Introduction to Permaculture - FELC February 8th 2014
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Introduction to Permaculture - FELC February 8th 2014

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Basic of permaculture provided to a group of Master Gardeners, and environmentally aware citizens. Key concepts were presented with a discussion around each topic. This is a precursor to a full PDC ...

Basic of permaculture provided to a group of Master Gardeners, and environmentally aware citizens. Key concepts were presented with a discussion around each topic. This is a precursor to a full PDC class starting in April. www.greatlakespermaculture.com

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    Introduction to Permaculture - FELC February 8th 2014 Introduction to Permaculture - FELC February 8th 2014 Presentation Transcript

    • Permaculture Introduction FELC– February 8 – Great Lakes Permaculture
    • Permaculture Today we will cover • • • • • • • • • What exactly is Permaculture - Definition Why do we need it - Doom and Gloom part of the presentation Short Break Permaculture Concepts – Looking toward the future with Hope Design Examples Worldwide Pioneers Project House Next Steps
    • Permaculture Bill Mollison David Holmgren
    • What is Permaculture? Really? Bill Mollison – Original Definition Permaculture is a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted & thoughtful observation rather than protracted & thoughtless action; of looking at systems in all their functions rather than asking only one yield of them & of allowing systems to demonstrate their own evolutions. Huh?
    • What is Permaculture? Really? David Holmgren A more current definition of permaculture, which reflects the expansion of focus implicit in Permaculture One, is ‘Consciously designed landscapes which mimic the patterns and relationships found in nature, while yielding an abundance of food, fibre and energy for provision of local needs. People, their buildings and the ways in which they organise themselves are central to permaculture. Thus the permaculture vision of permanent or sustainable agriculture has evolved to one of permanent or sustainable culture. Better…
    • What is Permaculture? Really? David Holmgren More precisely permaculture is a “design system based on ecological principles” which provides the organizing framework for implementing the above vision. In this more limited, but important sense it draws together the diverse skills and ways of living which need to be rediscovered and developed to empower us to move from being dependent consumers to becoming responsible producers.. Best
    • Why do we need it Soil is life 1. Skin of the earth - Soil consists of a solid phase (minerals & organic matter) as well as a porous phase that holds gases and water. 2. Soil performs four important functions: as a medium for plant growth and of water storage, supply and purification; as a modifier of the atmosphere; and finally as a habitat for organisms that take part in decomposition and creation of a habitat for other organisms. 3. Soils can effectively remove impurities, kill disease agents, and degrade contaminants. 4. Soils offer plants physical support, air, water, temperature moderation, nutrients, and protection from toxins. 5. Given sufficient time, a soil will evolve into a soil profile which consists of two or more layers, referred to as soil horizons, that differ in one or more properties such as in their texture, structure, density, porosity, consistency, temperature, color, and reactivity.
    • Why do we need it Terra Preta
    • Why do we need it 16 Nutrients are essential to the human body, 17 if you include cobalt Our soil provide 13 of those essential nutrients. Without the soil, we have NO life. But what is happening to our soil?
    • Why do we need it 1992 Earth Summit Statistics
    • Number 1 export in U.S. (in tonnage)? Barge moving Corn and Soybeans down the Mississippi
    • The United States alone loses 2 billion tons of topsoil per year References 1 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Soil Survey Division Staff (1993). "Soil Survey Manual." USDA Handbook 18. Chapter 3. 2http://www.ce.cmu.edu/~gdrg/readings/2007/02/20/Pimental_EnvironmentalEnergeticAndEconomicComparisonsOfOrganicAndConventionalFarmingSystems.pdf 3 http://discovermagazine.com/2001/may/feateatlocal •The lowdown on topsoil: It's disappearing •Mann, C (2008). "Our Good Earth". National Geographic Magazine 214 (3): 80–107.
    • The United States alone loses 2 billion tons of topsoil per year Question: If loaded on to rail cars, how long would a train need to be to hold 2 billion tons of soil? Answer: It would wrap around the globe 7 times. (About 170,000 miles long) That’s just for one year and just for the U.S. alone.
    • Erosion
    • Conclusion The earlier US shale oil bonanza spin spread by the IEA is now in the minds of thousands of planners and government officials. Preparations for future oil decline – already overdue – will be further delayed. The new EIA data tell a somehow different story but the damage has been done. And reality will be different yet again. Moreover, shale oil will neither stop armed conflicts in the Middle East impacting on oil supplies nor solve the budget problems in many countries where oil production has already peaked.
    • We have increased domestic oil production, but at what cost? How likely is radium to cause cancer? Exposure to high levels of radium results in an increased incidence of bone, liver, and breast cancer. The EPA and the National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, has stated that radium is a known human carcinogen.
    • We have increased domestic oil production, but at what cost? Ohio State law bans radioactive shale-well sand and sludge from Ohio landfills. However, brine can be sent down any of Ohio’s 171 active disposal wells regardless of how much radium it contains. Michael Snee, the Ohio Department of Health’s radiation-protection chief, said that’s the safest place for brine.“Injection wells are almost the perfect solution for that disposal issue,” Snee said.
    • We have increased domestic oil production, but at what cost? Radium has been tested at levels 36 times higher than the state’s safety standard. Some critics say they worry that Ohio municipalities will spray shale brine on roadways in winter to combat ice. There are no restrictions against using shale-well brine on Ohio roadways.
    • We have increased domestic oil production, but at what cost? Consumption over last 100+ Years •WE have used up about: •Half the topsoil •Half the oil •Half the rainforests •Third of all natural gas •Third of all coal Ecocide Tar Sands Before and After
    • Global Water
    • Global Water The World’s Water Supply However, only about 3% is fresh water. Of that 3%, 70% is locked in glaciers 29% is found underground in aquifers 1% is found in lakes, rivers, & streams
    • United States Water With about half of the country still suffering from extreme drought, farmers and businesses in the Western United States are looking at another hot, dry summer. And the country's water risk is a lot worse than most assessments suggest, according to a recent study from the Columbia University Water Center. Our food costs are tied to their ability to produce food in a cost effective manner.
    • How does all this impact our health Our bodies are complex systems that can eventually wear down due to continual bombardment by outside stimuli. The medical profession has stated this over and over, but business and government refuse to change.
    • How does all this impact our health American Lung Association 2013
    • No air pollution here… China Beijing
    • www.airnow.gov
    • Ohio EPA Director Chris Korleski said the latest species of algae bloom is one “we haven’t seen before, and there is cycling in the lake we’ve never seen before. At this point, we just don’t understand it.” The root cause, however, is clear — the run-off of manure and fertilizers from watershed lands feeding the lake. The Dayton Daily News
    • Goal of Permaculture Design Reverses the CONSUMPTION model into a CREATION model. • Build the topsoil while growing healthy food • Grow enough healthy food to feed the world • Repair devastated lands – Re-grow rainforests • Produce the energy we need • Create resilient communities and cities • Improve everyone’s overall quality of life • Possibly retard/reverse global warming
    • What is Permaculture Ethics 1. Care of the Earth - Provisions for all life systems to continue and multiply. 2. Care of People - Provision for people to access those resources necessary to their existence 3. Set limits and redistribute surplus.
    • What is Permaculture Prime Directive “The only ethical decision is to take responsibility for own existence and that of our children.” - Bill Mollison The painting to the right is titled, The Doctor, and was painted in 1877 by Sir Luke Fildes. This poignant image always makes me think… as a parent, a caregiver, and a permaculturist, this painting hits me on so many levels. We are at the bedside of a sick patient. That sick patient is our children’s future, and we have a cure if we choose to use it. The Permaculture Prime Directive gets to the core of the matter.
    • What is Permaculture The Twelve Principles of Permaculture • • • • • • Observe and interact – By taking the time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation. Catch and store energy – By developing systems that collect resources when they are abundant, we can use them in times of need. Obtain a yield – Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the work that you are doing. Apply self-regulation and accept feedback – We need to discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems can continue to function well. Use and value renewable resources and services – Make the best use of nature s abundance to reduce our consumptive behavior and dependence on non-renewable resources. Produce no waste – By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste.
    • What is Permaculture The Twelve Principles of Permaculture • • • • • • Design from patterns to details – By stepping back, we can observe patterns in nature and society. These can form the backbone of our designs, with the details filled in as we go. Integrate rather than segregate – By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other. Use small and slow solutions – Small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, making better use of local resources and producing more sustainable outcomes. Use and value diversity – Diversity reduces vulnerability to a variety of threats and takes advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides. Use edges and value the marginal – The interface between things is where the most interesting events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system. Creatively use and respond to change – We can have a positive impact on inevitable change by carefully observing, and then intervening at the right time.
    • • Observe and interact – By taking the time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation. Observation is key to permaculture. Developing good observation skills is essential if we want to make wellfunctioning permaculture designs. By observing natural and social patterns we are able to use them in our design work - this relates to Bill Mollison's philosophy of 'work with nature, not against'. We have to know how nature works if we want to be able to work with it. "Good design depends on a free and harmonious relationship between nature and people, in which careful observation and thoughtful interaction provide the design inspiration." David Holmgren This is what I call “Do nothing” and “Do something”
    • • Catch and store energy – By developing systems that collect resources when they are abundant, we can use them in times of need. Energy on our properties include: Sunlight - capture it with passive solar housing design, solar panels, solar water heating, solar cooking, and of course, plants! (see biomass below) Wind - capture it with a variety of windmill designs Water - capture it in ponds (see below) and with flow through micro-hydroelectric, capture it from roofs (see this post on Roof Rain Harvesting), with swales, and from road/path runoff. Biomass - capture it in growing things: fruits, vegetables, logs, firewood, twigs for crafts, animal (meat, milk, and fiber), fish, honey, etc. We can store our energy the following ways: Batteries - Stored electricity from solar, hydro, wind generation Food - By preserving foods with dehydration, canning, freezing, smoking, fermenting, etc. By making wine, beer, mead, etc. By using intensive rotational grazing of livestock to maximize foods for our animals Water - Can be stored in the soil itself, or in dams, ponds, cisterns, etc. Organic Matter - stored in the form of compost (produced from components on our property), reducing erosion with terraces, swales, and good land management practices, collecting debris and driftwood from streams that pass through our property Heat - Good insulation in our buildings, well designed wind breaks that keep chilling winds from hitting our buildings, gardens, and livestock, stored firewood to use later Plants - Can be stored as tubers and bulbs and seeds for future plantings Money - Money is just an easily transferable form of energy that everyone agrees to use and has standard trading values. Saving money is another way to save energy. Properly handling our money, avoiding debt, and investing wisely are just more examples of catching and storing energy.
    • • Obtain a yield – Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the work that you are doing. The essence of this principle is that with whatever energy you are going to contribute to something, there must be a worthwhile result. We can consider this in many aspects of our lives - work, financial investments etc; but most definitely this applies to what we are cultivating in our food gardens.
    • • Apply self-regulation and accept feedback – We need to discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems can continue to function well. An obvious example of this is that permaculture has a set of ethics that aim to regulate how permaculture designers and practitioners behave, in particular that we accept limits to our consumption so that we do not take more than the earth is able to provide. Self-maintaining systems are the 'holy grail' of permaculture, and can be seen in designs for forest gardens, in which work is minimized by planting ground covers to reduce weeds, nitrogen fixers to replace fertilizers and perennial and self-seeding plants to reduce annual plantings.
    • The same philosophy can be used for cities
    • • Use and value renewable resources and services – Make the best use of nature s abundance to reduce our consumptive behavior and dependence on non-renewable resources.
    • • Produce no waste – By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste.
    • • Design from patterns to details – By stepping back, we can observe patterns in nature and society. These can form the backbone of our designs, with the details filled in as we go.
    • • Integrate rather than segregate – By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other. Automotive – Cradle to Grave Permaculture – Cradle to Cradle “Many hands make light work”
    • • Use small and slow solutions – Small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, making better use of local resources and producing more sustainable outcomes. Systems should be designed to function at the smallest scale that is practical and energy efficient This concept links to one of the "Golden Rules" from Bill Mollison's Designers Manual - start small, get it under control and then slowly expand the perimeter - or put another way, don't take on too much too quickly, as you are likely to be overwhelmed. This idea is known as Appropriate Scale. The solution should fit the problem exactly, not too big or too small... just appropriate.
    • • Use and value diversity – Diversity reduces vulnerability to a variety of threats and takes advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides.
    • • Use edges and value the marginal – The interface between things is where the most interesting events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system.
    • • Creatively use and respond to change – We can have a positive impact on inevitable change by carefully observing, and then intervening at the right time. I believe that this principle is really talking about two types of change and our reaction to it. The first is change that is seen or anticipated. A prime example of this is the concept of succession. In ecology, succession is the change that an environment will go through as it progresses toward maturity or climax. An idealized illustration is how an abandoned farm field will become overgrown with weeds and grasses and then become a meadow then an early forest and then a mature forest. Another example is the progression of the seasons from Summer to Autumn to Winter to Spring and back around again. The other type of change is the change that is unforeseen. The change for which we did not plan. This can be anything from a tree that is killed by lightning, wind, or TOO MUCH SNOW and COLD Also, remember that not all unforeseen change is negative.
    • Let’s discuss the following design 10 Ft x 10 Ft with 1 inch of rain = ?
    • Good, Better, Best Eat your yard – Michael Seliga
    • “What permaculturists are doing is (some of) the most important activity that any group is doing on the planet. We don’t know what the details of a truly sustainable future are going to be like, but we need options. We need people experimenting in all kinds of ways and permaculturists are one of the critical groups that are doing that.” Dr. David Suzuki Geneticist Renowned Environmentalist and Broadcaster Author of more than 30 books, Host of the Canadian TV series “The Nature of Things” Weekly Syndicated Columnist
    • Cruck House UK Based Design – Hardiness Zone 8A
    • Cruck House
    • Cruck House
    • Cruck House Hendersonville Tenn.
    • Swales Berms Rain garden Ponds Water filtration Water restoration Water storage Food forest Front yard gardens Sheet mulch Plant guilds Orchards Keylining Green manure Cover crops Biochar Compost Tea Fog screen Rain saucer Root Cellar Food storage Canning Dehydrating Beekeeping Foraging Tea Gardens Medicinal Garden Fermentation Solar cooking Solar energy Wind energy Hydroelectricity Hydroponics Aquaponics Water barrel Composting Bio-Intensive Biodynamic Organics Agro forestry Mycelium Hugelkultur Bed Seed balls Guerilla garden Greenhouse Grafting Plant Propagation Seed collection Cob Straw bale Compressed earth Prairie restoration Desert greening Wood Gasification Biodiesel Waste vegetable oil Methane Animal husbandry Vermiculture Civil Engineering Packaging Automotive Design Rocket stoves Masonry heaters Architecture design Community planning Community orchards Community gardens Chinampa’s Rooftop garden Green roof Air purification Water purification Ground restoration City restoration CSA farms Flood prevention Damns Spillways Educators
    • Thank You www.greatlakespermaculture.com