2012 10 27_ecrea_istanbul_wyss
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2012 10 27_ecrea_istanbul_wyss

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  • Ausgangspunkt der systemtheoretischen Analyse ist die funktionale Ausdifferenzierung der Gesellschaft in verschiedene Funktionssystem, die je auf eine spezifische Problemlösung spezialisiert sind. Die Funktionssysteme Politik, Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft, Kunst, Religion und Erziehung etc. erfüllen für die Gesellschaft exklusive Funktionen und erbringen füreinander wechselseitig Leistungen. Die funktionale Ausdifferenzierung hat zu komplexen gegenseitigen Abhängigkeits- und Beeinflussungsverhältnissen geführt. In dieser Situation ist jedes System genötigt, Erwartungen über seine Umwelt auszubilden und eben die anderen Systeme kommunikativ zu beeinflussen. Dafür braucht es einer ständigen Umweltbeobachtung, mit der ein einzelnes System überfordert wäre. Deshalb – so die These – hat sich ein eigenes Funktionssystem herausgebildet. Kohring schreibt diesem System plausibel die Funktion zu: „ Die Funktion in der Generierung und Kommunikation von Beobachtungen über die Interdependenz, d.h. wechselseitige Abhängigkeits- und Ergänzungsverhältnisse einer funktional ausdifferenzierten Gesellschaft“ Dieses System wird Öffentlichkeit genannt und Journalismus sein zentrales Leistungssystem. .

2012 10 27_ecrea_istanbul_wyss 2012 10 27_ecrea_istanbul_wyss Presentation Transcript

  • ECREA Conference 2012How audience constructions guide the wayjournalists workSaturday 27 OctoberJS 9, 10.30 - 12.00, Room A214Vinzenz Wyss, Mirco SanerZurich University of Applied Sciencesvinzenz.wyss@zhaw.chZürcher Fachhochschule 1
  • Self-observation & Synchronization of Society Politics Ecomomy Justice The public Journalism Science Art Religion Education Zürcher Fachhochschule 2
  • rules of resources of dominationsignification/legitimation facilities: schema / concepts: Knowledge about audience idea of audience steering & expectation of expectations controlling processes role perceptions recursive process to communicate / to exert to legitimate power
  • Input Quality Policy idea of the audience / audience conception Zürcher Fachhochschule
  • Audience constructions as… •citizens political •societal actors •evaluators of journalism quality journalistic •interpreting participants •fans cultural •producers of »user generated content« •mature consumers •target group („coin of exchange“) economic •aggregate of media contacts (Hasebrink 2008: 526; Kiefer 2001; Siegert 1998; Karmasin 1998 ; Bonfadelli/Meier 1996; Webster/Pahlen 1994)Zürcher Fachhochschule 5
  • Methodical approach (2010)• online survey among journalists• document analysis• observation• guided interviews 10 commercial broadcast stations (188 journalists)Zürcher Fachhochschule 6
  • Online survey that’s not the caseI have a clear target group that’s rather not the caseconception that’s rather the caseOur target group that’s the caseconception is led byaudience research I don’t knowThe preparation of aprogramme is guided by theaudience’s needThe audience’s point ofview is one for discussionduring feedbacks/reviewsWe communicate thequality policy to theaudienceAudience feedback istreated systematically Zürcher Fachhochschule 7
  • «I have a clear target group conception»• conception-gap (discrepancy) - expectation vs. reality - individual vs. editorial board• only 2 of 10 editorial teams have a detailed target group conceptionZürcher Fachhochschule 8
  • Online survey that’s not the caseI have a clear target group that’s rather not the caseconception that’s rather the caseOur target group that’s the caseconception is led byaudience research I don’t knowThe preparation of anprogramme is guided by theaudience’s needThe audience’s point ofview is one for discussionduring feedbacks/reviewsWe communicate thequality policy to theaudienceAudience feedback istreated systematically Zürcher Fachhochschule 9
  • «Our target group conception is led byaudience research»• all evaluated editorial teams use audience research• 6 of 10 do communicate findings about audience research to the staff (confidential data, «frustrating effects»)• findings hardly ever led to revised audience conceptions (2 of 10), because (quantitative) data are in some cases not convenient.Zürcher Fachhochschule 10
  • Online survey that’s not the caseI have a clear target group that’s rather not the caseconception that’s rather the caseOur target group that’s the caseconception is led byaudience research I don’t knowThe preparation of aprogramme is guided by theaudience’s needsThe audience’s point ofview is one for discussionduring feedbacks/reviewsWe communicate thequality policy to theaudienceAudience feedback istreated systematically Zürcher Fachhochschule 11
  • „Message wish“ as a steering instrumentThe listener should…experience / understand / know / recognize etc.why / that / if / how much etc.the protaginist / the hero / the victimslowly / fastly / successfully etc.helped / decided / supported etc.this decsion / the event / the victim etc.altough / while / despite…etc. Zürcher Fachhochschule
  • «The preparation of a programme isguided by the audience’s use»relevance interest needs use/profit-vague conceptions-primarily economical conceptions (target group, socialdemographics, etc.)Zürcher Fachhochschule 13
  • Audience constructions as… •citizens political •societal actors •evaluators of journalism quality journalistic •interpreting participants •fans cultural •producers of »user generated content« •mature consumers •target group („coin of exchange“) economic •aggregate of media contacts (Hasebrink 2008: 526; Kiefer 2001; Siegert 1998; Karmasin 1998 ; Bonfadelli/Meier 1996; Webster/Pahlen 1994)Zürcher Fachhochschule 14
  • Online survey that’s not the caseI have a clear target group that’s rather not the caseconception that’s rather the caseOur target group that’s the caseconception is led byaudience research I don’t knowThe preparation of aprogramme is guided by theaudience’s needThe audience’s point ofview is one for discussionduring feedbacks/reviewsWe communicate the Q policyquality policy to the communicatedaudience online: 3 of 10Audience feedback istreated systematically Zürcher Fachhochschule 15
  • The audience’s point of view is one fordiscussion during feedbacks/reviews• more implicit than explicit («that’s what the audience is interested in»)• representatives of the audience are hardly ever invited to editorial feedbacks / reviews the audience point of view is not institutionalisedZürcher Fachhochschule 16
  • Online survey that’s not the caseI have a clear target group that’s rather not the caseconception that’s rather the caseOur target group that’s the caseconception is led byaudience research I don’t knowThe preparation of aprogramme is guided by theaudience’s needThe audience’s point ofview is one for discussionduring feedbacks/reviewsWe communicate the Q policyquality policy to the communicatedaudience online: 3 of 10Audience feedback istreated systematically Zürcher Fachhochschule 17
  • Online survey that’s not the caseI have a clear target group that’s rather not the caseconception that’s rather the caseOur target group that’s the caseconception is led byaudience research I don’t knowThe preparation of aprogramme is guided by theaudience’s needThe audience’s point ofview is one for discussionduring feedbacks/reviewsWe communicate thequality policy to theaudience „matter for the boss“Audience feedback istreated systematically (3x) / no systematic Zürcher Fachhochschule treatment (10 of 10) 18
  • Conclusion• from an empirical point of view: hardly explicit and discursive audience conceptions (vague, diffuse)• from a theoretical point of view: Risk: references do not belong to the journalism system (domination of economical references) •from a practical point of view: missed opportunities concerning a consciously editorial quality management systemZürcher Fachhochschule 19