects data from diverse domains such as people› Connects data from diverse domains such as people, books, scientific publications, films, genes, drugs and clinical trials, online communities, statistical and scientific data. › Enables new generation of search engines that follow the› Enables new generation of search engines that follow the links between data sources to deliver more complete answers as new data sources appear › Operate on top of an unbound, global data space. › Uses the Web to create typed links between data from different sources. Patricia Harpring , thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 4.  Semantic Web  Linked Open Data (LOD)  Resource Description Framework (RDF)  LOD Ontologies & Vocabularies  Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)  Web Ontology Language (OWL)  Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)  Triples and Triplestores Triples and Triplestores  SPARQL Protocol RDF Query Language (SPARQL)  Inference Inference  Open World Assumption Patricia Harpring , thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 5.  The process of deriving new information from the information l d hyou already have › Simple and deterministic: If I know a rock weighs 1 kg. I can infer that the same rock weighs 2.2 lbs. › Rule-based: If I know a person is under 16 and in California, I can infer that they are not allowed to drivethat they are not allowed to drive. › Classification: If I know a company is in San Francisco or Seattle, I can classify it as a “west coast company.” › Judgments: If I know a person’s height is 6 feet or more, I refer to them as tall. › Online services: If I know a restaurant’s address, I can use a geocoder to find its coordinates on a map.  In the semantic web application, this often means creating new triples, based on logic applied to existing ones.  Monotonic Inference – if a statement is inferred from a set of axioms, adding an additional axiom cannot remove that inferred statement. To invalidate the inference would require at least one of the original axioms to be removed. Patricia Harpring , thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 6. Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 7. AAT, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus® Generic terms for describing art, architecture, other material culture (e.g., oil paintings, Baroque, lithographers). Current totals: 5,500 records; 306,000 terms • Getty Vocabularies are thesauri compliant with national (NISO) and international (ISO) standards for thesaurus construction • Grow through contributions from the expert user community • Contributors and sources are citedPatricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 8. AAT, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus® Generic terms for describing art, architecture, other material culture (e.g., oil paintings, Baroque, lithographers). Current totals: 5,500 records; 306,000 terms TGN, the Getty Thesaurus ofy Geographic Names® Names, other information for current, historical administrative places and physical features (e.g., Firenze, Roman Empire, Ganges River) Current totals: 1 431 600; 2 038 000 namesGanges River). Current totals: 1,431,600; 2,038,000 names • Getty Vocabularies are thesauri compliant with national (NISO) and international (ISO) standards for thesaurus construction • Grow through contributions from the expert user community • Contributors and sources are citedPatricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 9. AAT, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus® Generic terms for describing art, architecture, other material culture (e.g., oil paintings, Baroque, lithographers). Current totals: 5,500 records; 306,000 terms TGN, the Getty Thesaurus ofy Geographic Names® Names, other information for current, historical administrative places and physical features (e.g., Firenze, Roman Empire, Ganges River) Current totals: 1 431 600; 2 038 000 namesGanges River). Current totals: 1,431,600; 2,038,000 names ULAN, the Union List of Artist Names® Names, other information for artists, other people, corporate, , p p , p bodies related to art (e.g., Bartolo di Fredi, National Palace Museum). Current totals: 248,600 records; 642,900 names • Getty Vocabularies are thesauri compliant with national (NISO) and international (ISO) standards for thesaurus construction • Grow through contributions from the expert user community • Contributors and sources are citedPatricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 10. AAT, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus® Generic terms for describing art, architecture, other material culture (e.g., oil paintings, Baroque, lithographers,sintering). Current totals: 5,500 records; 306,000 terms TGN, the Getty Thesaurus ofy Geographic Names® Names, other information for current, historical administrative places and physical features (e.g., Firenze, Roman Empire, Ganges River) Current totals: 1 431 600; 2 038 000 namesGanges River). Current totals: 1,431,600; 2,038,000 names ULAN, the Union List of Artist Names® Names, other information for artists, other people, corporate, , p p , p bodies related to art (e.g., Bartolo di Fredi, National Palace Museum). Current totals: 248,600 records; 642,900 names CONA the Cultural Objects NameCONA, the Cultural Objects Name Authority® Now accepting contributions. Includes titles, other information for moveable works and architecture (e ginformation for moveable works and architecture (e.g., Hagia Sophia, Mona Lisa, Fantastic Landscape with a Pavilion). Current totals: 5,500 records; 9,300 titles/names Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 11.  Vocabularies contain critical features that subject_id=500013247 features that them adaptable to linking: Each vocabulary term_id=1500207490 Each vocabulary record is identified by a unique, persistent i IDnumeric ID Terms and controlled lists also each have nat_code=905040 role id=31261also each have unique numeric IDs role_id=31261 TGN subject id=7006827TGN subject_id 7006827 subject_id=500115332 Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trustrel_type_code=1553
  • 12.  Relationships in the vocabularies are also relevant in linking Th l l ti hi ( l f ULAN) Thesaural relationships (examples from ULAN) › Equivalence  Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory synonym for èManufacture nationale de Sèvres › Hierarchical  Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory is broader context for l i h dEloy Brichard company › Associative  Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory was directed by R b t L i Ré 1832 1879Robert, Louis-Rémy 1832-1879 Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 13.  Relationships beyond thesaural: ULAN › Conceptually linked prior to LOD › CONA has actual links TGNTGN CONA Records Source Records AAT Iconography Authority Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 14.  AAT, TGN, and ULAN have traditionally been licensed and released in various formats Release formats  Online search form getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/index.html  Raw data files may be licensed from the Getty in Raw data files may be licensed from the Getty in relational tables and XML format and through Web services APIs [I dditi t LOD l t ti idi [In addition to LOD, we plan to continue providing the data in relational tables and XML releases. If any format is discontinued in the future, users will be given advance notice]g ] Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 15.  A current trend in managing art information is to increasingly make data about art, architecture, and cultural heritage objects available as Linkedand cultural heritage objects available as Linked Open Data  This applies to the information directly describing the objects, but also the vocabularies used in thethe objects, but also the vocabularies used in the descriptions  For years now, the Getty Vocabulary team has been receiving requests to publish our thesauri asbeen receiving requests to publish our thesauri as LOD; licensees were beginning to experiment on their own  It is time to stop asking “why” and to start It is time to stop asking why and to start exploring “how” Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 16.  Institutional buy-in, particularly as LOD project coincides with the Getty’s Open Content initiative › The J. Paul Getty Museum and Getty Research Institute make available, without charge, all available digital images to which the Getty holds the rights or that are in the public domain to be used for any purpose. No permission is required › www.getty.edu/about/opencontent.html  Also, GRI Portal: The Getty Research Portal™ is an online search platform providing global access too e sea c p a o p o d g g oba access o growing number of digitized art history texts  (Neither one as yet has LOD metadata) Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 17. Linked Open Data Batch Online Forms Contributions from AAT, TGN, ULAN Bi-weekly exports to the public web sitesBatch sites Contribution Validation Application (CVA) Contribution Validation Application (CVA) Editorial System (VCS)Editorial System (VCS) Web Service APIs (CVA)(CVA) Contributions from CONA i d Yearly UTF-8 release Batch Licensed Data Admin ApplicationXML & REL Patricia Harpring , from Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 18. Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 19.  We plan to publish all four Getty vocabularies to the LOD cloud  The AAT was published to the LOD cloud in February 2014 www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/lod/index.html › Plan to refresh the data every two weeksy  SPARQL endpoint: http://vocab.getty.edu/  Our base URI is http://vocab getty edu/ Our base URI is http://vocab.getty.edu/ e.g., http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300311452  Under the ODC-BY 1 0 license Under the ODC BY 1.0 license Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 20. Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-By) v1.0 Allows that you (the users) are free to do the following:  To Share: To copy, distribute, and use the database  To Create: To produce works from the database  To Adapt: To modify transform and build upon the database To Adapt: To modify, transform, and build upon the database  As long as you Attribute: You must attribute any public use of the database, or works produced from the database, in the manner ifi d i th lispecified in the license › For any use or redistribution of the database, or works produced from it, you must make clear to others the license of the database and keep intact any notices on the original database  http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/ Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 21.  Plans are in place to release the other vocabularies as LOD, target dates: TGN in July 2014 ULAN in January 2015 (various ontologies)TGN in July 2014, ULAN in January 2015 (various ontologies) and CONA in July 2015 (are investigating CIDOC CRM)  Sequence was chosen to take advantage of the way the vocabularies are connected: AAT is linked to itself; TGN pulls from AAT; ULAN from AAT and TGN; and CONA links to others  Also publishing LOD versions of lookup lists (e.g., languages,p g p ( g , g g , bibliographic sources)  Subsequent phases will focus on how we use the data (e.g., using it on our own Web sites collaboration with external sites Patricia Harpring , thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust using it on our own Web sites, collaboration with external sites, harvesting, visualization, etc.)
  • 22.  The majority of the work will be done by our in-house team, but we have established an open community and welcome collaboration: vocabLOD@getty.educollaboration: vocabLOD@getty.edu  The team Getty ITS Outside consultant, Ontotext Joan Cobb Vladimir AlexievJoan Cobb Vladimir Alexiev Gregg Garcia Getty Vocabulary Program (GRI) Patricia Harpring Jon Ward Antonio Beecroft Robin JohnsonPatricia Harpring, Jon Ward, Antonio Beecroft, Robin Johnson ITS and GRI joint LOD steering committee Murtha Baca, David Farneth, Joe Shubitowski, Mike Clardy, Marilyn Gillette, Joan Cobb, Gregg Garcia, Patricia Harpringgg p g External Advisors (see list on our LOD page) Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 23. http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/lod/index.html  Visit this page for updates on status www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/ write to us: vocabLOD@getty.edu
  • 24.  Enables programmers and developers to query knowledge base via SPARQL language. Results are returned in machine-processable formats SPARQL endpointSPARQL endpoint Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 25. The Ontologies used to express the AAT  Where ever possible, we map AAT data elements to the following external standards › SKOS, SKOSXL, ISO 25964 for representing the thesaurus information DC DCT f ti› DC, DCT for common properties › BIBO, FOAF for sources and contributors › RDF, RDFS, OWL, XSD for system properties › R2RML for implementing the conversion of data from Oracle to Ntriples› R2RML for implementing the conversion of data from Oracle to Ntriples  GVP (Getty Vocabulary Program) ontology includes various classes, properties and individuals (values) used in the mapping that add further detail. Some examples:p › Broader Transitive › Term Characteristics › Sort Order Patricia Harpring, thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust › Historic Information › Associative Relationships
  • 26. The Ontologies used to express the AAT  Where ever possible, we map AAT data elements to the following external standards › SKOS, SKOSXL, ISO 25964 for representing the thesaurus information DC DCT f ti› DC, DCT for common properties › BIBO, FOAF for sources and contributors › RDF, RDFS, OWL, XSD for system properties › R2RML for implementing the conversion of data from Oracle to Ntriples • RDF – defines structure and allows for the exportation of content in triples› R2RML for implementing the conversion of data from Oracle to Ntriples  GVP (Getty Vocabulary Program) ontology includes various classes, properties and individuals (values) used in the mapping that add further detail Some examples: exportation of content in triples • RDFSchema – RDFs defines classes that are used in the representation of object, predicates, subjects • Ontology – formal specifications that adds further detail. Some examples: › Broader Transitive › Term Characteristics › Sort Order semantics to the schema • SKOS, SKOS-XL, DCTerms, ISO 25964, PROV, BIBO, FOAF are all ontologies that extend the basic RDF › Historic Information › Associative Relationships Patricia Harpring, thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 27. We provide export files (data dumps) in several configurations and formats. Instructions are included online  Explicit exportsp p › These are statements in NTriples format, generated directly from the Getty Vocabulary Program’s database using R2RML  Per-Entity Exportsy p › These are downloadable semantic representation for a particular entity in RDF/XML, Turtle, NTripples, and JSON formats  Total Exports › Includes all statements (explicit and inferred) of all independent entities in NTriples format Patricia Harpring . thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 28.  For technical details, see documentation online  Or write to vocabLOD@getty edu Or write to vocabLOD@getty.edu Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 29. Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 30.  Editorial work to prepare for LOD required making links and mapping between vocabularies; from conceptual to actual links E l i ULAN d l t i TGN t t AAT t E.g., roles in ULAN and place types in TGN must map to AAT terms CONA AAT TGN ULAN TGN Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 31. • Nationality/ Culture/ Race/ Ethnicity in Many links cannot be made automatically Race/ Ethnicity in ULAN should be linked to AAT • Nat list was never actually linked to Matching ULAN Nat. to AAT actually linked to AAT • Project to match encounters issues e g no match Thie.g., no match, ambiguous match • Must be resolved by hand This “hessian” is bad match, = no match match, type of burlap false match ambiguous match Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 32.  Since CONA is linked to the other vocabularies, it is necessary to match incoming values to the AAT, ULAN, TGN, and CONA Iconography Authority when loadedCONA Iconography Authority when loaded  The CVA/Processor was developed for editors to use if auto-links are not possible  Contribution Validation Application software Contribution Validation Application, software architect Gregg Garcia CONA record, creatorCONA record, creator Koenig, Pierre (American architect, 1925-2004) 500086520 link to ULANPatricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 33.  How to avoid errors in linking  Which Jan Smit? Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 34. <aat:300198841> <skos:prefLabel> "rhyta"@en Triples p y <aat:300198841> <skos:altLabel> "ritons"@fr <aat:300198841> <rdf:type> <gvp:Concept> <aat:300198841> <gvp:broaderPreferred> <aat:300194567> <aat:300198841> <gvp:aat2100 distinguished from> <aat:300197140><aat:300198841> <gvp:aat2100_distinguished_from> <aat:300197140> subject predicate object rhyta – [are] distinguished from – stirrup cups  W3C standards (RDF) to describe the data in triples  Three column format – known as a triple – forms the rhyta [are] distinguished from stirrup cups p fundamental building block of semantic representations.  Subject - corresponds to the entity – a ‘thing’  Predicates – property of the entity - names, birth/death datesdates  Objects - Subjects in another triple OR Literal values Patricia Harpring . thanks to Joan Cobb, Gregg Garcia March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 35. <aat:300198841> <skos:prefLabel> "rhyta"@enp y <aat:300198841> <skos:altLabel> "ritons"@fr <aat:300198841> <rdf:type> <gvp:Concept> <aat:300198841> <gvp:broaderPreferred> <aat:300194567> <aat:300198841> <gvp:aat2100 distinguished from> <aat:300197140><aat:300198841> <gvp:aat2100_distinguished_from> <aat:300197140> Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 36. Challenges  Where our data didn’t fit into standards, we needed technical solutions in order to retain critical features that make our thesauri unique  Multilingual data: we already have terms in over 110 different languages and the potential is for thousands of languages (current, historical, dialects, etc.)  Sources and contributors linked at the record, term, and note levels; require sourcing Patricia Harpring , thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 37.  Editorial work to transform data acceptable for LOD; e.g., associative relationship types ChallengesChallenges Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 38. HTML XML RDFHTML XML RDF Patricia Harpring , from Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 39. CONA AAT TGN ULAN TGN
  • 40.  Enable users to find information that was previously not English Heritag Other Sites Other Sites Other Sites  Enable users to find information that was previously not available or not linked Proven- ance Index Getty Search Arches Heritag e Flemish Heritag LA Survey Sites Other Sites Other Other Sites CONA Museum AATA Heritag e BulgariaOther Sites Other Sites Sites CONA AAT TGN ULAN Spanish Translation Project Chinese Translation Project D t h VIAF Other Sites AAT TGN ULAN TGN RKD Project Dutch Translation Projects Iconography Other Sites LCSH Other Sites Other Sites TGN gLCSH Other Sites Other Sites Other Sites Other Sites Patricia Harpring , from Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 41. Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 42. VocabuVocabu--  W t thlarieslaries linked tolinked to  We are at the beginning of the journeyother LODother LOD may allowmay allow journey  We look forward to seeing what resources researchresearch andand seeing what resources will link or be linked to the Getty vocabularies discoverydiscovery nevernever the Getty vocabularies beforebefore possiblepossible Patricia Harpring March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD copyright J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 43.  Potential future use case: Researcher finds digitized books having to do Potential future use case: Researcher finds digitized books having to do with incense burners on Getty Portal; follows links for research, discovery What now takes many hours or days to research, will be faster and easier with LOD, including the application of inference: creating t i l b d l i li d t i tinew triples based on logic applied to existing ones Another use case would be linking images using LOD metadatametadata at image repositories Prezi presentation http://prezi.com/mrdd5l ccukns/research-using- the-getty- vocabularies/?utm ca Patricia Harpring , thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust / _ mpaign=share&utm_me dium=copy
  • 44.  Potential future use case: Researcher finds books having to do with Potential future use case: Researcher finds books having to do with incense burners on Getty Portal; follows links for research, discovery Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 45.  Potential future use case: Researcher finds books having to do with Potential future use case: Researcher finds books having to do with incense burners on Getty Portal; follows links for research, discovery Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 46. Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 47. Using TGN to link to d GISmaps and GIS Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 48. Patricia Harpring , thanks to Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 49. Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 50. Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 51. Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 52. CONA ld id bj tCONA could provide subject access Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 53. Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 54. etc., etc., etc.Patricia Harpring , with Joan Cobb March 2014 Getty Vocabs as LOD For educational purposes. © J. Paul Getty Trust
  • 55. Patricia Harpring managing editor Getty Vocabulary Program pharpring@getty edupharpring@getty.edu