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Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
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Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
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Shake daram
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Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
Shake daram
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Shake daram


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  • 1. William Shakespeare Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English Literature
  • 2. Shakespeare
    • 1563-1616
    • Stratford-on-Avon, England
    • wrote 37 plays
    • about 154 sonnets
    • started out as an actor
  • 3. Stage Celebrity
    • Actor for Lord Chamberlain’s Men (London theater co.)
    • Also > principal playwright for them
    • 1599> Lord Ch. Co. built Globe Theater where most of Sh. Play’s were performed
  • 4. Shakespeare wrote:
    • Comedies
    • Histories
    • Tragedies
  • 5. Romeo and Juliet
    • Written about 1595
    • Considered a tragedy
    • West Side Story (Movie) based on R&J
  • 6. The Theater
    • Plays produced for the general public
    • Roofless>open air
    • No artificial lighting
    • Courtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleries
  • 7. Spectators
    • Wealthy got benches
    • “ Groundlings”>poorer people stood and watched from the courtyard (“pit”)
    • All but wealthy were uneducated/illiterate
    • Much more interaction than today
  • 8. Staging Areas
    • Stage>platform that extended into the pit
    • Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stage
    • second-level gallery> upper stage> famous balcony scene in R & J
    • Trap door>ghosts
    • “ Heavens”> angelic beings
  • 9. Differences
    • No scenery
    • Settings > references in dialogue
    • Elaborate costumes
    • Plenty of props
    • Fast-paced, colorful>2 hours!
  • 10. Actors
    • Only men and boys
    • Young boys whose voices had not changed play women’s roles
    • Would have been considered indecent for a woman to appear on stage
  • 11. Elizabethan (QE1) Words
    • An,and: If
    • Anon: Soon
    • Aye: Yes
    • But: Except for
    • E’en: Even
    • E’er: Ever
  • 12. QE1 Words (contin.)
    • Haply: Perhaps
    • Happy: Fortunate
    • Hence: Away, from her
    • Hie: Hurry
    • Marry: Indeed
  • 13. QE1 Words (contin.)
    • Whence: Where
    • Wilt: Will, will you
    • Withal: In addition to
    • Would: Wish
  • 14. Blank Verse
    • Much of R & J is written in it:
      • unrhymed verse
      • iambic (unstressed, stressed)
      • pentameter( 5 “feet” to a line)
        • ends up to be 10 syllable lines
  • 15. Prose
    • Ordinary writing that is not poetry, drama, or song
      • Only characters in the lower social classes speak this way in Shakespeare’s plays
      • Why do you suppose that is?
  • 16. Plot
    • The sequence of events in a literary work
  • 17. Exposition
    • The plot usually begins with this:
      • introduces>>>>
        • setting
        • characters
        • basic situation
  • 18. Inciting Moment
    • Often called “initial incident”
      • the first bit of action that occurs which begins the plot
      • Romeo and Juliet “lock eyes” at the party
  • 19. Conflict
    • The struggle that develops
      • man vs. man
      • man vs. himself
      • man vs. society
      • man vs. nature
  • 20. Crisis
    • The point where the protagonist’s situation will either get better or worse
      • protagonist>good guy
      • antagonist>bad guy
  • 21. Climax
    • The turning point of the story>everything begins to unravel from here
      • Thus begins the falling action
  • 22. Resolution
    • The end of the central conflict
  • 23. Denouement
    • The final explanation or outcome of the plot
      • If this is included in literature, it will occur after the resolution.
  • 24. Tragedy (Shakespearean)
    • Drama where the central character/s suffer disaster/great misfortune
      • In many tragedies, downfall results from>
        • Fate
        • Character flaw/Fatal flaw
        • Combination of the two
  • 25. Theme
    • Central idea or >>
    • Insight about life which explain the downfall
  • 26. Metaphorical Language
    • Comparison of unlike things >
      • Paris standing over the “lifeless body” of Juliet, “Sweet flower, with flowers thy bridal bed I strew…”
      • “ Thou detestable maw…”Gorged with the dearest morsel of the earth…” Romeo
  • 27. Dramatic Foil
    • A character whose purpose is to show off another character
      • Benvolio for Tybalt
        • look for others in R & J
  • 28. Round characters
    • Characters who have many personality traits, like real people.
  • 29. Flat Characters
    • One-dimensional, embodying only a single trait
      • Shakespeare often uses them to provide comic relief even in a tragedy
  • 30. Static Characters
    • Characters within a story who remain the same. They do not change. They do not change their minds, opinions or character.
  • 31. Dynamic Character
    • Characters that change somehow during the course of the plot. They generally change for the better.
  • 32. Monologue
    • One person speaking on stage > may be other character on stage too
      • ex > the Prince of Verona commanding the Capulets and Montagues to cease feuding
  • 33. Soliloquy
    • Long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage. In R & J, Romeo gives a soliloquy after the servant has fled and Paris has died.
  • 34. Aside
    • Words spoken, usually in an undertone not intended to be heard by all characters
  • 35. Pun
    • Shakespeare loved to use them!!!
      • Humorous use of a word with two meanings > sometimes missed by the reader because of Elizabethan language and sexual innuendo
  • 36. Direct Address
    • Words that tell the reader who is being addressed:
    • “ A right fair mark, fair coz, is soonest hit.”
    • “ Ah, my mistresses, which of you all/ Will now deny to dance?”
  • 37. Dramatic Irony
    • A contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader/audience knows to be true
  • 38. Verbal Irony
    • Words used to suggest the opposite of what is meant
  • 39. Situational Irony
    • An event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience
  • 40. Comic Relief
    • Use of comedy within literature that is NOT comedy to provide “relief” from seriousness or sadness.
    • In R & J, look for moments of comic relief that help “relieve” the tragedy of the situation