Vehicle security system final report

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  • 1. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The system uses the latest fingerprint ID scan technology to make sure only authorized drivers with enrolled fingerprints can start the vehicle. The primary security system uses a combination of an enrolled Fingerprint and the vehicle key to enable the vehicle ignition. It means that even if someone gets a hold of user's keys the vehicle is still safeguarded from theft and misuse. The system also allows user to send text commands from his mobile phone to the unit to receive important status messages or temporarily disable certain features. 1.1 Motivation The method that is selected for fingerprint matching was first discovered by Sir Francis Galton. In 1888 he observed that fingerprints are rich in details also called minutiae in form of discontinuities in ridges. He also noticed that position of those minutiae doesn’t change over the time. Therefore minutiae matching are a good way to establish if two fingerprints are from the same person or not. Automatization of the fingerprint recognition process turned out to be success in forensic applications. Achievements made in forensic area expanded the usage of the automatic fingerprint recognition into the civilian applications. Fingerprints have remarkable permanency and individuality over the time. The observations showed that the fingerprints offer more secure and reliable person identification than keys, passwords or id-cards can provide. Maybe the neighbourhood kids keep hitting user's vehicle while playing ball, an SMS message will be instantly sent to admin phone telling that something hit the vehicle. With this handy feature user won’t ever have to wonder where those dings and dents magically appear from, user will literally be able to catch them while they are happening. The system also allows user to send text commands from his mobile phone to the unit to receive important status messages or temporarily disable certain features. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 1
  • 2. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM 1.2 Objective The objective is to implement fingerprint recognition algorithm. The Region of Interest (ROI) for each fingerprint image is extracted after enhancing its quality. The concept of Crossing Number is used to extract the minutia, followed by false minutiae elimination. An alignment based matching algorithm is then used for minutia matching. 1.3 Report Organization At the very first this reports explores a detailed idea about the topic and the related information. The overall concern of the work is explained.  Chapter 1 Introduces basic concept of Fingerprint technology. The Motivation behind the area of interest and objectives also has been explained.  Chapter 2 Discusses the problems of stealing of vehicles and various techniques. This chapter reviews number of vehicles stolen year by year .  Chapter 3 Reviews the system development of vehicle security system. It gives the brief idea about Fingerprint technology, GSM module, Microcontroller 16X2 LCD, Relay driver,RS232, Power supply.  Chapter 4 Presents implementation of circuit description of power supply and proposed system.  Chapter 5 Explores simulators used for implementation of vehicle security system like EMBEDDED ‘C’, PROTEUS, EAGLE and also reviews its features.  Chapter 6 Conclusion.  Chapter 7 Summary.  Chapter 8 References. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 2
  • 3. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Chapter 2 LITERATURE SURVEY Motor vehicle theft (sometimes referred to as grand theft auto by the media and police departments in the US) is the criminal act of stealing or attempting to steal a car. Nationwide in the US in 2005, there were an estimated 1.2 million motor vehicle thefts, or approximately 416.7 motor vehicles stolen for every 100,000 inhabitants. Property losses due to motor vehicle theft in 2005 were estimated at $7.6 billion. The most recent statistics, for 2009, show an estimated 794,616 thefts of motor vehicles nationwide, representing property losses of nearly $5.2 billion. Some methods used by criminals to steal motor vehicles include:  Theft of an unattended vehicle without key(s): The removal of a parked vehicle either by breaking and entry, followed by hotwiring or other tampering methods to start the vehicle, or else towing.  Theft with access to keys: Known in some places as "Taken Without Owner's Consent (TWOC)". The unauthorized use of a vehicle in which the owner has allowed the driver to have possession of or easy access to the keys.  Opportunistic theft: The removal of a vehicle that the owner or operator has left unattended with the keys visibly present, sometimes idling.  Carjacking: Refers to the taking of a vehicle by force or threat of force from its owner or operator. In most places, this is the most serious form of theft, since assault also occurs. In some car jackings, the operators and passengers are forced from the vehicle while the thief drives it away him/herself, while in other incidents, the operator and/or passenger(s) are forced to remain in the vehicle as hostages.  Fraudulent theft: Illegal acquisition of a vehicle from a seller through fraudulent transfer of funds that the seller will ultimately not receive (such as by identity theft or the use of a counterfeit cashier's check). Many vehicles stolen in this manner are resold quickly thereafter. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 3
  • 4. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Fig.2.1 Percentage of vehicle robbed in year 2009-2010 In Thailand, the most frequently stolen vehicles are Toyota and Nissan cars, Isuzu pickup trucks, Honda cars, and Honda motorcycles (2007 data). In Malaysia, Selangor had the highest number of motor vehicle thefts, ahead of Kuala Lumpur and Johor. Since 2005, Proton models are the most frequently stolen vehicles in the country, with Proton Wira being the highest, followed by the Proton Waja and the Proton Perdana. An anti-theft system is any device or method used to prevent or deter the unauthorized appropriation of items considered valuable. Theft is one of the most common and oldest criminal behaviours. From the invention of the first lock and key to the introduction of RFID tags and biometric identification, anti-theft systems have evolved to match the introduction of new inventions to society and the resulting theft of them by others. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 4
  • 5. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM There are various methods of prevention to reduce the likelihood of a vehicle getting stolen. These include physical barriers, which make the effort of stealing the vehicle more difficult. Some of these include:  Devices used to lock a part of the vehicle necessary in its operation, such as the wheel, steering wheel or brake pedal. A popular steering wheel lock is The Club.  Immobilizers, allowing the vehicle to start only if a key containing the correct chip is present in the ignition. These work by locking the steering wheel and disabling the ignition.  Chances of theft can also be reduced with various deterrents, which give the impression to the thief that s/he is more likely to get caught if the vehicle is stolen. These include:  Car alarm systems that are triggered if a breaking and entry into the vehicle occurs  Microdot identification tags which allow individual parts of a vehicle to be identified  Kill switch circuits are designed to frustrate or slow down the efforts of a determined car thief. Kill switches are often located between crucial parts of the starting system, between the battery source and the coil, or the fuel pump. A car cannot start without first flipping these kill switches to closed position. Savvy car owners hide these kill switches in obscured areas, under the dashboard, beneath the seat, behind a chair, etc.  Signage on windows warning of the presence of other deterrents, sometimes in absence of the actual deterrents.  VIN etching The ultimate solution in vehicle theft prevention, one complete system that has a fingerprint ignition lock, dual band GSM (900/1800) messaging system. With this one vehicle security system user can have total piece of mind knowing that his vehicle isn’t going anywhere it shouldn’t be. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 5
  • 6. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Chapter 3 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig.3.1 Block Diagram of the system “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 6
  • 7. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM 3.1.1 ALGORITHM  Firstly user will insert the key; the system will automatically detect the key insertion.  User will be asked to keep thumb on the fingerprint scanner.  System will scan the finger & will verify with already stored-enrolled one.  User can enrol as many no. of fingers as he/she wants.  After verification ignition will activate automatically.  If the finger is invalid then automatically one SMS will be transferred to the registered mobile no.  If the car is parked then the system will monitor the body of the car for any vibration.  If found then the system will send SMS to the owner.  Even if the car comes in motion in the parking mode; SMS will be delivered. 3.1.2 FINGER PRINT MODULE Fingerprint Sensing There are two primary methods of capturing a fingerprint image: inked (off-line) and live scan (ink-less). An inked fingerprint image is typically acquired in the following way: a trained professional obtains an impression of an inked finger on a paper and the impression is then scanned using a flat bed document scanner. The live scan fingerprint is a collective term for a fingerprint image directly obtained from the finger without the intermediate step of getting an impression on a paper. Acquisition of inked fingerprints is cumbersome; in the context of an identity authentication system, it is both infeasible and socially unacceptable. The most popular technology to obtain a live-scan fingerprint image is based on optical frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) concept. When a finger is placed on one side of a glass platen (prism), ridges of the finger are in contact with the platen, while the valleys of the finger are not in contact with the platen. The rest of the imaging system essentially consists of an assembly of an LED light source and a CCD placed on the other side of the glass platen. The laser light source “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 7
  • 8. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM illuminates the glass at a certain angle and the camera is placed such that it can capture the laser light reflected from the glass. The light incident on the platen at the glass surface touched by the ridges is randomly scattered while the light incident at the glass surface corresponding to valleys suffers total internal reflection. Consequently, portions of the image formed on the imaging plane of the CCD corresponding to ridges is dark and those corresponding to valleys is bright. More recently, capacitance-based solid state live-scan fingerprint sensors are gaining popularity since they are very small in size and hold promise of becoming inexpensive in the near future. A capacitance-based fingerprint sensor essentially consists of an array of electrodes. The fingerprint skin acts as the other electrode, thereby, forming a miniature capacitor. The capacitance due to the ridges is higher than those formed by valleys. This differential capacitance is the basis of operation of a capacitance-based solid state sensor6 Fingerprint Representation Fingerprint representations are of two types: local and global. Major representations of the local information in fingerprints are based on the entire image, finger ridges, pores on the ridges, or salient features derived from the ridges. Representations predominantly based on ridge endings or bifurcations (collectively known as minutiae (see Figure 1) are the most common, primarily due to the following reasons: (i) minutiae capture much of the individual information, (ii) minutiae-based representations are storage efficient, and (iii) minutiae detection is relatively robust to various sources of fingerprint degradation. Typically, minutiae-based representations rely on locations of the minutiae and the directions of ridges at the minutiae location. Some global representations include information about locations of critical points (e.g., core and delta) in a fingerprint. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 8
  • 9. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Fig.3.2 Ridge ending and bifurcation. Feature Extraction: A feature extractor finds the ridge endings and ridge bifurcations from the input fingerprint images. If ridges can be perfectly located in an input fingerprint image, then minutiae extraction is just a trivial task of extracting singular points in a thinned ridge map. However, in practice, it is not always possible to obtain a perfect ridge map. The performance of currently available minutiae extraction algorithms depends heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images. Due to a number of factors (aberrant formations of epidermal ridges of fingerprints, postnatal marks, occupational marks, problems with acquisition devices, etc.), fingerprint images may not always have well-defined ridge structures. A reliable minutiae extraction algorithm is critical to the performance of an automatic identity authentication system using fingerprints. The overall flowchart of a typical algorithm7,8 is depicted in Figure 2. It mainly consists of three components: (i) Orientation field estimation, (ii) ridge extraction, and (iii) minutiae extraction and post processing. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 9
  • 10. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Fig.3.3 Flow of the minutiae extraction Orientation Estimation The orientation field of a fingerprint image represents the directionality of ridges in the fingerprint image. It plays a very important role in fingerprint image analysis. A number of methods have been proposed to estimate the orientation field of fingerprint images. Fingerprint image is typically divided into a number of non-overlapping blocks (e.g., 32 x 32 pixels) and an orientation representative of the ridges in the block is assigned to the block based on an analysis of grayscale gradients in the block. The block orientation could be determined from the pixel gradient orientations based on, say, averaging, voting, or optimization. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 10
  • 11. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Segmentation It is important to localize the portions of fingerprint image depicting the finger (foreground). The simplest approaches segment the foreground by global or adaptive thresholding. A novel and reliable approach to segmentation exploits the fact that there is significant difference in the magnitudes of variance in the gray levels along and across the flow of a fingerprint ridge. Typically, block size for variance computation spans 1-2 inter-ridge distance.  Ridge Detection: The approaches to ridge detection use either simple or adaptive thresholding. These approaches may not work for noisy and low contrast portions of the image. An important property of the ridges in a fingerprint image is that the gray level values on ridges attain their local maxima along a direction normal to the local ridge orientation. Pixels can be identified to be ridge pixels based on this property. The extracted ridges may be thinned/cleaned using standard thinning and connected component algorithms.  Minutiae Detection: Once the thinned ridge map is available, the ridge pixels with three ridge pixel neighbors are identified as ridge bifurcations and those with one ridge pixel neighbor identified as ridge endings. However, all the minutia thus detected are not genuine due to image processing artifacts and the noise in the fingerprint image.  Post processing: In this stage, typically, genuine minutiae are gleaned from the extracted minutiae using a number of heuristics. For instance, too many minutiae in a small neighborhood may indicate noise and they could be discarded. Very close ridge endings oriented anti-parallel to each other may indicate spurious minutia generated by a break in the ridge due either to poor contrast or a cut in the finger. Two very closely located bifurcations sharing a common short ridge often suggest extraneous minutia generated by bridging of adjacent ridges as a result of dirt or image processing artifacts. Minutiae Extraction The most commonly employed method of minutiae extraction is the Crossing Number (CN) concept. This method involves the use of the skeleton image where “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 11
  • 12. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM the ridge flow pattern is eight-connected. The minutiae are extracted by scanning the local neighborhood of each ridge pixel in the image using a 3 x 3 window. The CN value is then computed, which is defined as half the sum of the differences between pairs of adjacent pixels in the eight-neighborhood. Using the properties of the CN as shown in Table 1, the ridge pixel can then be classified as a ridge ending, bifurcation or non-minutiae point. For example, a ridge pixel with a CN of one corresponds to a ridge ending, and a CN of three corresponds to a bifurcation. After the CN for a ridge pixel has been computed, the pixel can then be classified according to the property of its CN value. As shown in Figure 3, ridge pixel with a CN of one corresponds to a ridge ending, and a CN of three corresponds to a bifurcation. For each extracted minutiae point, the following information is recorded:  x and y coordinates,  orientation of the associated ridge segment, and  type of minutiae (ridge ending or bifurcation). Fig.3.4 Examples of a ridge ending and bifurcation pixel. (a) A Crossing Number of one corresponds to a ridge ending pixel. (b) A Crossing Number of three corresponds to a bifurcation pixel. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 12
  • 13. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Fingerprint Matching Given two (input and template) sets of features originating from two fingerprints, the objective of the feature matching system is to determine whether or not the prints represent the same finger. Fingerprint matching has been approached from several different strategies, like image-based, ridge pattern-based, and point (minutiae) pattern-based fingerprint representations. There also exist graph-based schemes for fingerprint matching. Image-based matching may not tolerate large amounts of non-linear distortion in the fingerprint ridge structures. Matchers critically relying on extraction of ridges or their connectivity information may display drastic performance degradation with a deterioration in the quality of the input fingerprints. Therefore, point pattern matching (minutiae matching) approach facilitates the design of a robust, simple, and fast verification algorithm while maintaining a small template size. The matching phase typically defines the similarity (distance) metric between two fingerprint representations and determines whether a given pair of representations is captured from the same finger (mated pair) based on whether this quantified similarity is greater (less) than a certain (predetermined) threshold. The similarity metric is based on the concept of correspondence in minutiae-based matching. A minutiae in the input fingerprint and a minutiae in the template fingerprint are said to be corresponding if they represent the identical minutiae scanned from the same finger. Before the fingerprint representations could be matched, most minutiabased matchers first transform (register) the input and template fingerprint features into a common frame of reference. The registration essentially involves alignment based on rotation/translation and may optionally include scaling. The parameters of alignment are typically estimated either from (i) singular points in the fingerprints, e.g., core and delta locations; (ii) pose clustering based on minutia distribution; or (iii) any other landmark features. For example, Jain et al use a rotation/translation estimation method based on properties of ridge segment associated with ridge ending minutiae. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 13
  • 14. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM There are two major challenges involved in determinating the correspondence between two aligned fingerprint representations: (i) dirt/leftover smudges on the sensing device and the presence of scratches/cuts on the finger either introduce spurious minutiae or obliterate the genuine minutiae; (ii) variations in the area of finger being imaged and its pressure on the sensing device affect the number of genuine minutiae captured and introduce displacements of the minutiae from their “true” locations due to elastic distortion of the fingerprint skin. Consequently, a fingerprint matcher should not only assume that the input fingerprint is a transformed template fingerprint by a similarity transformation (rotation, translation, and scale), but it should also tolerate both spurious minutiae as well as missing genuine minutiae and accommodate perturbations of minutiae from their true locations. The adaptive elastic string matching algorithm summarized in this chapter uses three attributes of the aligned minutiae for matching: its distance from the reference minutiae (radius), angle subtended to the reference minutiae (radial angle), and local direction of the associated ridge (minutiae direction). The algorithm initiates the matching by first representing the aligned input (template) minutiae as an input (template) minutiae string. The string representation is obtained by imposing a linear ordering based on radial angles and radii. The resulting input and template minutiae strings are matched using an inexact string matching algorithm to establish the correspondence. The inexact string matching algorithm essentially transforms (edits) the input string to template string and the number of edit operations is considered as a metric of the dissimilarity between the strings. While permitted edit operators model the impression variations in a representation of a finger (deletion of the genuine minutiae, insertion of spurious minutiae, and perturbation of the minutiae), the penalty associated with each edit operator models the likelihood of that edit. The sum of penalties of all the edits (edit distance) defines the similarity between the input and template minutiae strings. Among several possible sets of edits that permit the transformation of the input minutiae string into the reference minutiae string, the string matching algorithm chooses the transform associated with the minimum cost based on dynamic programming. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 14
  • 15. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM The algorithm tentatively considers a candidate (aligned) input and a candidate template minutiae in the input and template minutiae string to be a mismatch if their attributes are not within a tolerance window (see Figure 6) and penalizes them for deletion/insertion edit. If the attributes are within the tolerance window, the amount of penalty associated with the tentative match is proportional to the disparity in the values of the attributes in the minutiae. The algorithm accommodates for the elastic distortion by adaptively adjusting the parameters of the tolerance window based on the most recent successful tentative match. The tentative matches (and correspondences) are accepted if the edit distance for those correspondences is smaller than any other correspondences. Fig.3.5 Bounding box and its adjustment. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 15
  • 16. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Figure 3.6 shows the results of applying the matching algorithm to an input and a template minutiae set pair. The outcome of the matching process is defined by a matching score. Matching score is determined from the number of mated minutia from the correspondences (see Figure 3.7) associated with the minimum cost of matching input and template minutiae string. The raw matching score is normalized by the total number of minutia in the input and template fingerprint representations and is used for deciding whether input and template fingerprints are mates. The higher the normalized score, the larger the likelihood that the test and template fingerprints are the scans of the same finger. Fig3.6 Results of applying the matching algorithm to an input minutiae set and a template; (a) input minutiae set; (b) template minutiae set; (c) alignment result based on the minutiae marked with green circles; (d) matching result where template minutiae and their correspondences are connected by green lines. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 16
  • 17. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Fig.3.7 Minutiae Correspondences 3.1.3 GSM TECHNOLOGY Fig.3.8 GSM Module SIM 300 “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 17
  • 18. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Features  Supply voltage : 12V DC.  Baud rate : 9600.  Data bits : 8.  SMS storage : SIM card.  Operating temperature : -20 to 55 ℃ .  GPRS data : Uplink transfer 42.8kbps. Downlink transfer 85.6kbps.  External antenna : Connected via 50 ohm antenna connector. 1. Baud rate notice SIM300, SIM300C, SIM306, SIM300D, SIM508 SIM340, SIM340C, SIM340D, SIM548 baud rate is auto-bauding, AT+IPR=0 is default configuration, when module is shipped from SIMCom, module does not feedback any information. Suggest you fix it: AT+IPR=9600;&w as your request. If you restart module, it will feedback as SIM100S32-E old module: RDY +CFUN: 1 etc And you can configure module by some AT command, like AT, ATI, AT+CSQ, AT+CREG?, AT+CGATT?, etc. And after you get CALL READY from SIM300, you can setup SMS or phone etc AT as your need. 2. How to call and answer a coming call? Phone 010-65802113 call SIM300( 13910000111), then you can get Ring from hyper terminal software, or call-ring from earphone, ATA to answer this coming call, ATH to hang up it, ATD01065802113; SIM300 dials 010-65802113, Use AT+VTS=”8,8,8” to dial external phone number 888. 3. How to display incoming calling number? How to get SIM300’s SIM card number? AT+CLIP=1 // check dialed SIM card open this function OK RING +CLIP: "01065802113",129 // incoming call number01065802113 OK ATH Get SIM card number: AT+CPBS="ON" OK AT+CPBW=1,"139100001111" OK AT&W OK AT+CNUM +CNUM: "","139100001111",129,7,4 4. How to start a time-counter when answering a call? “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 18
  • 19. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM AT+COLP=1 // setup to count time when receive call OK ATD01065802116; // awaiting, but not receive call, not start to open timer OK // answer this call, it start to count time ATH 5. How to configure voice channel? AT+CHFA=1 // change handset to earphone(Switched aux audio), OK // default is handset(main audio, 0) AT+CHFA=0 // main audio For aux audio channel ( earphone) Echo noise suppression AT+ECHO=20000,5,15,1 // normal AT+ECHO=20500,4,15,1 // If some Echo exist, do as this line AT+ECHO=19500,6,15,1 // If can’t hear pear-side voice For main audio channel ( handset) Echo noise suppression AT+ECHO=30000,5,10,0 // normal AT+ECHO=30500,4,10,1 // If some Echo exist, do as this line AT+ECHO=29500,6,10,1 // If can’t hear pear-side voice AT+CMIC? // Microphone volume +CMIC:2,2 OK AT+CRSL? // Ring volume +CRSL: 100 OK AT+SIDET? // Side volume +SIDET: 4096 OK 6. How to send English text SMS to 13910000112? AT+CMGF=1 OK AT+CSCS=”GSM” OK AT+CMGS=”13910000112” > Hello world // then Ctrl Z at the same time +CMGS: 158 // finished 7. How to send PDU mode Chinese text SMS? AT+CMGF=0 OK AT+CSCS=”UCS2” AT+CMGS=019 // 15+4 > 0011000D91683119000011f2000801044f60597d // Ctrl Z // 13910000112 您好 +CMGS: 159 8. How to send Chinese text SMS? AT+CMGF=1 OK AT+CSCS=”UCS2” OK AT+CSMP=17,167,0,24 OK AT+CMGS= "00310033003900310030003000300030003100310032" > 67688559660e // send 杨蕙明 to 13910000112 +CMGS: 160 9. How to read a SMS, delete a SMS? AT+CMGF=1 OK AT+CMGR=2+CMGR:"REC UNREAD","+8613911000147", ,"07/03/01,11:20:28+32" test // content is test AT+CMGD=2 OK AT+CMGR=2 OK // means it is empty 10. How to check if pear-side get a sent SMS? AT+CSMP=49,167,0,241 // 49: 17 is default, // 241: if 24,25 for UCS2, // 241: if 240 pear-side can only see, can not save this SMS, // 241: if 241 pear-side can “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 19
  • 20. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM save it AT+CNMI=2,1,2,1,0 AT+CMGF=1 OK AT+CSCS=”GSM” OK AT+CMGS=”13910000112” > Hello world // then Ctrl Z at the same time +CMGS: 161 // finished +CDS:,36,"+8613911000147",145,"07/03/01,11:10:43+32","07 /03/01,11:10:43+32",0,2,1,2,1,0 11. Common AT command ( including GSM, GPRS AT) AT // at OK ATI SIMCOM_Ltd SIMCOM_SIM300 Revision: 1008B10SIM300S32_(SPANSION)SIMCOM_Ltd AT+CSQ // How to check RF signal strength +CSQ: 29,0 OK AT+CREG? +CREG: 0,1 // GSM network is OK OK AT+CGATT? +CGATT: 1 // GPRS is active, 0: de-active OK AT+CIPSTATUS // check GPRS status STATE: CONNECT OK AT+CIPDPDP=1,10,3 // if antenna is turn off OK +PDP: DEACT // after about 3 minutes, GPRS is de-active AT+CIPSHUT // Close GPRS AT+CGATT=0 // Close GPRS AT+CFUN=0,1 // Close GPRS AT+CPOWD=1 // Close GPRS NORMAL POWER DOWN, AT+CPIN? // How to check SIM card +CPIN: READY RDY +SCKS:0 // means: SIM card is not inserted AT+GSN // IMEI number of SIM300 module 355117001512899 OK 3.1.4 RS 232 CONNECTOR Fig 3.9 Pin description of RS 232 and signals. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 20
  • 21. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Features  A selection of RS232, 3.3V or 5V UART signal levels.  128 byte transmit buffer, 256 byte receive buffer  Serial port speed up to 1Mbps (RS232 levels) or 3Mbps  Parity: None, Even, Odd  Data bits: 7, 8  Operating temperature of -40°C to +85°C.  USB Interface 12Mbps USB 2.0. Fig 3.10 Interfacing of RS 232 with PC. RS-232 Maximum Cable Length The maximum cable length for RS-232 is 50ft, but in practice depends on baud rate, cable specific capacitance and ambient noise. The table below contains some rules-of-thumb from experiments done by Texas Instruments years ago. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 21
  • 22. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Baud rate Maximum range / cable length 19200 50ft 9600 500ft 4800 1000ft 2400 3000ft Table 3.1 Baud rate required for maximum cable length. 3.1.5 MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52) A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable I/O peripherals. Fig3.11 Microcontroller AT89S52 The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 22
  • 23. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. Features  Compatible with MCS51 Products  8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory  Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles  4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range  Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz  Three-level Program Memory Lock  256 x 8-bit Internal RAM  32 Programmable I/O Lines  Three 16-bit Timer/Counters  Eight Interrupt Sources  Full Duplex UART Serial Channel  Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes  Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode  Watchdog Timer  Dual Data Pointer  Power-off Flag  Fast Programming Time  Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode) “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 23
  • 24. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Pin Description  VCC Supply voltage.  GND Ground.  Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed loworder address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.  Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.  Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 24
  • 25. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.  Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown below Port Pin Alternate Functions: P3.0 RXD Serial input port P3.1 TXD Serial output port P3.2 INT0 External interrupt 0 P3.3 INT1 External interrupt 1 P3.4 T0 Timer 0 external input P3.5 T1 Timer 0 external input P3.6 WR External data memory write strobe P3.7 RD External data memory write strobe Table 3.2 Pin configuration table of port 3 of AT89S52  RST A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 25
  • 26. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM  ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.  PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.  EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.  XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.  XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.  Watchdog Timer (One-time Enabled with Reset-out) The WDT is intended as a recovery method in situations where the CPU may be subjected to software upsets. The WDT consists of a 14-bit counter and the Watchdog Timer Reset (WDTRST) SFR. The WDT is defaulted to disable from exiting reset. To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 26
  • 27. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H). When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running. The WDT timeout period is dependent on the external clock frequency. There is no way to disable the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or WDT overflow reset). When WDT over-flows, it will drive an output RESET HIGH pulse at the RST pin.  Using the WDT To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H). When the WDT is enabled, the user needs to service it by writing 01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST to avoid a WDT overflow. The 14bit counter overflows when it reaches 16383 (3FFFH), and this will reset the device. When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running. This means the user must reset the WDT at least every 16383 machine cycles. To reset the WDT the user must write 01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST. WDTRST is a write-only register. The WDT counter cannot be read or written. When WDT overflows, it will generate an output RESET pulse at the RST pin. The RESET pulse dura-tion is 98xTOSC, where TOSC = 1/FOSC. To make the best use of the WDT, it should be serviced in those sections of code that will periodically be executed within the time required to prevent a WDT reset. 3.1.6 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Liquid crystal Display (LCD) displays temperature of the measured element, which is calculated by the microcontroller. CMOS technology makes the device ideal for application in hand held, portable and other battery instruction with low power consumption. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 27
  • 28. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Features  Drive method: 1/16 duty cycle  Display size: 16 character * 2 lines  Character structure: 5*8 dots.  Display data RAM: 80 characters (80*8 bits)  Character generate ROM: 192 characters  Character generate RAM: 8 characters (64*8 bits)  Both display data and character generator RAMs can be read from MPU.  Internal automatic reset circuit at power ON.  Built in oscillator circuit. Fig 3.12 LCD display 16X2 “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 28
  • 29. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM JP1/JP14 Pins 1 – 8 Description JP1/JP14 Pins 9 -16 Description Pin1 Ground Pin9 D2 (Not Used) Pin2 VCC (+5) Pin10 D3 (Not Used) Pin3 Contrast Pin11 D4 Pin4 Data/Command (R/S) Pin12 D5 Pin5 Read/Write (W) Pin13 D6 Pin6 Enable (E1) Pin14 D7 Pin7 D0 (Not Used) Pin15 VCC (LEDSV+) Pin8 D1 (Not Used) Pin16 Ground Table 3.3 Pin description of LCD Bus Timing Characteristics Fig 3.13 Timing diagram of LCD “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 29
  • 30. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM 3.1.7 RELAY DRIVER (ULN2803) The eight NPN Darlington connected transistors in this family of arrays are ideally suited for interfacing between low logic level digital circuitry (such as TTL, CMOS or PMOS/NMOS) and the higher current/voltage requirements of lamps, relays, printer hammers or other similar loads for a broad range of computer, industrial, and consumer applications. All devices feature open–collector outputs and freewheeling clamp diodes for transient suppression. The ULN2803 is designed to be compatible with standard TTL families while the ULN2804 is optimized for 6 to 15 volt high level CMOS or PMOS. Features  Eight darlington with common emitters.  Output current to 500 Ma.  Output voltage to 50 V.  Integral suppression diodes.  Versions for all popular logic families.  Output can be paralleled.  Inputs pinned opposite outputs to simplify board layout. Fig 3.14 Internal circuit of relay driver ULN2803 “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 30
  • 31. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Fig 3.15 Pin description of ULN2803 Description The ULN2801A-ULN2805A each contains eight Darlington transistors with common emitters and integral suppression diodes for inductive loads. Each Darlington features a peak load current rating of 600mA (500mA continuous) and can withstand at least 50V in the off state. Outputs maybe paralleled for higher current capability. Five versions are available to simplify interfacing to standard logic families: the ULN2801A is designed for general purpose applications with a current limit resistor; the ULN2802A has a 10.5k input resistor and zener for 1425V PMOS; the ULN2803A has a 2.7k input resistor for 5V TTL and CMOS; the ULN2804A has a 10.5k input resistor for 6-15V CMOS and the ULN2805A is designed to sink a minimum of 350mA for standard and Schottky TTL where “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 31
  • 32. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM higher output current is required. All types are supplied in an 18-lead plastic DIP with a copper lead from and feature the convenient input opposite-output pin out to simplify board layout. 3.1.8 VIBRATION SENSOR Fig 3.16 Vibration sensor Features  Supply voltage : 12V DC.  Baud rate : 9600.  Data bits : 8.  SMS storage : SIM card.  Operating temperature : -20 to 55 ℃ .  GPRS data: Uplink transfer 42.8kbps. Downlink transfer 85.6kbps.  External antenna : Connected via 50 ohm antenna connector. 3.1.9 POWER SUPPLY The ac voltage, typically 220V rms, is connected to a transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to the level of the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 32
  • 33. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies, or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually obtained using one of the popular voltage regulator IC units. VOLTAGE REGULATOR IC 7805 Fig 3.17 Voltage regulator IC 7805 Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, and overload protection all in a single IC. IC units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustable set voltage. The regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from hundreds of milli amperes to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings from milli watts to tens of watts. Fig 3.18 Circuit diagram of power supply “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 33
  • 34. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM When four diodes are connected as shown in figure, the circuit is called as bridge rectifier. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network, and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is a positive potential, at point A and a negative potential at point B. the positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse D2. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them; D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. The path for current flow is from point B through D1, up through RL, through D3, through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. this path is indicated by the solid arrows. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3.One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverse, forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. Current flow will now be from point A through D4, up through RL, through D2, through the secondary of T1, and back to point A. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. The current flow through RL is always in the same direction. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown waveform (5). Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage, this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. Fig 3.19 Waveforms of half wave and full wave rectification “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 34
  • 35. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Chapter 4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Fig 4.1 Simulation of power supply Fig 4.2 Circuit diagram of the system “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 35
  • 36. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Chapter 5 REQUIRED SOFTWARE 5.1 Embedded ‘C’ Embedded ‘C’ is a set of language extensions for the C Programming language by the C Standards committee to address commonality issues that exist between C extensions for different embedded systems. Historically, embedded C programming requires nonstandard extensions to the C language in order to support exotic features such as fixed-point arithmetic, multiple distinct memory banks, and basic I/O operations. In 2008, the C Standards Committee extended the C language to address these issues by providing a common standard for all implementations to adhere to. It includes a number of features not available in normal C, such as, fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing. Embedded ‘C’ use most of the syntax and semantics of standard C, e.g main() function, variable definition, data type declaration, conditional statements (if, switch. case), loops (while, for), functions, arrays and strings, structures and union, bit operations, macros, unions, etc. The ‘C’ Programming Language was originally developed for and implemented on the UNIX operating system, by Dennis Ritchie in 1971. One of the best features of C is that it is not tied to any particular hardware or system. This makes it easy for a user to write programs that will run without any changes on practically all machines. C is often called a middle-level computer language as it combines the elements of high-level languages with the functionalism of assembly language. To produce the most efficient machine code, the programmer must not only create an efficient high level design, but also pay attention to the detailed implementation. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 36
  • 37. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM 5.1.1 Characteristic of an Embedded ‘C’ programming environment  Limited ROM.  Limited RAM.  Limited stack space.  Hardware oriented programming.  Critical timing (Interrupt Service Routines, tasks)  Many different pointer kinds (far / near / rom / uni).  Special keywords and tokens (@, interrupt, tiny). 5.2 Proteus v7.6 Proteus PCB design combines the ISIS schematic capture and ARES PCB layout programs to provide a powerful, integrated and easy to use suite of tools for professional PCB Design. All Proteus PCB design products include an integrated shape based auto router and a basic SPICE simulation capability. More advanced routing modes are included in Proteus PCB Design Level 2 and higher whilst simulation capabilities can be enhanced by purchasing the Advanced Simulation option and/or micro-controller simulation capabilities. ISIS (Intelligent Schematic Input System) Schematic Capture ISIS lies at the heart of the Proteus system, and is far more than just another schematics package. It combines a powerful design environment with the ability to define most aspects of the drawing appearance. Whether your requirement is the rapid entry of complex designs for simulation and PCB layout, or the creation of attractive schematics for publication, ISIS is the tool for the job. Features  Runs on Windows 98/Me/2k/XP and later.  Automatic wire routing and dot placement/removal.  Powerful tools for selecting objects and assigning their properties. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 37
  • 38. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM  Full support for buses including component pins, inter-sheet terminals, module ports and wires.  Bill of Materials and Electrical Rules Check report.  Net list outputs to suit all popular PCB layout tools. ARES PCB Layout Software ARES (Advanced Routing and Editing Software) forms the PCB layout module of the PROTEUS system and offers net list based PCB design complete with a suite of high performance design automation tools. The latest version is compatible with Windows 98/Me/2k/XP and later. It includes a brand new Auto-Placer, improved Auto-Routing, automatic Gate-Swap optimization and even more powerful support for power planes. 5.2.1 Features  32 bit high-precision database giving a linear resolution of 10nm, an angular resolution of 0.1° and a maximum board size of +/- 10m. ARES supports 16 copper layers, two silk screens, four mechanical layers plus solder resist and paste mask layer.  Net list based integration with ISIS schematic capture, including the ability to specify routing information on the schematic.  Automatic Back-Annotation of component renumbering, pin-swap and gate-swap changes.  Physical and Connectivity Rule Check reports.  Powerful route editing features including topological route editing, auto track necking and curved trace support.  2D Drawing with Symbol Library.  Comprehensive package libraries for both through hole and surface mount parts including SM782 standard SMT footprints. There are now over 1000 parts in total in the package library.  Unlimited Pad/Trace/Via Styles.  Full metric and SMT support. This includes all dialogue form fields as well as the coordinate display and grid settings. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 38
  • 39. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM  Output to a wide range of printers and plotters. Also output in DXF, EPS, WMF and BMP graphics formats - to file or clipboard where appropriate.  Built in Gerber Viewer - this enables you to check your Gerber output files before spending money on bureau fees or board manufacture. 5.3 EAGLE v4.1 EAGLE is a powerful graphics editor for designing PC-board layouts and schematics. 5.3.1 Features  Maximum drawing area 64 x 64 inches (about 1600 x 1600 mm).  Resolution 1/10.000 mm (0.1 microns).  Up to 255 layers, user definable colors.  Command files (Script files).  C-like User Language for data import and export.  Simple library editing.  Easy generation of new package variants from any library by Drag & Drop.  Automatic backup function. Layout Editor  Full SMD support.  Rotation of elements in arbitrary angles (0.1-degree steps).  Design Rule Check for board layouts (checks e.g. overlaps, measures of pads or tracks).  Copper pouring (ground plains) package variants support. Schematic Module  Up to 99 sheets per schematic.  Simple copying of parts.  Online-Forward & Back Annotation between schematic and board.  Automatic board generation. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 39
  • 40. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Chapter 6 CONCLUSION By the realization of the above proposed system one can learn many aspects of a digital electronics circuit. It gives the complete knowledge of designing microcontroller based system and developing embedded software. Thus fingerprint identification enhances the security of a vehicle and makes it possible only for some selected people to start the car. Thus by implementing this relatively cheap and easily available system on a car one can ensure much greater security and exclusivity than that offered by a conventional lock and key. The reliability of any automatic fingerprint system strongly relies on the precision obtained in the minutia extraction process. A number of factors are detrimental to the correct location of minutia. Among them, poor image quality is the most serious one. In this project, we have combined many methods to build a minutia extractor and a minutia matcher. The proposed alignment-based matching algorithm is capable of finding the correspondences between minutiae without resorting to exhaustive research. There is a scope of further improvement in terms of efficiency and accuracy which can be achieved by improving the hardware to capture the image or by improving the image enhancement techniques. So that the input image to the thinning stage could be made better so as to improve the future stages. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 40
  • 41. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Chapter 7 SUMMARY 7.1 Advantages  Highly reliable.  Unique.  Processing speed is fast.  Economical biometric technology.  Less memory space.  Easy to use & user friendly.  Highly secured than other security systems. 7.2 Disadvantages  Distortion due to dirt/dust on the fingertip.  Injuries or burns to the fingertips can cause a person's fingerprint to become unreadable or even eliminated.  Failure of network. 7.3 Applications  Cars.  Motorcycles.  Transport Vehicles.  Home security systems.  Lockers.  Attendance system in institutions or offices.  ATM’s. “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 41
  • 42. ADVANCED VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM Chapter 8 REFRENCES [1] Myke Predko, Programming and Customizing the 8051 Microcontroller, Edition 1999, Tata McGraw-Hill, Page:157-167. [2] Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems, Prentice-Hall, Page:183-193, 236, 243. [3] Dogan Ibrahim, Microcontroller Projects in C for the 8051, Newnes, Page:29161. [4] Kenneth J. Ayala, The 8051 Microcontroller ARCHITECTURE, PROGRAMMING and APPLICATIONS, WEST PUBLISHING COMPANY, Page:131-197. [5] Michael J. Pont, Embedded C, Edition 2002, Addison Wesley, Page: 5787,217. [6] [7] [8] [9] “Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, MCERC,Nasik.2013-14” Page 42