Facade - presentation


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Facade - presentation

  1. 1. What is façade ? A facade or façade is generally one side of the exterior of a building, especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. U nR eg is te re d The word comes from the French language, literally meaning "frontage" or "face".
  2. 2. Type of Facade te re is nR eg Curtain Walling Point Support Glazing Spider Glazing Bolted Glazing Glazing on Tension Truss Glazing on Cable Truss Atrium Skylight , Canopies , Dome Shop Front / Display Doors & Windows U ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü d Glazing ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Cladding Aluminium Composite Panel Metal Cladding Zinc Panel Cladding Stone Cladding Clay tile Cladding Wooden Panel Cladding Polycarbonate Panel GFRC Cladding FRP Cladding
  3. 3. d te re GLAZING U nR eg is Glazing, which derives from the Middle English for 'glass', is a part of a wall, made of glass. Glazing also describes the work done by a professional "glazier"
  4. 4. d te re Curtain Wall is Structural Glazing U nR eg Glazing Spider Glazing on Tension Rod System Sky Light Sliding Door Aluminium door
  5. 5. What is a curtain wall? U nR eg In this system the vertical mullions and horizontal transoms are installed on MS/SS/Aluminium brackets which are anchored to the columns/slabs. Cut to size glass is fixed on the grid work with pressure plates.(The glass is held Mechanically) Cover cap is snap fit on the pressure plates for aesthetic look. In the above system 90% of the work can be done at site. is Conventional Stick System te re Types of Curtain Wall q Conventional Stick System (Capped System) q Structural silicone glazing ( SSG) Ø Semi unitized system Ø Unitized System d Curtain Wall is a form of a vertical building enclosure which supports no load other than its own weight and the environmental forces which act upon it.
  6. 6. te re nR eg Unitized system is In this system the vertical mullions and horizontal transoms are installed on MS/SS/Aluminium brackets which are anchored to the columns/slabs. Cut to size glass is structurally glazed to the Aluminium sub frame by structural sealant. The sub frame with the glass is installed on the Grid work. In the above system 50% of the work is done at site. d Semi unitized system U In this system MS/SS/Aluminium brackets are anchored to the columns/slabs after detailed site survey. The complete unit spanning floor height fully fabricated at the factory is installed on the brackets. In the above system 10% of the work is done at site.
  8. 8. Spider Glazing - nR eg is te re v Laminated safety glass ( tempered laminated glass ) is preferable to be used in single glazing or as the outer sheet of the insulating glass units. d v Spider System is a system for point-supported vertical glazing in which thermally toughened ( Tempered ) glass sheets are used, in single glazing or in insulated glass. v The space between the glass sheets are filled with whether seal. U v The support elements that hold the fitting can be space frame, glass fin or tension cables. v The inherent characteristics of each type of glass product define the type of articulated fitting which it will require.
  9. 9. U te re nR eg is v The rectangular glass sheets have 4 or 6 countersunk drilled holes into which countersunk stainless steel bolts acting as point-fixings. d v This system consists of a number of accessories with metal arms. At the end of each arm, a sheet of glass is fixed by the corners with a special screw. The vacuum between these sheets is filled up with isolators to overcome mechanical pressure and weather conditions.
  10. 10. Point Fixing Bolts: v These are also known as Routels, Articulated Bolts, Swivel bolts etc. v Point Fixing Bolts are of two types: Fixed and Swivel. v These can be used for fixing single glazing and/or double glazing of various thicknesses. d Spider: U nR eg is te re v Different shapes, dimensions for a wide variety of specifications are available. v Center to center dimensions vary according to the wind load and stress requirements. v Different types of fixing arrangements like fin type, structure fixing types are also possible. Tension Rod/Cable System: v This is used along with tension rods and tension cables and is the main element for the tension rod or tension cable structure. v Tension cables structures are also known as Wire Rope structures. v Tension Rod and tension cable structures are used for giving a very light weight look to the glass Façade.
  11. 11. ü te re ü ü ü is ü Modern architecture Most possible transparency Large and fully smooth glazed area Doors and windows can be inserted in a spider glass façade Excellent adaptation to local requirements. Full daylight on all sides. Double and single glazing. Good thermal insulation with 16mm airspace in double glazing. A solution to more and more structural needs. nR eg ü ü ü ü Applications of Spider System U Huge building and shop facades Lobbies, passageways and glasshouses Skylights and domes Walls, interior partitions and internal staircases ü Stands and furniture ü Interior designs ü ü ü ü d Features of the spider system
  12. 12. Ø The factors that play an important role in glass façade design Height of the building Distance between slabs Location of the building Span of each panel is Curtain wall system Glass Location & Height of the building Finish on the aluminium profiles Accessories nR eg q q q q q te re Ø Factors affecting the price of the glazing d q q q q Ø Important factors for glazing U q System Design – pressure equalized system q Barrier against water & air leakages – 3 barrier – Minimum q Thermally efficient system for better performance of the building, as no heat will be transmitted inside by the aluminum
  13. 13. d CLADDING U nR eg is te re Cladding is the covering of one material with another
  15. 15. te re d Glass U nR eg is Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent.
  16. 16. Ordinary glass – called Annealed or Float glass is te re d Safety Glass – This can be either Toughened, Laminated, Safety Wired Glass or Annealed glass with safety film applied to it. Safety glazing is mandatory for new installations within 800mm of the floor in windows and partitions, and within 1500mm of the floor in doors and side panels. Glazing is marked in the corner with BS6206. nR eg Security Glass- Laminated glass or Annealed glass with film applied to it. When security glass is installed you must ensure there is an emergency escape route in case of fire. U Low Emissivity glass or Low E glass- The glass must be used in a double glazed window so that the special reflective coating, which is always placed inside the cavity, is protected from any damage Decorative glass - This can be Opaque, patterned, Stained, Sandblasted or Etched
  17. 17. Type of Architectural Glass ü ü ü ü ü Annealed Glass Toughened Glass Heat Strengthen Glass Laminated Glass Fire Rated Glass ü ü ü ü Insulated Glass Unit with Air Gap Insulated Glass Unit with Gas Filled Laminated Insulated Glass Unit LOW-E Glass te re is Appearance Clear Glass Tinted Glass (Blue,Green,Bronze) Colour Glass Frosted Glass Ceramic Fritted d ü ü ü ü ü U nR eg Strength / Safety Performance Safety / Sound / Heat
  18. 18. HEAT TREATED GLASS v Toughened Glass v Heat Strengthen Glass te re d Heat Treated Glass is produced by heating the glass to a plastic state at around 650ºC, and then by computer control, the glass is moved into the quench area where it is rapidly cooled by a series of high pressure air nozzles. is This rapid cooling or quenching induces high compression stress in the glass surface, while the center remains in tension. nR eg Although the physical characteristics remain unchanged, the additional stresses created within the glass increases its thermal and mechanical strength. U Heat Strengthened glass is twice as strong as the annealed glass while Tempered glass is up to five times stronger than ordinary annealed glass of the same thickness. Tempered glass is much harder to break than annealed float or laminated glass. If broken it will not provide security, however the noise due to breakage is often a deterrent.
  19. 19. Reflective glasses are the most widely used glass for structural glazing and curtain walling for reasons such as better light transmission, reduced heat transfer etc. v Types of reflective glass Ø Hard coated glass te re d ü Hard coated glass or pyrolytic coated glass ü Soft coated glass or vacuum sputtered coated glass U nR eg is o Better photometric properties than the tinted glass and are low-performance glass. o Imported in sheet sizes and various processes like tempering / DGU can be done locally. o This is cheaper glass as the processes can be done locally saving customs duty o This glass can be used as single glass in vision as well as spandrel glass.
  20. 20. Ø Soft coated glass nR eg Ø High Performance glass is te re d o Medium performance glass o Superior glass than the hard coated glass in terms of photometric properties. o Heat strengthening will have to be done at the source of supply (abroad) and DGU can be made locally. o This glass can be used as single glass in vision as well as spandrel glass. o Note: these glasses are costlier than the hard coated glass, but the initial investments can be recovered by lower AC loads & lower operating costs. U o Most superior type of glass in terms of photometric properties. o Can never be used as single glass and the whole unit with DGU has to be imported from abroad. o Note: these glasses are costlier than the hard coated glass, but the initial investments can be recovered by lower AC loads & lower operating costs.
  21. 21. Pre Tempered Coating Coated first and then Tempered te re d Tempered First and then Coated Post Tempered Coatings nR eg is Since the base glass is tempered first (which can be either Tinted or Clear), the Distortion on the final product is much less as compared to the Post tempered Product Distortion is more as the Coated glass is tempered U All the preprocessing (Cutting, Grinding, All the preprocessing is done after the coating. Tempering) is done before Coating. Hence Hence coating is exposed to these processes which Coating is not exposed to these processes and might result in damage of coating if not handled chances of damage to the coating is less properly. It is manufactured after the reciept of sizes, These are make in stock sizes and are packed in hence immediately after the coating the glass Crates before making the DGU. These have to be is processed for making DGU properly packed and has a shelf life.
  22. 22. te re d v CVD - CVD, or Chemical Vapor Deposition, is one of two main technologies used to manufacture Low Emissivity glass. In the CVD process, vapor directed to the hot glass surface reacts to form a ceramic coating. The resulting Low E product is often referred to as "hard coat". Also known as pyrolytic coating. nR eg is v Emissivity - Emissivity refers to the ability of a surface to absorb or reflect heat. An energy efficient glazing technology, Low Emissivity glass is a poor absorber of heat! U v Hard Coat - Also known as "pyrolytic", hard coat refers to Low E glass manufactured via the CVD process. Because the coating is covalently bonded to the glass, hard coat Low E is extremely durable.
  23. 23. MSVD - MSVD, or Magnetron Sputtering Vacuum Deposition (also known d as "sputtering"), is one of two main technologies used to manufacture Low Emissivity glass. nR eg is te re In MSVD, a metal or ceramic target bombarded with ions releases atoms to form a thin coating on a sheet of glass. The resulting Low E product is often called "soft coat" or "sputtered". Soft Coat - Also know as "sputtered", soft coat refers to Low E glass manufactured via the MSVD process. U Less durable than its hard coat counterpart, soft coat Low E requires special storage and handling to prevent damage to the coating.
  24. 24. Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) d v The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (or SHGC) refers to a window's ability to transmit solar radiation. te re v The SHGC ranges from 0-1. A value of 0 indicates that the window functions like a wall, essentially preventing any solar energy from entering the building. nR eg is v A value of 1 indicates that the window functions like an opening, allowing all solar energy in. U v In cold climates, a high SHGC can lower heating costs by using passive solar heating. v In warm climates, a low SHGC is desired to keep unwanted heat out and reduce cooling costs.
  25. 25. Shading Coefficient U nR eg is te re d Shading coefficient is the ratio of solar heat gain through a specific type of glass that is relative to the solar heat gain through a 1/8" (3 mm) ply of clear glass under identical conditions (see Figure 8). As the shading coefficient number decreases, heat gain is reduced, which means a better performing product.
  26. 26. Solar Selective Low E te re d Specifically designed to enhance comfort in warm climates, solar selective Low E is a Low E glass with a low solar heat gain coefficient. is U-Value nR eg Also known as the K-value, the U-value is a measure of a window's ability to transfer heat (usually given in W/m2K or Btu/hr ft2 oF). U Windows with a low U-value, like Low Emissivity windows, are efficient insulators against heat loss.
  27. 27. nR eg is te re d CONDUCTION RADIATION CONVECTION AIR LEAKAGE U 1. 2. 3. 4.
  28. 28. Visible Light Transmittance The percentage of visible light (380 - 780 nm) that is transmitted through the glass. te re d Solar Transmittance The percentage of ultraviolet, visible and near infrared energy (300 - 3000 nm) that is transmitted through the glass. is Visible Light Reflectance The percentage of light that is reflected from the glass surface(s). nR eg Solar Reflectance The percentage of solar energy that is reflected from the glass surface(s). U NFRC U-Value A measure of heat gain or heat loss through glass due to the differences between indoor and outdoor temperatures. These are center pane values based on NFRC standard winter nighttime and summer daytime conditions. U-values are given in BTU/(hr*ft2*°F) for the English system. Metric U-values are given in W/(m2*°K). To convert from English to metric, multiply the English Uvalue by 5.6783.
  29. 29. te re d Relative Heat Gain (RHG) The amount of heat gained through glass taking into consideration U-value and shading coefficient. Using the NFRC standard, relative heat gain is calculated as follows: is Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) The portion of directly transmitted and absorbed solar energy that enters into the building's interior. The higher the SHGC, the higher the heat gain. U nR eg Light to Solar Gain Ratio (LSG) The ratio is equal to the Visible Light Transmittance divided by the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient. The Department of Energy's Federal Technology Alert publication of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) views an LSG of 1.25 or greater to be Green Glazing/Spectrally Selective Glazing.
  30. 30. GLASS TYPE CONFIGURATION Monolithic Glazing - 6mm clear Float Glass d Laminated Glass with normal PVB - 6.38 mm PVB Laminate 3mm/0.38mm/3mm te re Laminated Glass with Acoustic PVB - 6.38 mm Acoustic PVB Laminate 3mm/0.38mm pvb/3mm Normal Double Glazing - 4mm Float – 12mm air gap – 4mm Float 4 – 12 – 4mm is Asymmetrical Double Glazing - 6mm Float – 12mm air gap – 4mm Float 6 – 12 – 4mm nR eg Double glazing with one pane laminated - 6mm Float – 12mm air gap – 8.38mm Float 6 – 12 – 8.38mm Double glazing with one pane acoustic PVB laminated -6mm Float – 12mm air gap – 8.38mm Float 6 – 12 – 8.38mm U Double glazing with two pane acoustic PVB laminated - 8.38mmFloat – 2mm air gap–10.38mm Float 8.38 – 12 – 10.38mm
  33. 33. U nR eg is te re d VISUAL MOCKUP AT SITE
  34. 34. What is glass Façade testing? is v To identify & rectify: ü Improper design ü Improper fabrication ü Improper installation te re Why Testing? d Glass façade testing is a process wherein the façade is tested for its designed performance for Structural stability & leakage’s against air & water infiltration. Assurances of performance of the glass façade as per design requirement Peace of mind on the functionality of the system Saving in time & money as few rectification on site after installation Leak proof building Increased life of the building U ü ü ü ü ü nR eg Advantages of testing Importance of testing These tests are a must & should be performed on every project as no two projects are similar & this helps the Project Manager to act proactively, thus save Valuable material in the form of modification, Valuable time & Valuable Money.
  35. 35. Laboratory Testing nR eg is te re d Air Infiltration Test ASTM E 283 Water Penetration Test ( Static ) ASTM E 331 Water Penetration Test (Dynamic) AAMA 501.1 Structural Test ( Wind load serviceability) - ASTM E 330 Seismic Racking Test ( Floor Displacement ) – AAMA 501.4 Structural Proof Load Test ( 150% ) ASTM E 330 Seismic Proof Test (150-200%) ASTM 501.4 U v v v v v v v
  36. 36. U nR eg is te re d Double glass unit
  37. 37. INSULATING GLASS UNIT PROCESS • First and foremost the right glass combination is selected according the clients requirement. STEP - 1 STEP-3 • Then, P.I.B(poly isobutyl) is applied to the spacer bar as the primary seal STEP-4 • Glass is then put through the washer and arrives on to the quality control check point. nR eg is te re d STEP -2 • All spacer bars are cut to size, and are then filled with a desiccant for moisture absorption. U • Quality control must then inspect to ensure the glass is clean and flawless STEP-5 • the pre-prepared spacer bar is then applied. The glass with the spacer bar attached is then sent to STEP-6 the holding point
  38. 38. d STEP-7 • The second piece of glass is then also put through the washer and inspected all the same, and then let through to the holding point, in which case the machine automatically aligns the two sheets of glass. te re nR eg is STEP - 8 • The two sheets are then pressed in the large glass press, and the automatically released out the other end. Then the Insulated Glass Unit is transported using the glass lift and is then ready for the application of the secondary seal STEP-10 • Once the secondary seal process is complete, the unit is left to dry, which brings us to the end of the manufacturing process. U STEP -9 • The secondary seal is applied all around the unit, in either butyl or silicon depending on the size and what the purpose of the unit is.
  39. 39. What are the benefits of having Double Glazed Units? d v Heat loss through single glazing will be at least halved with double glazed units te re v Rooms will be COLDER/WARMER with double glazed units v Outside NOICE can be reduced with double glazed units U nR eg is v Condensation can be reduced with double glazed units v v Increases the saleability of the property with double glazed units v v Savings on fuel bills with double glazed units.
  40. 40. is nR eg U d te re
  41. 41. d te re is nR eg U Design base report Wind pressure Total area Cost per Sft Extra Item Budget Projection Visuals Challenges BMU Openable Panel Girder Beam Maintenance
  42. 42. d te re is U nR eg Shattering Pattern of Toughened Glass
  43. 43. U nR eg is te re d GLASS FOR CW1 STACKED IN GLASS WALL FACTORY QTY – 3000.00 SQM
  44. 44. is nR eg U d te re THANK YOU