Play- Plays like patty cake and peek-a-boo</li></ul>11 months<br /><ul><li>Cruises “ Walks with support”- motor
Play- Cruises</li></ul>12 months<br />Stands alone: some infants take first step- motor<br />Holds cup and spoon well:<br />Helps to dress( pushes arm into sleeve)<br />Says to word da-da or ma- ma<br />Play- likes toys that fit inside each other, nursery rhyme<br />PROMOTING INFANT SAFETY<br /><ul><li>Accidents are leading cause of death from 1 month through 24 years of age.
They are only second to acute infections as a cause of morbidity
Most accidents in infants occur due to underestimation or overestimation of child’s ability.</li></ul>Aspiration Prevention<br /><ul><li>Round and cylindrical objects are dangerous because it can obstruct the airway( hotdog and carrots)
Educate the parents of the infant not to prop the bottles
Educate the parents to secure that the infant will not even reach a small object to be put into the mouth
When solid foods are introduced, encourage parents to offer a small pieces of food.</li></ul>Fall prevention- second major cause of infant accidents<br /><ul><li>As a preventive measure, no infant, should be left unattended on a raised surface.
Be sure that the crib sides are raised and secure before anyone walks away from the crib.</li></ul>Motor vehicle<br /><ul><li>Never transport unless the infant is buckled into an infant car seat in the back seat of the car
Store unused appliances with the doors removed
Remove constricting clothing such as bib at bedtime</li></ul>Drowning<br /><ul><li>Do not leave infant alone in the bath tub or unsupervised near water</li></ul>Animal Bites<br /><ul><li>Do not allow an infant to approach a strange dog</li></ul>Poisoning<br /><ul><li>Never present medication as candy
Verbal language increasing steadily. Knows full name: can name one color and holds up finger to show age
Play- Spends time playing house, imitating parents actions; play is “ rough- housing” or active</li></ul>Problem Concerns Associated With The Toddler Period:<br />Toilet training<br /><ul><li>It should begin when the infant is ready to accomplish it
They must have the control of rectal and urethral spinchter
They must have a cognitive understanding of what it means to hold urine and stools- so they can release it on time and proper place
They must have the desire to delay immediate gratification for a more socially accepted action</li></ul>Ritualistic Behavior<br /><ul><li>They will use their spoon at meal time
They will not go outside unless mother locates his cap
You need more guidelines and rule”</li></ul>NEGATIVISM<br /><ul><li>They always say “no”
Instead tell come to table its dinnertime</li></ul>DISCIPLINE-means setting rules or road signs so children know what is expected of them<br />Punishment- is a consequence that results from a breakdown in discipline <br />A. Parents need to be consistent<br />B. rules are learned best if correct behavior is praised than wrong nehavior is punished<br />“timeout:”- help children that their actions have consequences<br />SEPARATION ANXIETY<br />6 mos persists up to preschool period<br />Inform the child before leaving<br />But they will still cry if they don’t see their parents<br />Sneaking can prevent crying but increases abandonment<br />TEMPER TANTRUMS<br />Child may kick, scream, stamp, shout<br />No no no and lie on the floor<br />Sometimes they are holding their breath, true breath holding is a neurologic problem in wc children under stress <br />Just ignore!<br />PRESCHOOL CHILD<br />Physical Growth<br />-Definitive changes in the body contour- ectomorphic( slim) endomorphic( large)<br /><ul><li>Vocabulary increases
Teeth- generally have 20 deciduous teeth by 3 years of age.
Oedipus complex- strong emotional attachment a preschool boy demonstrates toward his mother
Electra complex- preschool girl to her father
DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES </li></ul>3 years old<br />Undresses self; stacks tower of blocks; draws a cross-fine motor<br />Runs; alternate feet on stairs; rides tricycle; stand on one foot- gross<br />Vocabulary of 900 words<br />Play- Able to take turns; very imaginative<br />4 years old<br />Can do simple buttons- fine<br />Constantly in motion jumps; skips- Gross<br />Vocabulary of 1500 words- language<br />Play: Pretending is major activity<br />Ex: imaginary friends are normal<br />5 years<br />Draws a 6 part man, can lace shoes- fine motor<br />Throws overhead- gross<br />Vocabulary of 2100 words- language<br />Play: likes games with numbers or letters<br />PARENTAL CONCERNS ASSOCIATED WITH PRESCHOOL PROBLEMS<br />COMMON FEARS OF THE PRESCHOOLER<br />Fear of darkness- sleep with the child<br />Fear of mutilation-which involves the loss of, or incapacity to use, a bodily member<br /> - need of good explanation<br />Separation abandonment- explain on the time and place that a child can relates<br />Ex: television shows, or a friends house<br />Preparing for new sibling<br />Eliminate the sibling rivalry by explaining that the preschool is already big boy<br />Tell the preschool child in advance<br />Allow the child to visit in the hospital<br />SEX EDUCATION<br />Why does james looks differ from mine?<br />Answer: “boys look different from girls”<br />The different part is penis<br />Where does the babies come from?<br />Answer: “Babies grow in a special place in a mothers body called uterus.”<br />SCHOOL AGE CHILD<br />Chronological Devt of secondary characteristics<br />AgeBoysGIrls9-11Prepubertal weight gainBreasts: elevation of papilla with breast bud formation, areolar diameter enlarges11-12Sparse growth of straight, downy slightly pigmented hair at base of penisScrotum become texturedGrowth of penis and testesPerspiration increasesStraight hair along the labia, vaginal epithelium cornifiedPerspiration also increases12-13Pubic hair present across pubisPenis lengthensDramatic linear growth spurtBreast enlargement occursPubic hair grows darker; spreads all over pubisBreast enlarges, still no protrusion of nipples axillary hair is presentMenarche occurs<br />SCHOOL AGE DEVELOPMENT<br />6 years<br />A year of constant motion, skipping is a new skill- physical<br />Teacher becomes authority figure- psychosocial<br />Define words by their use- cognitive<br />Ex: a key is to unlock a door not a metal object<br />7 years<br />Central incisor erupt-permanent<br />Play: video games and dolls- quiet play<br />A quiet year: striving for perfection leads to this year being called an eraser year.<br />Can tell time, can make simple changes<br />8 years<br />Coordination definitely improved; <br />playing with gang becomes important; eyes become fully developed<br />Best friends develop<br />Whispering and giggling begins<br />Can write as well as print<br />Can tell the present, past and future<br />9 years<br />All activities done with a gang<br />Gang age- secrets<br />All boys or all girls<br />If gang disband and reform quickly<br />10 years<br />Coordination improves<br />Ready to camp away from home<br />Ready for competitive games<br />11 years<br />Active but awkward and ungainly<br />Insecure with members of the opposite sex, repeats off color jokes<br />12 years<br />Coordination improves<br />A sense of humor is present: is social and cooperative<br />CONCERNS OF PROBLEMS DURING SCHOOL AGE<br />Common: <br /><ul><li>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders
Responsibility</li></ul>Language<br />Articulation- the child is difficult in saying<br />S,z, th,l r, and w substitutes for “westroom” or “radies room”<br />Fears<br /><ul><li>Anxiety related to beginning school- adjusting to the environment
School refusal or phobia- resist to attend school just like agoraphobia
Cause: bully harsh teacher, showering in the gym class
Manage by counseling or transferring to another room</li></ul>Sex Education<br /><ul><li>Reproductive organ function
Secondary sexual characteristics-aware of their body
Physiology of reproduction-understand menstruation
Explanation of the physiology of pregnancy and the possibility that comes with sexual maturity for unplanned or unwanted pregnancies
Social and moral implications sexual maturity</li></ul>Stealing- during early age it is normal- around 7 yrs old<br />Tell your child that the money is missing<br />Not pointing that the child steal the money<br />The importance of money is reviewed<br />Mother and father is theirs<br />Child;s money is the childs money<br />Violence and tourism- such as shooting or reports of terrorism<br />COMMON RECOMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Assure children they are safe;
Assure children their parents are actively involved in keeping them safe.
Observe for signs of stress- sleep disturbance, fatigue, lack of pleasure,
Not allow children or adolescents to view footage of traumatic events over and over
Watch news programs with children so they can explain that the situation.
Explain there are bad people in the world, and bad people do bad things. But encourage not to see only one side of it.
Prepare a family disaster plan</li></ul>BULLYING<br /><ul><li>Tell the child that it should be reported
School age child bullying has long term effects on mental health </li></ul>ADOLESCENTS<br /><ul><li>Puberty- is the time at which an individual first become capable of sexual reproduction
Boys- begins producing spermatozoa</li></ul>SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS<br />AgeMalesFemales13-15Growth spurt coninuesPubic hair is abundant and curlyTestis, scrotum and penis enlarging furtherFacial hair, voice changesPubic hair is thick and curly- triangularMenstruation is ovulatoryPregnancy is possible15-16Genitalia adultScrotum dark and heavily rugatedFacial and body hair is presentSperm production is maturePubic hair abindantAreolas no longer project as separates ridges from the breastFacial acne16-17Pubic hair curly and abundant may extend to the medial aspect of the thighFacial acneGynecomastia – enlarged breast tissueEnd of skeletal growth17-18End of skeletal organ<br />Play or recreation<br /><ul><li>Change from more adults forms of recreation such as: listening to music, chatting on computers, following a sports teams wins or losses.</li></ul>Emotional devt: identity vs. role confusion<br />Four main areas to achieve a sense of identity<br /><ul><li>Accepting a change or body image
Establishing a value system or what kind of person they want to be
Becoming emancipated from their parents</li></ul>13 years old<br /> feel self doubt than self confidence<br />Because they still look children but want to grown up<br />14 years old<br />Becoming used of their body changes and quieter- have more self confidence<br />15 years old<br />Fall in love 5 to six times a year<br />Based on physical features<br />16 years<br />Becoming sexually mature- trust their own bodies<br />17 years<br />Left behind the childish behaviors they used in early adolescence<br />Shoving and punching- to get the attention of the opposite sex<br />