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  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY : An Introduction
  2. 2. Meaning Of Research According to Redman and Mory, “ Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge .” According to M. Stephenson, “Research is the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”
  3. 3. Objectives Of Research  To gain familiarity or achieve new insights on a phenomena (exploratory/ formulative)  To portray characteristics of a situation/ group/ individual (descriptive)  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (diagnostic/ clinical)  To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between given variables (Hypothesis-testing)
  4. 4. Motivation in Research  Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits.  Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems.  Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work.  Desire to be of service to society.  Desire to get respectability.
  5. 5. Types Of Research  Descriptive vs. Analytical  Applied vs. Fundamental  Quantitative vs. Qualitative  Conceptual vs. Empirical  One-time or Longitudinal  Historical Research
  6. 6. Research Approaches  Quantitative Approach o Inferential Approach o Experimental Approach o Simulation Approach  Qualitative Approach
  7. 7. Significance Of Research  It inculcates scientific and inductive thinking.  The role of research in several fields of applied economics has greatly increased today.  It provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system.  It helps in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.  It helps in studying social relationships.
  8. 8. Research Methods versus Methodology Research methods refer to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations where as In Research methodology, we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique so that the results are capable of being evaluated.
  9. 9. Importance of Knowing How Research is Done  It helps in developing disciplined thinking or a ‘bent of mind’ to observe the field objectively.  It will inculcate the ability to evaluate and use research results with reasonable confidence.  It gives us the satisfaction of acquiring a new intellectual tool which can become a way of looking at the world and of judging everyday experience.  It helps us to take rational decisions.
  10. 10. Research Process  Formulating the research problem  Extensive literature survey  Development of working hypothesis  Preparing the research design
  11. 11.  Determining sample design o Deliberate Sampling o Simple random sampling o Systematic sampling o Stratified sampling o Quota sampling o Cluster sampling o Multi-stage sampling o Sequential sampling
  12. 12.  Collecting the data o By observation o Through personal interview o Through telephone interviews o By mailing of questionnaires o Through schedules (look up Appendix – 1)  Execution of the project  Analysis of data
  13. 13.  Hypothesis-testing  Generalizations and interpretation  Preparation of the report or the thesis o Introduction o Summary of findings o Main report o Conclusion
  14. 14. Criteria of Good Research  Clearly defined purpose  Procedure should be described in sufficient detail  Carefully planned design  Researcher should report with complete frankness.
  15. 15.  Adequate analysis of data  Proper conclusions  Experienced researcher  Systematic research  Logical research  Empirical research  Replicable research
  16. 16. Problems Encountered by Researchers in India  Lack of scientific training  Insufficient interaction  Lack of confidence  Overlapping research studies  No code of conduct for researchers
  17. 17.  Difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance  Unsatisfactory library management and functioning at many places  Difficulty of timely availability of published data  Problem of conceptualization
  18. 18. End of Topic
  19. 19. Appendix - 1
  20. 20. Date and time of appointm ent Name of medicine outlet Contact person Location Sector Number Back-up outlet name and contact details March 23rd, 13h00 ABC Pharmacy Mrs. Nguyen 45 Main Street private 01 Main St. Chemist 59 Main Street Eastern City Mr. Shah Survey Area: Eastern Region Sample schedule for data collection team