Visualizing the ArticleAn Exploratory Study ofUndergraduates’ EducationalReactions to Images in ScholarlyArticlesSarah Vor...
PROBLEM STATEMENT{why was this research done?}
Research AimThe aim of this research is to exploreundergraduate underclassmen’sinteractions with scholarlycommunication an...
METHODOLOGY{how the study was conducted}
Art History: Artist John SloanBusiness: Conscious CapitalismHistory: Homelessness of African-AmericansSociology: Fatherhoo...
John Sloan: Clown Making UpFathers on the Small Screen
Research Population• 34 underclass (freshmanand sophomore)undergraduate studentsfrom the University ofArizona campus inTuc...
RESULTS & DISCUSSION{what the study discovered and how the datawas interpreted}
Participant DemographicsDemographic Data• Average time perparticipant (1st segment)was 1:12.• Quickest time 14 minutes• Bi...
Image StatementsAURAL LEARNERS“This article [John Sloan: ClownMaking Up] was memorable, becauseof the image it instilled i...
Illusory Image“It had pictures offamilies from adifferent point inhistory”“It was a picture ofwhat the character[sic] were...
CONCLUSION{what this all means and issues discoveredalong the way}
Final ThoughtsPractical Implications• Decorative, passive images– In the true scholarly publishingatmosphere, the images i...
Suggestions for Further Research• An archival study to provide a comprehensiveintroduction to the amount of imagespublishe...
Thank You!Contact Information:Sarah Vornholt, MLIScUniversity of Hawai’isarahiv@hawaii.edu
VRA 2013 Pedagogical Studies in Visual Literacy, Vornholt
VRA 2013 Pedagogical Studies in Visual Literacy, Vornholt
VRA 2013 Pedagogical Studies in Visual Literacy, Vornholt
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VRA 2013 Pedagogical Studies in Visual Literacy, Vornholt

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Presented by Sarah Vornholt at the Annual Conference of the Visual Resources Association, April 3rd - April 6th, 2013, in Providence, Rhode Island.

Session #13: Pedagogical Studies in Visual Literacy
ORGANIZER/MODERATOR: Mark Pompelia, Rhode Island School of Design
PRESENTERS:
Diana Carns, University of Massachusetss Dartmouth
"Constructing Meaning: Integrating Text, Images, and Critical Questioning"
Ellen Petraits, Rhode Island School of Design
"Visual Literacy for Visual Learners: Relating Research Skills to Haptic Skills"
Kelly Smith, Lafayette College
"Image Seeking and Use by Graduate History Students: Avenues to Incorporating Visual Literacy"
Sarah Vornholt, University of Hawai'i at Manoa
"Visualizing the Article: An Exploratory Study of Undergraduates' Educational Reactions to Images in Scholarly Articles"

Following the popular Visual Literacy Case Studies session that premiered at the 2012 annual conference, this session follows that same purpose while expanding the definition of what it can mean while meeting in Providence, Rhode Island—the Creative Capital, a city that serves as a factory for and of non-traditional learners. As background: A term first coined in 1969, visual literacy, according to the Association of College and Research Libraries “Visual Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education,” “is a set of abilities that enables an individual to effectively find, interpret, evaluate, use, and create images and visual media. Visual literacy skills equip a learner to understand and analyze the contextual, cultural, ethical, aesthetic, intellectual, and technical components involved in the production and use of visual materials. A visually literate individual is both a critical consumer of visual media and a competent contributor to a body of shared knowledge and culture.”

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  • The article topics represent a diverse spread for participants to interact with. This allows a broad scope of responses and interactions with scholarly articles. Each article topic contained two articles; one contained images and one did not (with the exception of art which acted as the control group with both articles containing images). There were 8 articles in total.
  • Displayed are two examples of the articles from the experiment: sociology and history. As you can see, each article is approximately 2 pages and either contains an image or is void of an image.
  • This is a showcase of the images used in the experiment.
  • The survey was presented to participants in an online format. In this example, the participants read the articles on “Fatherhood in Popular Culture” and then were asked close-ended and open-ended questions about their perceptions of the articles.
  • Additionally, a follow-up survey was added to measure recall a week after the participants completed the main survey. This page displays the image portion of the survey.
  • Generation Z people are those born after 1991 and their birth coincides with the birth of the World Wide Web. This is important because people from the generation have been raised on media technology and are learning in a different way. Research has shown that people from Generation Y (born after 1981) remember only 10% of what they read compared to 20%-30% of what they see. Considering this research, it is not surprising 50% of the participants self-identified as visual learners.
  • Now to the heart of the research, image statements. Image statements is a term to describe unprovoked reactions to images in the articles. As you can see, there were 53 mentions of images throughout the experiment. Every learning style was represented and there was no pattern discovered to indicate how learning styles will be influenced by images. Sometimes the lack of a pattern is as important as a pattern. This shows that it is unpredictable how participants will interact with images, thus all participants (regardless of learning style) can be influenced by images.
  • The most peculiar and bewildering aspect of this research was the emersion of the “illusory image.” These are images that did not exist, but were recalled by participants. In total, there were 5 illusory image mentions. Shown here, we have 3 examples of image recall from the article “Fathers in Popular Picture Books.” “Goodnight Moon” was actually mentioned in the article. Does this mean participants subconsciously strive for the inclusion of images? Are they remembering images they visualized when reading? Possibly. This would be an interesting topic to research in the future.
  • Practical Implications: For the experiment, I used decorative, passive images. If active, evidence images were used the results would be amplified. For example, in the “Fathers in Popular Picture Books” article the author discusses the creation of picture books in the 1970’s with fathers as an active, loving member of the family represented as animals. If this image had been used to refer to the book “Guess How Much I Love You” it would have demonstrated that loving relationship and the use of a fatherly animal.
  • Please feel free to contact me about my research! I am gradating school in May 2013 and would be interested in hearing your thoughts.
  • VRA 2013 Pedagogical Studies in Visual Literacy, Vornholt

    1. 1. Visualizing the ArticleAn Exploratory Study ofUndergraduates’ EducationalReactions to Images in ScholarlyArticlesSarah VornholtMLIScUniversity of Hawai’i at ManoaVisual Resource Association 2013 Annual Conference – Pedagogical Studies in Visual Literacy
    2. 2. PROBLEM STATEMENT{why was this research done?}
    3. 3. Research AimThe aim of this research is to exploreundergraduate underclassmen’sinteractions with scholarlycommunication and in what manner theinclusion of images impact thesestudents’ educational interest.Research Question: What impact willimages in scholarly articles have onundergraduate underclassmen?
    4. 4. METHODOLOGY{how the study was conducted}
    5. 5. Art History: Artist John SloanBusiness: Conscious CapitalismHistory: Homelessness of African-AmericansSociology: Fatherhood in Popular CultureARTICLE TOPICS
    6. 6. John Sloan: Clown Making UpFathers on the Small Screen
    7. 7. Research Population• 34 underclass (freshmanand sophomore)undergraduate studentsfrom the University ofArizona campus inTucson, Arizona• Non-probability accidentalsamplingUniversity of ArizonaCampus
    8. 8. RESULTS & DISCUSSION{what the study discovered and how the datawas interpreted}
    9. 9. Participant DemographicsDemographic Data• Average time perparticipant (1st segment)was 1:12.• Quickest time 14 minutes• Birthdates range from1992-1995• Mean year 1994Generation ZLearning Styles
    10. 10. Image StatementsAURAL LEARNERS“This article [John Sloan: ClownMaking Up] was memorable, becauseof the image it instilled in my head.”VISUAL LEARNERS“Aside from the content, I lovedthe pictures… The pictures weremy favorite about the stylebecause I am a visual person.”“[Homelessness in the Colonies,Least Interesting] Because [I]really am unfamiliar with thetopic [I] had to paint my ownimage and try to connect whatthey were saying with what itmight have looked like.”VERBAL LEARNERS“I like to see pictures while Iread, it helps me understandwhat the article is about.”
    11. 11. Illusory Image“It had pictures offamilies from adifferent point inhistory”“It was a picture ofwhat the character[sic] were doing”“I think the bookGoodnight[M]oon.”From the article Fathers in Popular Picture Books:
    12. 12. CONCLUSION{what this all means and issues discoveredalong the way}
    13. 13. Final ThoughtsPractical Implications• Decorative, passive images– In the true scholarly publishingatmosphere, the images includedwould most likely act asevidence and be essential to thedevelopment of the argument.Conceptual Possibilities• All learning styles are in one way oranother impacted by the inclusion ofimages in scholarly articles.• Generations Z are the growing userpopulation for academic resources.Guess HowMuch I Love Youby SamMcBratney, Ill.By Anita Jeram
    14. 14. Suggestions for Further Research• An archival study to provide a comprehensiveintroduction to the amount of imagespublished in scholarly journals from a varietyof disciplines• Conducting exploratory interviews withuniversity students• The replication of experiments by Gibson &Zillmann (2000), Zillmann, Knobloch & Yu(2001), Knobloch et al. (2003), and/orSargent (2007)• Future studies can investigate the illusoryimage phenomenon
    15. 15. Thank You!Contact Information:Sarah Vornholt, MLIScUniversity of Hawai’isarahiv@hawaii.edu

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