Choice of training methods is generally influenced by
the these factors:
Objectives of a training programme
Participant’s level of understanding and previous experience
Size of group
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to
The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the
rules for how to do something, written or verbal
information, demonstrate relationships among concepts,
FOCUSES- changes in knowledge and attitude by
Methods of Cognitive approach
Computer Based Training (CBT)
It is a formal verbal presentation of
information to the trainees by
expert company executives or
Lecture is given to enhance the
knowledge of listener or to give him
the theoretical aspect of a topic
It is difficult to imagine training
without lecture format.
There are some variations in
The variation here means that some
forms of lectures are interactive
while some are not.
Main features of Lecture
Can be reached large number of people at once
Knowledge building exercise
This method is a visual
display of how something
works or how to do
Essential while introducing
new products or new selling
Helps the focusing their
attention on critical aspects
of the task
Accompanied by the
discussion or lecture to make
it more effective
Discussion method is a two-way flow of communication, i.e.
knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to trainees
Then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to trainer.
In panel discussion, leader presents the sales problem, calls
upon each member to comment, then closes the discussion
and summarises the views of the panel.
Computer Based Training
CBT is an alternative to classroom based training.
Providing training to employees through Intranet or
CBT does not require face-to-face interaction with a
Benefits of CBT
Reduces the cost of training
Allows the trainee to master trainee
Affords privacy of learning
Increases access to training
Reduces trainee learning time
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical
training to the trainees
These methods are best used for skill development.
Methods of Behavioural approach
Games and Simulations
Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in
which trainees compete with each other according
to the defined set of rules.
Simulation is creating computer versions of real-
It is about imitating or making judgment or opining how
events might occur in a real situation.
Methods of Games and Simulation:
In this method, some kind of process or behavior is
videotaped and then is watched by the trainees.
The trainees first observe the behavior modeled in
the video and then reproduces the behavior on the
These are based on the set of rules, procedures, plans,
relationships and principles.
In the Business Games, trainees are given some
information that describes a particular situation and are
then asked to make decisions that will best suit in the
favour of the company.
And then the system provides the feedback about the
impact of their decisions.
Again, on the basis of the feedback, they are asked to
make the decisions again.
This process continues until some meaningful results do
not come out.
The trainee is given with
some written material, and
the some complex
situations of a real or
The trainee then makes
certain judgement about
the case by identifying and
giving possible solutions to
Also known as In-tray method
The trainee is presented with a pack of papers and
files in a tray containing administrative problems
and is asked to take decisions on these within a
The decisions taken by the trainees are compared
with one another.
The trainees are provided feedback on their
Role play is a simulation in which
each participant is given a role to
Information is given to trainees
description of the role
Some real life situations are presented
before them and they are asked to act
out the way in which the
circumstances might reach an
appropriate conclusion through the