Training report on server THDC(Tehri hydro dam coorporation)
BASIC STUDY ON SERVER
Submitted by: submitted to:
Vineet pokhriyal Mr.S.K.Uniyal
Ithas been a great honour and privilege to undergo training at THDC,
Rishikesh. I am highly thankful to Mr.R.S.Rawat, for providing us this
golden opportunity, and briefing me about trainee rule and regulation.
I express my sincere gratitude to my project head, Mr S.K.Uniyal, for
his invaluable guidance and supervision. It would not have been possible
to complete this project without his kind support and help.
Last but not least I wish to avail myself of this opportunity, express a
sense of gratitude and love to my parents and friends for their manual
support, strength, and help and for everything.
Although there may be many who remain unacknowledged in this
humble note of gratitude there are none who remain unappreciated.
Mentor Mr S.K.Uniyal
IT Dept. manager
1.About THDC 1-4
2.Introduction to Server 5
4.Server Hardware 8-9
5.Types of Server 10-11
6.Server operating System 12
7.Different size of server 13
THDC India Limited is a Joint Venture of Govt. of India and Govt. of Uttar Pradesh.
The Equity is shared in the ratio of 3:1 between GoI and GoUP for the Power
Component. The Company was incorporated in July‘ 88 with the initial mandate to
develop, operate & maintain the 2400 MW Tehri Hydro Power Complex (comprising of
1000 MW Tehri Dam & HPP, 1000 MW Tehri Pumped Storage Plant & 400 MW
Koteshwar HEP) and other hydro projects.
The Memorandum and Articles of Association of the company has been modified to
reflect the current business reality of projects outside Bhagirathi valley. The Company
has been converted to Public Limited Company and object clause has been amended to
incorporate development of Conventional/ Non-conventional/ Renewable sources of
Energy and River Valley Projects.
The Company has successfully commissioned the Tehri Dam & HPP (1000 MW) Stage-
I and Koteshwar HEP (400 MW) during the Xth and XIth plans respectively. The Tehri
Project is a multipurpose Project providing power benefits to the Northern Region,
Irrigation benefits to Uttar Pradesh, and Drinking Water benefits to NCT Delhi and
UP. Due to regulated releases from the Tehri storage reservoir, the existing
downstream hydro projects of the State are also benefitted by way of augmentation in
generation (200 MU annually) at no additional cost to them.
Power generated from Tehri Dam & HPP and Koteshwar HEP with present installed
capacity of 1400 MW is supplied to nine (09) beneficiaries States/UT of Northern
Region. THDCIL has generated 4591.25MU of electrical energy in F.Y. 2011-12 and
cumulative generation till 30.11.2012 is 19417.05 MU.
THDC is consistently profit making company since the commissioning of Tehri Dam &
HPP in the year 2006-07. THDC paid to GoI & GoUP a maiden dividend of ` 97.50 Cr.
for the year 2007-08 and dividend of ` 98.00 Cr. for the year 2008-09. Further dividends
of ` 145 Cr, ` 181 Cr and ` 212 Cr has been paid respectively for years 2009-10, 2010-
11 and 2011-12.
THDCIL has been conferred with prestigious award “International Milestone Project”
of International Commission of Large Dam (ICOLD) for Tehri Dam Project in
Oct.‘09 at China, considering the uniqueness of its design and construction features.
Koteshwar Hydro Electric Project (400MW) has won the prestigious “PMI India 2012
Best Project of the Year Award”. The award has been received by THDCIL on 28th
Sep-12 in grandeur ceremony in Project Management National Conference held at
Chennai. Koteshwar project has been adjudged winner in Category ―Best Project of the
year- Long duration (more than 3 years)‖ among more than 75 submissions from all
sectors under this category. The award has been given in recognition of excellence and
the outstanding performance by THDCIL in implementation of Koteshwar Hydro Electric
Project by applying best project management principles and techniques.
THDCIL has obtained ISO 9001:2008 Certificate of Quality Management System for
Corporate Office, Rishikesh, Tehri HPP, Tehri PSP and Vishnugad Pipalkoti HEP.
THDCIL has also obtained ISO 14001-2004 Certification (Environment Management
System) for Tehri HPP, Tehri PSP and Vishnugad Pipalkoti HEP.
THDCIL is a Miniratna Category –I Schedule ‗A‘ company by the Govt. of India. The
authorized share Capital of the company is ` 4000 Cr. The Paid up capital as on
March‘12 is ` 3297.58 Cr.
The wide range of technical, environmental and social proficiency and experience of
THDCIL places it in leading position to take up challenging Hydro Power Projects.
THDCIL is entrusted with new projects for execution/preparation/updation of DPR for
hydro power projects, Pump Storage Schemes in India and abroad. Major works of
1000 MW Tehri Pump Storage Schemes have been taken up w.e.f. 27th
a single EPC Contract.
THDCIL has now grown to a multi project organization having 15 projects totaling to an
installed capacity of 8.790 MW under operation/ various stages of development in
Uttarakhand, U.P, Maharashtra and Bhutan. In addition, a number of Projects, totaling
to 5490 MW are in the business development stage in Chattisgarh, Uttarakhand &
With the allotment of Khurja Super Thermal Power Plant (1320 MW) in Kurja, (U.P),
THDCIL has taken a step forward in diversification into Thermal Power. As a further
step ahead towards renewable energy resources, THDCIL is venturing into Solar and
Wind energy areas.
THDCIL also plans to diversify into non conventional and renewable sources of energy
viz. solar and wind power.
THDCIL has taken initiatives to venture into the Wind Energy sector. THDCIL is looking
forward to install 50MW Capacity wind farm initially as an Investor.
THDCIL has taken initiative for establishing grid connected Solar Power Project in U.P.
The State Nodal Agencies have been requested to allot the required land for the Solar
THDCIL has been conferred SCOPE „Meritorious Award for Corporate Social
Responsibility and Responsiveness‟ in April 2012.
THDCIL has also been conferred the Power Line Award in the category of 'Best
Performing Generation Company (in Hydro Sector)‟ from the Hon'ble Union Minister
of Power in May 2012.
INTRODUCTION TO SERVER
A server is a system (software and suitable computer hardware) that responds to
requests across a computer network to provide, or help to provide, anetwork service.
Servers can be run on a dedicated computer, which is also often referred to as "the
server", but many networked computers are capable of hosting servers. In many cases,
a computer can provide several services and have several servers running.
Servers operate within a client-server architecture, servers are computer programs
running to serve the requests of other programs, the clients. Thus, the server performs
some task on behalf of clients. The clients typically connect to the server through the
network but may run on the same computer. In the context of Internet Protocol (IP)
networking, a server is a program that operates as a socket listener.
Servers often provide essential services across a network, either to private users inside
a large organization or to public users via the Internet. Typical computing servers
are database server, file server, mail server, print server, web server, gaming
server, application server, or some other kind of server.
Numerous systems use this client / server networking model including Web sites and
email services. An alternative model, peer-to-peer networkingenables all computers to
act as either a server or client as needed.
The term server is used quite broadly in information technology. Despite the many
server-branded products available (such as server versions of hardware, software or
operating systems), in theory any computerized process that shares a resource to one
or more client processes is a server. To illustrate this, take the common example of file
sharing. While the existence of files on a machine does not classify it as a server, the
mechanism which shares these files to clients by the operating system is the server.
Similarly, consider a web server application (such as the multiplatform "Apache HTTP
Server"). This web server software can be run on any capable computer. For example,
while a laptop or personal computer is not typically known as a server, they can in these
situations fulfill the role of one, and hence be labeled as one. It is, in this case, the
machine's role that places it in the category of server.
In the hardware sense, the word server typically designates computer models intended
for hosting software applications under the heavy demand of a network environment. In
this server configuration one or more machines, either a computer or a computer
appliance, share information with each other with one acting as a host for the other[s].
While nearly any personal computer is capable of acting as a network server, a
dedicated server will contain features making it more suitable for production
environments. These features may include a faster CPU, increased high-
performance RAM, and increased storage capacity in the form of a larger or
multiple hard drives. Servers also typically have reliability, availability and serviceability
(RAS) and fault tolerance features, such as redundancy in power supplies, storage (as
in RAID), and network connections.
Servers became common in the early 1990s as businesses increasingly began using
personal computers to provide services formerly hosted on
larger mainframes or minicomputers. Early file servers housed multiple CD-ROM drives,
which were used to host large database applications.
Between the 1990s and 2000s an increase in the use of dedicated hardware saw the
advent of self-contained server appliances. One well-known product is the Google
Search Appliance, a unit that combines hardware and software in an out-of-the-box
packaging. Also produced were the Cobalt Qube and the RaQ. Simpler examples of
such appliances include switches, routers, gateways, and print servers, all of which are
available in a near plug-and-play configuration.
Modern operating systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux distributions seem to be
designed with a client–server architecture in mind. These operating systems attempt
to abstract hardware, allowing a wide variety of software to work with components of the
computer. In a sense, the operating system can be seen as serving hardware to the
software, which in all but low-level programming languages must interact using an API.
These operating systems may be able to run programs in the background called
either services or daemons. Such programs, such as the aforementioned Apache HTTP
Server software, may wait in a sleep state for their necessity to become apparent. Since
any software that provides services can be called a server, modern personal computers
can be seen as a forest of servers and clients operating in parallel.
The Internet itself is also a forest of servers and clients. Merely requesting a web
page from a few kilometers away involves satisfying a stack of protocols that involve
many examples of hardware and software servers. The least of these are
the routers, modems, domain name servers, and various other servers necessary to
provide us the World Wide Web.
The introduction of Cloud computing allows server storage and other resources to be
shared in a pool and provides servers with a higher degree of fault tolerance.
Hardware requirement for servers vary, depending on the server application. Absolute
CPU speed is not quite as critical to a server as it is to a desktop machine. Servers'
duties to provide service to many users over a network lead to different requirements
such as fast network connections and high I/O throughout. Since servers are usually
accessed over a network, they may run in headless mode without a monitor or input
device. Processes that are not needed for the server's function are not used. Many
servers do not have a graphical user interface (GUI) as it is unnecessary and consumes
resources that could be allocated elsewhere. Similarly, audio and USB interfaces may
Servers often run for long periods without interruption and availability must often be very
high, making hardware reliability and durability extremely important. Although servers
can be built from commodity computer parts, mission-critical enterprise servers are
ideally very fault tolerant and use specialized hardware with low failure rates in order to
maximize uptime, for even a short-term failure can cost more than purchasing and
installing the system. For example, it may take only a few minutes of down time at a
national stock exchange to justify the expense of entirely replacing the system with
something more reliable. Servers may incorporate faster, higher-capacity hard drives,
larger computer fans or water cooling to help remove heat, and uninterruptible power
supplies that ensure the servers continue to function in the event of a power failure.
These components offer higher performance and reliability at a correspondingly higher
price. Hardware redundancy—installing more than one instance of modules such
as power supplies and hard disks arranged so that if one fails another is automatically
available—is widely used. ECC memory devices that detect and correct errors are used;
non-ECC memory is more likely to cause data corruption.
To increase reliability, most servers use memory with error detection and
correction, redundant disks, redundant power supplies and so on. Such components are
also frequently hot swappable, allowing technicians to replace them on the running
server without shutting it down. To prevent overheating, servers often have more
powerful fans. As servers are usually administered by qualifiedsystem administrators,
their operating systems are also more tuned for stability and performance than for user
friendliness and ease of use, Linux taking a noticeably larger percentage than for
As servers need a stable power supply, good Internet access, increased security and
are also noisy, it is usual to store them in dedicated server centers or special rooms.
This requires reducing the power consumption, as the extra energy used generates
more heat thus causing the temperature in the room to exceed acceptable limits; hence
normally, server rooms are equipped with air conditioning devices. Server casings are
usually flat and wide (typically measured in "rack units"), adapted to store many devices
next to each other in a server rack. Unlike ordinary computers, servers usually can be
configured, powered up and down or rebooted remotely, using out-of-band
management, typically based on IPMI.
Many servers take quite a long time for the hardware to start up and load the operating
system. Servers often do extensive pre-boot memory testing and verification and startup
of remote management services. The hard drive controllers then start up banks of
drives sequentially, rather than all at once, so as not to overload the power supply with
startup surges, and afterwards they initiate RAID system pre-checks for correct
operation of redundancy. It is common for a machine to take several minutes to start up,
but it may not need restarting for months or years.
TYPES OF SERVER
In a general network environment the following types of servers may be found.
Application server, a server dedicated to running certain software applications
Catalog server, a central search point for information across a distributed network
Communications server, carrier-grade computing platform for communications
Compute server, a server intended for intensive (esp. scientific) computations
Database server, provides database services to other computer programs or
Fax server, provides fax services for clients
File server, provides remote access to files
Game server, a server that video game clients connect to in order to play online
Home server, a server for the home
Mail server, handles transport of and access to email
Mobile Server, or Server on the Go is an Intel Xeon processor based server class
laptop form factor computer.
Name server or DNS
Print server, provides printer services
Proxy server, acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources
from other servers
Sound server, provides multimedia broadcasting, streaming.
Stand-alone server, a server on a Windows network that neither belongs to nor
governs a Windows domain
Web server, a server that HTTP clients connect to in order to send commands and
receive responses along with data contents
Almost the entire structure of the Internet is based upon a client–server model. High-
level root nameservers, DNS, and routers direct the traffic on the internet. There are
millions of servers connected to the Internet, running continuously throughout the world.
World Wide Web
Domain Name System
FTP file transfer
Chat and instant messaging
Streaming audio and video
Virtually every action taken by an ordinary Internet user requires one or more
interactions with one or more servers.
There are also technologies that operate on an inter-server level. Other services do not
use dedicated servers; for example peer-to-peer file sharing, some implementations
of telephony (e.g.Skype), and supplying television programs to several users
(e.g. Kontiki, SlingBox
SERVER OPERATING SYSTEM
Server-oriented operating systems tend to have certain features that make them more
suitable for the server environment, such as:
GUI not available or optional
Ability to reconfigure and update both hardware and software to some extent without
Advanced backup facilities to permit regular and frequent online backups of
Transparent data transfer between different volumes or devices,
Flexible and advanced networking capabilities,
Automation capabilities such as daemons in UNIX and services in Windows
Tight system security, with advanced user, resource, data, and memory protection.
Server-oriented operating systems can, in many cases, interact with hardware sensors
to detect conditions such as overheating, processor and disk failure, and consequently
alert an operator or take remedial measures themselves.
Because servers must supply a restricted range of services to perhaps many users
while a desktop computer must carry out a wide range of functions required by its user,
the requirements of an operating system for a server are different from those of a
desktop machine. While it is possible for an operating system to make a machine both
provide services and respond quickly to the requirements of a user, it is common to use
different operating systems on servers and desktop machines. Some operating systems
are supplied in both server and desktop versions with similar user interface.
Windows and Mac OS X server operating systems are deployed on a minority of
servers, as are other proprietary mainframe operating systems, such as z/OS. The
dominant operating systems among servers are UNIX-like open source distributions,
such as those based on Linux and FreeBSD. The rise of the microprocessor-based
server was facilitated by the development of Unix to run on
the x86 microprocessor architecture. The Microsoft Windows family of operating
systems also runs on x86 hardware and, since Windows NT, have been available in
versions suitable for server use.
While the role of server and desktop operating systems remains distinct, improvements
in the reliability of both hardware and operating systems have blurred the distinction
between the two classes. Today, many desktop and server operating systems share
similar code bases, differing mostly in configuration. The shift towards web
applications and middleware platforms has also lessened the demand for specialist
DIFFERENT SIZE OF SERVER
miniature (home) servers
mini rack servers
From the above basic study Server is a system (software and suitable computer
hardware) that responds to requests across a computer network to provide, or help to
provide, a network services.
It has provided a Reduction in usage of paper Records.
Communication and security to data has been increased
Easy and reliability have been added by server for users
Managing of data is now much more easier.