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Facial Bones09slideshate

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  • 1. Facial, Nasal Bones
    • Facial, Nasal Bones
    • A. Waters (Facial)
    • B. Lateral (Nasal)
    • C. Rhese (Orbit)
    • D. Optic (Foramen)
    • E. Schuller (Zygoma)
  • 2. Anatomy: Facial Bones
    • 14 in number
      • R and L nasal
      • R and L lacrimal
      • R and L maxillary
      • R and L zygomatic
      • R and L palantine
      • R and L inferior nasal conchae
      • Vomer
      • Mandible
  • 3. Anatomy: Facial Bones Anterior facial bones
  • 4. Nasal Bones
    • Two small, thin bones
    • Vary in size and shape in individuals
    • Form superior bony wall of nasal cavity
      • Commonly called “ bridge of nose ”
    • Articulations
      • With each other in MSP
      • Superior = frontal bone
      • Posterosuperior = perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
      • On each lateral side = maxillae
  • 5. Lacrimal Bones
    • The two smallest bones in the skull
    • Located in anterior part of medial wall of orbits between labyrinth of ethmoid and maxilla
    • Each bone contains a lacrimal foramen through which the tear duct passes
    • Articulations
      • Frontal
      • Ethmoid
      • Maxilla
      • Inferior nasal concha
  • 6. Zygomatic Bones
    • Form prominence of cheeks
    • Form part of side wall and floor of orbits
    • Temporal process extends posteriorly to join zygomatic process of temporal bone
    • Zygomatic arch = formed by union of temporal process of zygoma and zygomatic process of temporal bone
  • 7. Zygomatic Bones
    • Articulations
      • Superior = frontal bone
      • Lateral = zygomatic process of temporal bone
      • Anterior = maxilla
      • Posterior = sphenoid
  • 8. Anatomy: Facial Bones Lateral aspect of facial bones
  • 9. Palantine Bones
    • Two L-shaped bones composed of vertical and horizontal plates
    • Horizontal plates articulate with maxillae to complete the posterior fourth of bony palate (roof of mouth)
    • Vertical portions extend upward between maxillae and pterygoid processes of sphenoid in posterior nasal cavity
  • 10. Palantine Bones
    • Superior tips of vertical plates assist in forming posteromedial orbit
  • 11. Inferior Nasal Conchae
    • Extend diagonally and inferiorly from lateral walls of nasal cavity at its lower third
    • Long, narrow, very thin bones with a lateral curl
      • Gives scroll-like appearance
    • Upper two nasal conchae are processes of ethmoid bone
  • 12. Orbits
    • Each is comprised of seven bones
      • Frontal
      • Sphenoid
      • Ethmoid
      • Maxilla
      • Zygoma
      • Lacrimal
      • Palatine
  • 13. Anatomy: Orbit Anterior aspect of orbit
  • 14. Radiographic Procedures Essential Projections of the Facial Bones Slide
  • 15. Essential Projections: Facial Bones
    • Lateral
    • Parietoacanthial (Waters)
    • Acanthioparietal (reverse Waters)
  • 16. Lateral Facial Bones
    • Patient position
      • Semiprone or seated in upright anterior oblique
    • Part position
      • MSP of head parallel with IR
      • IPL perpendicular to IR
      • IOML parallel with transverse axis of IR
  • 17. Lateral Facial Bones
    • CR
      • Perpendicular to IR center
      • Enters patient on lateral surface of zygomatic bone halfway between outer canthus and EAM
  • 18. Parietoacanthial (Waters) Facial Bones
    • Patient position
      • Prone or seated upright
      • Center MSP to midline of upright Bucky
  • 19. Parietoacanthial (Waters) Facial Bones
    • Part position
      • Rest head on tip of extended chin
      • Place OML to form 37-degree angle with plane of IR
      • MML perpendicular to IR
      • MSP perpendicular to IR
      • Center IR to level of acanthion
  • 20. Parietoacanthial (Waters) Facial Bones
    • CR
      • Perpendicular to exit acanthion
  • 21. Acanthioparietal (Reverse Waters) Facial Bones
    • Patient position
      • Supine
      • MSP centered to midline of grid
    • Part position
      • Extend chin and neck to place OML at a 37-degree angle with the plane of the IR
      • MML almost perpendicular to IR plane
      • MSP perpendicular to IR plane
  • 22. Acanthioparietal (Reverse Waters) Facial Bones
    • CR
      • Perpendicular to enter acanthion
      • Center IR and CR
  • 23. Essential Projections: Nasal Bones
    • Lateral
  • 24. Lateral Nasal Bones
    • Patient position
      • Semiprone
      • MSP of head horizontal
    • Part position
      • MSP parallel with tabletop
      • IPL perpendicular to tabletop
      • IOML is parallel with transverse axis of IR
  • 25. Lateral Nasal Bones
    • CR
      • Perpendicular to bridge of nose
      • Enters at a point ½  (1.3 cm) distal to nasion
      • Close collimation
  • 26. Essential Projections: Zygomatic Arches
    • Submentovertical
    • Tangential
    • AP Axial (modified Towne)
  • 27. Submentovertical Zygomatic Arches
    • Patient position
      • Seated upright or supine
      • If supine, elevate thorax
    • Part position
      • Hyperextend neck to place IOML parallel with IR plane
      • Rest head on vertex
      • MSP perpendicular to IR plane
  • 28. Submentovertical Zygomatic Arches
    • CR
      • Perpendicular to IOML
      • Enters MSP of throat at level 1  (2.5 cm) posterior to outer canthi
      • Center IR and CR
  • 29. Tangential Zygomatic Arches
    • Patient position
      • Seated upright with back against vertical Bucky
      • Supine with trunk elevated
  • 30. Tangential Zygomatic Arches
    • Part position
      • Hyperextend neck and rest head on vertex
      • IOML as parallel with IR plane as possible
      • Rotate MSP of head 15 degrees toward side being examined
      • Tilt top of head 15 degrees away from side being examined
      • Center zygomatic arch to IR
  • 31. Tangential Zygomatic Arches
    • CR
      • Perpendicular to IOML
      • Centered to zygomatic arch at a point 1  (2.5 cm) posterior to outer canthus
      • Centered to IR
  • 32. AP Axial (Modified Towne) Zygomatic Arches
    • Patient position
      • Seated upright or supine
    • Part position
      • MSP perpendicular to midline of grid
      • OML perpendicular to IR plane
        • May use IOML and increase CR angle
  • 33. AP Axial (Modified Towne) Zygomatic Arches
    • CR
      • Angled 30 degrees caudad to enter glabella about 1  (2.5 cm) above nasion
      • If IOML used, angle 37 degrees caudad
      • Center IR and CR
  • 34. Lateral Facial Bones
    • All facial bones in their entirety
    • Zygomatic bone in center
    • Almost perfectly superimposed mandibular rami
    • Superimposed orbital roofs
    • No rotation of sella turcica
  • 35. Lateral Facial Bones
  • 36. Parietoacanthial (Waters) Facial Bones
    • Distance between lateral border of skull and orbit equal on both sides
    • Petrous ridges projected immediately below maxillary sinuses
  • 37. Parietoacanthial (Waters) Facial Bones
  • 38. Acanthioparietal (Reverse Waters) Facial Bones
    • Distance between lateral border of skull and orbit equal on both sides
    • Petrous ridges projected immediately below maxillary sinuses
  • 39. Acanthioparietal (Reverse Waters) Facial Bones
  • 40. Lateral Nasal Bones
    • No rotation of nasal bone and soft tissue
    • Anterior nasal spine and frontonasal suture
  • 41. Lateral Nasal Bones
  • 42. Submentovertical Zygomatic Arches
    • Zygomatic arches free from overlying structures
    • Zygomatic arches symmetric and without foreshortening
    • No rotation of head
  • 43. Submentovertical Zygomatic Arches
  • 44. Tangential Zygomatic Arches
    • Zygomatic arches free from overlying structures
    • Zygomatic arch not overexposed
  • 45. Tangential Zygomatic Arches
  • 46. AP Axial (Modified Towne) Zygomatic Arches
    • No overlap of zygomatic arches by mandible
    • No rotation evident
      • Arches symmetric
    • Zygomatic arches projected lateral to mandibular rami
  • 47. AP Axial (Modified Towne) Zygomatic Arches
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