Computer architecture 12

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Computer architecture 12

  1. 1. Computer Architecture Grade 12
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This Term we focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>How the System Clock regulates the activities on the Motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>The general development and improvement of processors. </li></ul><ul><li>How the CPU, motherboard and peripherals communicate with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupts – how peripherals get the attention of your CPU… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Regulating activities on the Motherboard… The System Clock Quartz Crystal Overclocking Using BIOS settings in your “blue screen” boot-up menu…
  4. 4. CPU Speed and Performance <ul><li>Improved CPU speed and performance can be achieved by the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the number of Bits that can be handled simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the speed of processors. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache Memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving manufacture techniques and </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelining </li></ul>Pipelining?
  5. 5. Pipelining… Pipelining, a standard feature in RISC processors, is much like an assembly line.
  6. 6. The Smarter Approach… That said, Pipeline Processing is a method of processing where the processor is able to read new instructions from memory before the instruction that is being processed is completely processed…
  7. 7. Another example:
  8. 8. Problems with Pipelining Exercise… CISC and RISC CPU Designs
  9. 9. CISC and RISC Processors C omplex I nstruction S et C omputing R educed I nstruction S et C omputing Vs. Commands are same length as one clock pulse/ cycle (synchronized with the system clock) Commands are not synchronized – bad for pipelining… Extra space is used for logic and maths circuitry. Therefore much faster. More space is taken up on the chip for decoding complex instructions. Processing is faster Processing is slower Example: X = (4 + 3) + (4 +3) + (4 + 3) Harder for programmers Example: X = 4 x 3 Easy for programmers Simple instructions for single operations Complex Instructions for multiple operations RISC CISC
  10. 10. GRADE 12: Group Work <ul><li>Processing Techniques (single tasking, multi tasking etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>The OS – what makes up the OS, functions etcetera etcetera… </li></ul><ul><li>The Motherboard – Connections and Interfaces… </li></ul><ul><li>OS – Virtual Memory, memory mang., storage management… </li></ul><ul><li>Translating programs into machine code … </li></ul><ul><li>(define: Translators, assemblers, Compilers, interpreterators… ) </li></ul>

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