Fabric Training for retail staff


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A concise comprehensive guide to fundamentals of Fabrics specially designed for front-line retail staff.

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Fabric Training for retail staff

  1. 1. MODULE – 2A
  2. 2. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 2
  3. 3.   They are slender thread-like structures that can be spun into yarns and thread, and woven, knitted or felted into materials. FIBRES Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 3
  4. 4. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 4
  5. 5.   There are two types of fibres used in making textile products – those that come from the natural environment and those that are manufactured called man-made fibres. Fibre Classifications Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 5
  6. 6.  Sources of natural fibres  Cotton from the cotton plant  Linen from the flax plant  Wool from sheep  Silk from silkworms Natural Fibres Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 6
  7. 7. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 7
  8. 8.  Natural Plant Fibres  Cotton – King of fibres  Linen  Ramie  Jute  Hemp  Pineapple  Coir  Banana  Kapok  Bamboo Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 8
  9. 9. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 9
  10. 10.  1. Sea Island Cotton 2. Egyptian Cotton 3. Pima Cotton 4. American Upland Long Staple 5. American Upland Short Staple 6. Asia Short Staple Varieties of cotton Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 10
  11. 11.   It is soft  It absorbs moisture  It wrinkles easily  It is strong  It “breathes”  It is comfortable  It is durable  It has good colour retention if dyed at the fibre stage  It is easy to print on and requires heavy ironing  It is easy to care for, easy to wash  It is a natural resource that is fully renewable Properties of Cotton Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 11
  12. 12.   It is the strongest of the vegetable fibers.  Known for the coolness and freshness in hot weather.  It is smooth and gets softer the more it is washed.  It has a high natural luster.  It is strong and durable and dries quickly  It has poor elasticity Properties of Linen Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 12
  13. 13.  Natural Protein Fibers  Wool  Silk  Mohair  Cashmere  Camel  Alpaca  Llama  Vicuna  Musk Ox - Qiviut  Angora Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 13
  14. 14.   Camel Hair  Qiviut  Vicuna  Merino  Alpaca  Mohair  Llama  Angora  Cashmere  Cashgora Types of Wool Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 14
  15. 15.   Warm and comfortable to wear  Wrinkle resistance  Good resiliency when dry  Good drape and elasticity  Damaged by chlorine bleach  May shrink unless treated  Looses strength when wet  Shows pilling effect  Poor lustre and expensive  Felting of wool Properties of Wool Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 15
  16. 16.  SILK Types of Silk  Mulberry  Tasar  Oak Tasar  Eri  Muga Types of Silk fabrics  Charmeuse  Crepe de Chine or CDC  Filament silk  Georgette  Habutai Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 16
  17. 17. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 17
  18. 18.   Most lustrous and luxurious.  Lightweight and water absorbent.  Good dye ability with rich colours.  Stronger and moderately wrinkle resistant.  Excellent drape and luxurious hand  Expensive.  Damaged by chemical exposure.  Looses strength when wet.  Silk treated with formaldehyde shows high strength, higher resistance and reduced solubility to chemicals. Properties of Silk Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 18
  19. 19.   Man-made fibres are classified into three classes, those made from natural polymers, those made from synthetic polymers and those made from inorganic materials. Man-made fibres Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 19
  20. 20. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 20
  21. 21.   Is soft and luxurious and also drapes well.  It is not a heavy fabric but it gives warmth.  It was originally used to make outdoor goods but now is common in clothing and carpet although pure acrylic can result in pilling.  It can be dyed to bright colours.  Acrylic is made from a petrochemical called acrylontrile. Acrylic Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 21
  22. 22. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 22
  23. 23.   Is a polymide which is made from petroleum.  It is durable and lightweight.  Nylon is quick drying and cleans easily because dirt does not cling.  It can be static and does not absorb moisture so, if used it clothing, it can be clammy in the heat.  Examples of nylon products include luggage, carpeting materials and hosiery because of its elastic recovery ability. Nylon Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 23
  24. 24. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 24
  25. 25.   Is soft and strong, resistant to shrinkage and does not stretch.  It is a polymer which is produced from coal, water, air and petroleum products.  It can blend with natural fibres such as cotton or wool or with artificial ones, to increase the fabric more durable and easier to wash.  It can be used in clothing, filling for upholstery, floor coverings and insulation. Polyester Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 25
  26. 26. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 26
  27. 27.   Viscose is a solution of cellulose xanthate made by treating a cellulose compound with sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide. Byproducts include sodium thiocarbonate, sodium carbonate, and sodium sulfide. The viscose solution is used to spin the fiber Viscose Rayon, or Rayon  Is created by the regeneration of natural materials.  It is made from wood pulp and its properties are similar to those of linen or cotton.  There are various types of rayon including regular, high tenacity, high wet modulus and microfibers.  High tenacity rayon is strong and used mainly in industry.  Regular rayon is often used in clothing.  High wet modulus has high wet strength and microfibers are fine and silky. Viscose Rayon Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 27
  28. 28.   Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, em broidery, and rope-making. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for hand or machine embroidery. YARNS Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 28
  29. 29. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 29
  30. 30. Carding Machine For Wool Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 30
  31. 31. Carding Machine For Cotton Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 31
  32. 32. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 32 COTTON COMBING MACHINE
  33. 33. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 33
  34. 34. ROVING Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 34
  35. 35.   In the textile arts, plying is a process used to create a strong, balanced yarn. It is done by taking two or more strands of yarn that each have a twist to them and putting them together. The strands are twisted together, in the direction opposite that in which they were spun. When just the right amount of twist is added, this creates a balanced yarn, which is a yarn with no tendency to twist upon itself. Almost all store bought yarns are balanced, plied yarns. PLYING Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 35
  36. 36. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 36
  37. 37.   How to identify your fabric When you can't tell if a fabric is a knit or woven, put it through these tests: Look for loops or grain In knit fabric (left), one continuous yarn is looped repeatedly to create what looks like tiny rows of braids. In woven fabric (right), multiple yarns cross each other at right angles to form the grain, like a basket. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 37 Knits & Wovens: What's the Difference?
  38. 38.   Apply the stretch test When knit fabric is stretched along its width, it will stretch significantly. Along its length, it will stretch slightly. If a knit fabric is stretched excessively, a run may form. Most woven fabrics can't stretch along the lengthwise grain (the length of the fabric), and there is minimal give along the crosswise grain (the width of the fabric). Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 38 Knits & Wovens: What's the Difference?
  39. 39.   Check the wrinkle resistance When you ball up a knit in your hand, it will crush easily. When you release it, the fabric will spring back into shape with few, if any, wrinkles. When you wad up a woven fabric, it usually wrinkles easily.  Inspect the edges A knit is either sold as a tube or flat. On flat knits, factories apply round blobs of starch or glue along the lengthwise edges to prevent them from curling. Along the width, or cut edge, the fabric doesn't fray. The lengthwise edges of a woven fabric, called the selvages, are strong and don't move. The cut edge across the width of the fabric frays. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 39 Knits & Wovens: What's the Difference?
  40. 40.   Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. WEAVING Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 40
  41. 41.  I. Plain weave a. Basket/ Matt weave b. Ribbed ( Warp & Wet ) II. Twill weave III. Satin and Sateen weave IV. Variation of Basic weave. a. Crepe b. Pile (Cut/Uncut) c. Double Cloth d. Gauze (Leno) e. Swivel f. Lappet g. Dobby h. Jacquard i. Tri-axial. Types of weaves Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 41 WARP WEFT
  42. 42. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 42
  43. 43.   The plain weave repeats on 2 Ends × 2 Picks. It produces the firmest fabric. Plain Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 43
  44. 44. PLAIN WEAVE Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 44
  45. 45.   Twill weave, the second basic weave is characterized by diagonal lines running at angles varying between 15 and 75 degrees. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 45 Twill
  46. 46. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 46
  47. 47.   Four or more shafts with warp floats or weft floats in interrupted diagonal. It is very lustrous. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 47 Satin
  48. 48.   Dobby, a decorative weave results in small designs or geometric figures all over the woven fabric. The standard dobby weave fabrics are flat and comparatively fine. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 48 Dobby
  49. 49.   Oxford weave fabrics are made with modified plain weave or basket weave and are generally used for apparels, particularly cotton shirting materials. The fabric is fine, soft and lightweight. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 49 Oxford
  50. 50. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 50
  51. 51.   Jacquard weaves, produced on a special loom, are characterized by complex woven-in designs, often with large design repeats or tapestry effects. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 51 Jacquard
  52. 52. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 52
  53. 53.   Herringbone describes a distinctive V- shaped weaving pattern usually found in twill fabric. The pattern is called herringbone because it resembles the skeleton of a herring fish. Herringbone-patterned fabric is usually wool, and is one of the most popular cloths used for suits and outerwear. Tweed cloth is often woven with a herringbone pattern. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 53 Herringbone
  54. 54. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 54
  55. 55.   End-on-end (also known by its French name, Fil-a- Fil) is essentially a plain weave where one colour yarn is interwoven with another colour yarn. Although one of the two colours is usually White, a great variety of end-on-ends have been produced in recent years. This type of weave yields a familiar two-tone appearance. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 55 Fil-a-Fil
  56. 56. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 56
  57. 57.   Chambray fabric is thought to originate from Cambrai in France many centuries ago as far back as 1595.  It differs from denim in that it is not a twill fabric, when it is woven - the warp and the weft of the fabric cross equally giving it a 1 x 1 fabric structure. This is known as a chambray structure. This is partly responsible for its lighter appearance as the weft, the lighter unbleached thread, appears on the surface of the fabric. Both sides of chambray are identical meaning it has no right or wrong side. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 57 Chambray
  58. 58. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 58
  59. 59.   Piqué, or marcella, refers to a weaving style, normally used with cotton yarn, which is characterized by raised parallel cords or fine ribbing.  Pique fabrics are a type of dobby construction. These fabrics require the addition of extra yarns, called stuffer yarns. These stuffer yarns are incorporated into the back of the fabric to give texture and added depth to the fabric design. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 59 Piqué
  60. 60. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 60
  61. 61.   The pique is a type of cotton weave, so is the jersey knit. The pique is a bit heavier and rougher. The jersey is thinner and smoother knit. The term golf polo can apply to both. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 61 What is the difference between a pique polo, a Jersey Knit Polo and a golf polo shirt?
  62. 62.   Knitted fabrics is the third major class of fabric, after woven and nonwoven fabrics.  Knitting is the construction of an elastic, porous fabric, created by interlocking yarns by means of needles. Knitted fabrics can be made much more quickly and easily than woven fabrics at comparatively less cost. Knitted fabrics are generally light in weight, comfortable in wear even during travel, but yet require little care to keep their neat appearance. The tendency of knits to resist wrinkling is another factor to boost up their popularity. Knitted fabrics are used for designing active clothing such as sports clothing. Their elastic nature permits for abundant physical activity. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 62 KNITS
  63. 63.   Jersey is a knit fabric used predominantly for clothing manufacture. It was originally made of wool, but is now made of wool, cotton, and synthetic fibres. This is the fabric most often used to make T-shirts. Jersey is considered to be an excellent fabric for draped garments, such as dresses, and women's tops. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 63 Jersey
  64. 64.   The following types of jersey can be distinguished:  Single Jersey fabric - weight: 140 g / m²  Double Jersey  Interlock Jersey  Jacquard Jersey  Clocqué Jersey Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 64 Jersey
  65. 65. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 65 SINGLE JERSEY
  66. 66. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 66 DOUBLE JERSEY
  67. 67. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 67 INTERLOCK JERSEY
  68. 68. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 68 JACQUARD JERSEY
  69. 69.   Dyeing is the process of adding colour to textile products like fibres, yarns, and fabrics. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. The temperature and time controlling are two key factors in dyeing. There are mainly two classes of dye, natural and man- made. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 69 DYEING
  70. 70.   Fibre dyeing  Yarn dyeing  Fabric dyeing  Product dyeing Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 70 Stages of Dyeing
  71. 71.   A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together.  The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth). Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 71 FABRIC
  72. 72.   Blended fabrics are those that are made from both natural and, or synthetic fibres. At least 2 or more different kinds of fibres are woven together to make the finished fabric.  Natural Blend  Mixed Blend  Synthetic Blend Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 72 Blended Fabric
  73. 73.  Polyester/Wool  Polyester/ Viscose  Terylene/Rayon  Linen/Cotton  Linen/Silk  Linen/Rayon  Silk/Wool  Silk/ Cotton  Rayon/Cotton Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 73 Common Blends
  74. 74. Presentation By: Vinay Shekhar 74