Probably the hardest part of sending out licensing agreements is doing the research to identify the current copyright holders.A variety of resources exist that aid researchers, including:the RCAAM and Museum IP listservs - review past posts about copyright holders or post a new query to the groupthe WATCH file – “A database of copyright contacts for writers, artists, and prominent figures in other creative fields” one of my first stops when I start researching copyright holdersand don’t forget to simply utilize Google to search for individual artist web sites and/or gallery representations
And, always be sure to check to see if the artist and/or the estate you are researching is represented by VAGA and ARS. You won’t have a licensing agreement to send to one of these organizations, but you will at least know who to contact for any future clearances.
To further inform the balance of motives and access it is vital for museums to determine when they are comfortable asserting fair use verses when they need to clear permissions for their internal purposes. To help museums with these determinations, non-exclusive licensing agreements sent to rights holders are an invaluable tool that informs museums about how and where they can use images of works that are under copyright in their collections. It is important to point out that this is NOT a transfer or surrender of any rights. Rather it is document that grants certain permissions. Additionally, in the age of constantly evolving technologies and media formats, an agreement that is equally specific and broad is vital – such as the 5th point seen here where permission is sought for:“…any and all media, whether now known or unknown, throughout the Universe.”
Restrictions:No loans to the permanent collection;No works with lender/donor restrictions;No copyrighted works, UNLESS, IMA owns the copyright or clears the permissions to include the artist’s work(s);No temporary exhibitions or rotations, UNLESS, a collection would not be otherwise represented (i.e. Textile and Fashion Arts).
One of our most popular images can be downloaded for free. There are no copyright restrictions – it’s in the public domain. The public domain means that the image or work can be used for any purposes you are not required to provide a copy at all, but if you do, anyone can use it: you can’t specify howyou are not required to provide a high resolution image on request
So we offer it for easy download at a size we’re comfortable giving away.But we charge for the time and effort of scanning/photographing/preserving when people need a high resolution image. This allows us to support increasing and improving our digital collections.
And also applied to specific images to which we hold copyright.(Discuss 2D - 3D distinction)
This past summer we updated our fee schedule to reflect our move to support scholarly publications.If a publication-quality image file is already available of an artwork for an external request there are no fees assessed at all for research, teaching, or scholarly publications under 5,000 copies. The only situation that might result in a fee being assessed for one of these types of requests is if a new scan or photography is required, which is a nominal charge of $50 per work.
By reducing fees, the IMA is seeking to disseminate images and foster scholarly endeavors.To this end we are researching various types of open access models that will work with our overall goals and mission.Importantly, we still want to know where and when our collection is being reproduced – not for control of the images or to charge fees, but to attempt to retain as complete a bibliography of where pieces in our collection are reproduced as is possible.Now, as irony would have it – the fee reduction has actually let to more requests and more revenue as having to only pay for new photography is much less than have to pay for both new photography and reproduction fees. And, now more of our collection is having publication-quality images created and more is being reproduced.
the public domain means that the image or work can be used for any purposes Don’t put “All rights reserved” on a public domain image!
Ownership of a physical or digital object does not equal ownership of copyrightIt’s not all right to “copyright” images that you acquired from another source.
Broaden Your Impact:Making Collection ContentMore Openly AccessibleNancy Sims, University of MinnesotaDeborah Wythe, Brooklyn MuseumAnne Young, Indianapolis Museum of ArtIan McDermott, ARTstorModerated by Anne Young, Indianapolis Museum of ArtVisual Resources Association Annual Conference,Providence, RI, April 5, 2013
Workshop Topics1. Artists1. Copyright?2. Public domain?3. Orphan work?2. Non-Exclusive Licensing Agreements3. Tracking Permissions1. Utilitarian Objects2. Forms3. Databases4. Communicating Copyright to the Public5. 2D vs. 3D Copyright Claims6. CopyWRONGS7. Questions?
IMA Licensing Agreement• Non-exclusive agreement sent to rights holders• Not a transfer or surrender of any rights
Informative subjectlineFriendly introObject listWhy we’re writingCopyright basicsInvitation to ask QsCover letter
Object information(long lists at end)About usGrant of rightsSpecific rights3rd party licensingApproved rights statementLicense
Affirmation by artistor authorized representativeof right to signSignature, name, date(now: mailing address)
Street View FilmingGoogle films & IMA responsible for clearing rightsContacted each100 Acresartist to ensurethey approved ofhaving their workin the Art Project.They all saidYES!Beyond Licensing Agreement Scope –Google Art Project
Indoor View FilmingGoogle films & IMA responsible for clearing rightsBeyond Licensing Agreement Scope –Google Art Project
Finalizing Copyrighted Artist PermissionsApproved ArtistsKendall Buster Los CarpinterosJeppe Hein Alfredo JaarTeä Makipää Type AAtelier Van Lieshout Andrea ZittelMary Miss visiondivisionAlyson Shotz James TurrellMaya Lin Tara DonovanTim Hawkinson El AnatsuiHeather Rowe Orly GengerDon Gummer Fred SandbackAllison Smith Jackie FerraraJulianne Swartz Ellsworth KellyMark Tansey Donald LipskiAwaiting ResponsesRobert IndianaDo Ho SuhJosiah McElhenyWilliam LamsonScott StackRoger BrownPending Image ReviewRobert IrwinSol LeWittBeyond Licensing Agreement Scope –Google Art Project
Do I need to clear it?Copyright in Utilitarian/DesignObjects and FashionExisting Images vs. Institution CreatedDesigner vs. ManufacturerAndré Courrèges, dress, late 1970s. Indianapolis, Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth and Valerie Johnson, 2003.160Charles and Ray Eames (designers); Herman Miller Furniture Company(manugacturer), Armchair and ottoman, about 1957.Indianapolis Museum of Art, Gift of Margaret, Catherine, Elizabeth and Will Miller, MH2010.19A-B
“freemium”model –provide contentfree to thepublic, thencharge foraccess toadditional rightsnot in the CClicense.Sylvain Zimmer, Jamendo.Creative Commons: ThePower of Openhttp://thepowerofopen.org/
FreeJPG, 1536 pixelswide -- 350KbValue addedTIF 5010 pixelswide -- 55MbSliding scalestarting at $45,depending on useEastman Johnson (American, 1824-1906). A Ride for Liberty-- The Fugitive Slaves, ca. 1862. Oil on paper board, 2115/16 x 26 1/8 in. (55.8 x 66.4 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Gift ofGwendolyn O. L. Conkling, 40.59a-b
By asserting “no known copyright restrictions,”participating institutions are sharing the benefit of theirresearch without providing an expressed or impliedwarranty to others who would like to use or reproducethe photograph.
This image was uploaded as a donation by the BrooklynMuseum, and is considered to have no known copyrightrestrictions by the institutions of the Brooklyn Museum.Note: While the Brooklyn Museum cannot make anabsolute statement on copyright status for legal reasons, itsupports and encourages the Wikimedia community inresearching and applying the copyright status tag that ismost appropriate for their purposes.
Rights Statement: CreativeCommons-BYYou may download and useBrooklyn Museum images of thisthree-dimensional work inaccordance with a CreativeCommons license. Fair use, asunderstood under the UnitedStates Copyright Act, may alsoapply.
Rights Statement: No known copyrightrestrictionsThis work may be in the public domainin the United States. Works created byUnited States and non-United Statesnationals published prior to 1923 are inthe public domain, subject to the termsof any applicable treaty or agreement.You may download and use BrooklynMuseum images of this work. Pleaseinclude caption information from thispage and credit the Brooklyn Museum.If you need a high resolutionfile, please firstname.lastname@example.org(charges apply).
• Revision of fee schedule Rates determined by publication type ratherthan status of the requester Scholarly publications (under 5,000 copies) andpersonal/research requests No reproduction fee assessed Image preparation fee may apply if newphotography or scan is neededIMA Increasing Access
• Income is no longer the goal• Still want to know where/when our collectionis reproduced• Instead seek to disseminate images and fosterscholarly endeavors• Fee reduction has resulted in increasedrequests and workloadIMA Increasing Access
For more details, includingorder or lease information …NYC.gov/Recordshttp://www.nyc.gov/html/records/html/gallery/html/details.shtml?cat=street&imgname=bpm_1024b.jpghttp://brooklynpix.com/photoframex1.php?photo=/photo1/D/dumbo37.jpg&key=DUMBO%2037
Broaden Your Impact:Making Collection ContentMore Openly AccessibleNancy Sims, University of MinnesotaDeborah Wythe, Brooklyn MuseumAnne Young, Indianapolis Museum of ArtIan McDermott, ARTstorThank youVisual Resources Association Annual Conference,Providence, RI, April 5, 2013
RESOURCESEastman Johnson (American, 1824-1906). Self-Portrait, ca. 1865-1870. Oil on canvas, 9 3/4 x 7 13/16 in. (24.8 x 19.9 cm). BrooklynMuseum, Purchased with funds given by Mr. and Mrs. Leonard L.Milberg and the A. Augustus Healy Fund, 1994.64
ContactsNancy Sims, Copyright Program Librarian, University of Minnesota,email@example.comDeborah Wythe, Head of Digital Collections and Services,Brooklyn Museum, firstname.lastname@example.orgAnne Young, Manager of Rights and Reproductions,Indianapolis Museum of Art, email@example.comIan McDermott, Collection Development Manager, ARTstor,firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright• Copyright and Cultural Institutions: Guidelines for Digitization for U.S.Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Peter B. Hirtle, Emily Hudson, Andrew T.Kenyon (2009). E-book (free download):http://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/14142/2/Hirtle-Copyright_final_RGB_lowres-cover1.pdf ; Print:https://www.createspace.com/3405063• U.S. Copyright Office, Copyright Information Centerhttp://www.copyright.gov/• Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States (Hirtle)http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/resources/publicdomain.cfm• WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) resources, U.S.http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/profile.jsp?code=US• Copyright Watch (monitors international laws)http://www.copyright-watch.org/• Copyrightlaws.com http://www.copyrightlaws.com/
Issues• Digital cultural collections in an age of reuse and remixes. K.R.Eschenfelder and M. Caswell (2010). http://bit.ly/10t7tX1• Control of Museum Art Images: The Reach and Limits of Copyright andLicensing. Kenneth D. Crews and Melissa A. Brown (August 1, 2011).http://bit.ly/10vjI4X
Fair Use, the Public Domain, Creative Commons• Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance Back in Copyright. PatriciaAufderheide and Peter Jaszi (University of Chicago Press, 2011).http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/reclaiming• Fair Use, Center for Social Media, American Universityhttp://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/fair-use• AAMD Policy on the Use of “thumbnail” Digital Images in Museum OnlineInitiatives https://aamd.org/standards-and-practices• VRA Statement on the Fair Use of Images for Teaching, Research, and Studyhttp://www.vraweb.org/organization/pdf/VRAFairUseGuidelinesFinal.pdf• ARL Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Librarieshttp://www.arl.org/pp/ppcopyright/codefairuse/code/index.shtml• Fair Use Network http://fairusenetwork.com/• Center for the Study of the Public Domain http://web.law.duke.edu/cspd/• The Public Domain: How to Find & Use Copyright-Free Writings, Music, Art& More. Stephen Fishman (2010). Print or e-book:http://www.nolo.com/products/the-public-domain-PUBL.html• Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org/
Guides• Cornell University Copyright Information Centerhttp://www.copyright.cornell.edu/resources/• Columbia University Copyright Advisory Officehttp://copyright.columbia.edu/copyright/copyright-in- general• Center for Intellectual Property, University of Marylandhttp://www.umuc.edu/cip/• Teaching Copyright, A project of the Electronic Frontier Foundationhttp://www.teachingcopyright.org/• IPinCH (Intellectual Property issues in Cultural Heritage)http://www.sfu.ca/ipinch• Copyright for Librarians, Berkman Center for Internet and Societyhttp://cyber.law.harvard.edu/publications/2013/copyright_for_librarians• ARROW (Accessible Registries of Rights Information and Orphan Works)towards Europeana http://www.arrow-net.eu/• Brooklyn Museum copyright projecthttp://www.brooklynmuseum.org/community/blogosphere/bloggers/tag/copyright
Professional Organizations• RARIN (Rights and Reproductions Information Network)http://www.rarin.org/index.php?title=Main_Page• AAM Registrar’s Committee listserv http://www.rcaam.org/Listserv• VRA Intellectual Property Rights News http://vraiprnews.wordpress.com/and Resources http://www.vraweb.org/resources/ipr/copyright.html• MUSIP: Museum IP Yahoo group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/musip/• College Art Association: IP resources http://www.collegeart.org/ip/• ALA Copyright Advisory Network http://librarycopyright.net/Digital Copyright Slider: http://librarycopyright.net/resources/digitalslider/Fair Use Evaluator: http://librarycopyright.net/resources/fairuse/Section 108 Spinner: http://librarycopyright.net/resources/spinner/• CHIN (Canadian Heritage Information Network) http://bit.ly/10uoAHIA Museum Guide to Digital Rights Management http://bit.ly/10uoFejDeveloping Intellectual Property Policies http://bit.ly/XUV8ZV• AIPLA, American Intellectual Property Law Associationhttp://www.aipla.org/Pages/default.aspx• LIBLICENSE Project http://liblicense.crl.edu/
Copyright Clearance, Licensing, and Image AcquisitionWas it registered?• The Catalog of Copyright Entries, 1923-1978http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/cce/• Online registration and renewal information, 1978 to presenthttp://www.copyright.gov/records/Find contact information• The WATCH File (Writers, Artists and Their Copyright Holders, University ofTexas, Austin) http://tyler.hrc.utexas.edu/index.cfm• Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Rights and Restrictionshttp://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/rights.html
Does a licensing organization control rights?• ARS -- Artists Rights Society http://www.arsny.com/• VAGA – Visual Artists and Galleries Association, Inc.http://www.vagarights.com/• DACS – Design and Artists Copyright Society http://www.dacs.org.uk/• BACS – The Bridgeman Artists’ Copyright Servicehttp://www.bridgemanart.com/about-bridgeman/information-for-artists-and-galleries• CARCC – Canadian Artists Representation Copyright Collectivehttp://www.carcc.ca/main-E.htmlResearching artists• MUSIP: Museum IP Yahoo group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/musip/• Social Security Death Index http://ssdi.rootsweb.ancestry.com/• CAA Obituaries http://www.collegeart.org/news/category/obituaries/• International Foundation for Art Research: catalogues raisonnéshttp://www.ifar.org/cat_rais.php• Catalogue Raisonne Association http://www.catalogueraisonne.org
Image and Licensing Sources• ARTstor Images for Academic Publishing http://bit.ly/10uzLjq• DPLA – Digital Public Library of America http://dp.la/• Bridgeman Art Library http://www.bridgemanart.com/• Bridgeman Education http://www.bridgemaneducation.com/• The Public Domain Review http://publicdomainreview.org/• Art Resource http://www.artres.com• Getty Images http://www.gettyimages.com/• Corbis Images http://www.corbisimages.com/• Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page• CCC (Copyright Clearance Center) http://www.copyright.com/