• Erikson’s ‘psychosocial’ term isderived from the two source words –namely psychological or the root,‘psycho’ relating to the mind, brain,personality etc. and ‘social’ orexternal relationships andenvironment, both at the heart ofErikson’s theory.
• Each stage involves a psychosocialcrisis of two opposing emotionalforces. A useful term is used byErikson for these opposing forcesis ‘contrary disposition’. Each crisisstage relates to a corresponding lifestage and its inherent challenges.
•Erikson used the word ‘syntonic’for the first-listed ‘positive’dispositions in each crisis and‘dystonic’ for the second-listeddispositions. Erikson connectedthem with the word ‘versus’.
•If a stage is manage well, we carryaway a certain virtue or psychosocialstrength which will help us true the restof the stages of our lives. Successfullypassing through each crisis involve‘achieving’ a ratio or balance betweenthe two opposing dispositions thatrepresent each crisis.
•On the other hand, if we don’t do so well,we may develop maladaptations andmalignancies, as well as endanger all ourfuture development. A malignancy is theworse of the two, and involves too little ofthe positive and too much of the negativeaspect of the task. A maladaptation is notquite as bad and involves too much of thepositive and too little of the negative.
The 8 Psychosocial Stages of DevelopmentSTAGE 1 STAGE I INFANCYToo much TRUST Too much MISTRUSTMALADAPTATION Psychosocial Crisis MALIGNANCY Sensory TRUST vs. MISTRUST Withdrawal maladjustment VIRTUE HOPE
STAGE 2 STAGE II EARLY CHILDHOODToo much AUTONOMY Too much SHAME Psychosocial Crisis MALADAPTATION MALIGNANCY AUTONOMY vs. SHAME Impulsiveness Compulsiveness and DOUBT VIRTUE DETERMINATION
STAGE 3 STAGE III EARLY CHILDHOODToo much INITIATIVE Too much GUILT MALADAPTATION Psychosocial Crisis MALIGNANCY Ruthlessness INITIATIVE vs. GUILT Inhibition VIRTUE COURAGE
STAGE 4 STAGE IV SCHOOL-AGE STAGEToo much INDUSTRY Too much INFERIORITY Psychosocial Crisis MALADAPTATION MALIGNANCY INDUSTRY vs. Virtuosity Inertia INFERIORITY VIRTUE COMPETENCY
STAGE 5 STAGE V ADOLESCENCEToo much EGO IDENTITY Too much ROLE CONFUSION Psychosocial Crisis MALADAPTATION MALIGNANCY EGO IDENTITY vs. ROLE Fanaticism Repudiation CONFUSION VIRTUE FIDELITY
STAGE 6 STAGE VI YOUNG ADULTHOODToo much INTIMACY Too much ISOLATION MALADAPTATION Psychosocial Crisis MALIGNANCY Promiscuity INTIMACY vs. Exclusion ISOLATION VIRTUE LOVE
STAGE 7 STAGE VII MIDDLE ADULTHOODToo much GENERATIVITY Too much STAGNATION MALADAPTATION Psychosocial Crisis MALIGNANCY Over Extension GENERATIVITY vs. Rejectivity STAGNATION VIRTUE CARE
STAGE 8 STAGE VIII LATE ADULTHOODToo much INTEGRITY Too much DESPAIR MALADAPTATION Psychosocial Crisis MALIGNANCY Presumption INTEGRITY vs. DESPAIR Disdain VIRTUE WISDOM