The interactionist view does not propose that all conflicts are good. Rather, some conflicts support the goals of the group and improve its performance, these are functional, constructive, forms of conflict. In addition, there are conflicts that hinder group performance; these are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict.
Stage I: The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise: communication, structure, personal variables.Stage II: Here conflict issues tend to be defined – what conflict is about. Perceived conflict – awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt conflict – emotional involvement in a conflict that creates anxiety, tenseness, frustration or hostility.Stage III: Intentions intervene between people’s perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. These intentions are decisions to act in a given way.
Communications: You know, there are some people you find easy to communicate with. But there are some – it seems to be impossible. The causes are – cannotations, jargons, insufficiant exchange of information as well as noise in communication channel.Structure: It is nothing personal – it is just their jobs bringing them into conflict. They could be the best friends otherwise.Personal Variable: Personality does appear to play a role in the conflict process: some people just tend to get into conflict and troubles. Have you ever met someone for whoom you felt an imediate dislike? You automatically disagree with most expressions made by such person.
This is the stage when conflict is defined, when persons decide what will the conflict be about.It is also a metter of positive and negative emotions to play a great role at this stage.Perceived conflict: it is not about emotions. Even if there is a serious dissagreement that doesnt mean that some of persons are anxious.Felt conflict: the very opposite is with felt conflict. Thats when people get emotionally involved with ager, anxious etc.
INTENTIONS. This is an interaction of perception, emotions and behaviour.5 conflict-handling intentions can be identified:Competing – when a person seeks to satisfy his/her own interests, regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict. (winning a bet)Collaborating – when the each of the parties desire to fully satisfy the concerns of all parties.Avoiding – a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it.Accommodating – the willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his/her own.Compromising – when each party seeks to give up something, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome.Intentions might change during the conflict, however the research indicates that people have an underlying disposition to handle conflicts in certain ways, especially individuals. Person’s intentions can be predicted rather well from a combination of intellectual and personality characteristics.
This is the stage where conflicts become visible.Actions vs reactions.Sometimes even the behaviour and actions leads off the original intentions just to proof someones opinion.
As lower you are as better.
Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them
There are two approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and interactive bargaining.In distributive bargaining any gain one makes is at other negotiator expense and vice versa. Distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what piece of fixed pie. Fixed pie is a set of goods or services over which the two parties are fighting. Each of negotiators have target points that they would like to achieve and resistance point which is the lowest acceptable outcome. The area between these two points makes each one`s aspiration range. As soon as both negotiator`s aspiration ranges overlap, there exists a settlement range – the room for negotiated outcome.How to grab the biggest piece of fixed pie? According to research best negotiators are those who make the first offer and also who set s deadline for his opponent`s decision.
Integrative bargaining operates under assumption that there are one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. In terms of organizational behavior Integrative bargaining is more preferable than distributive one, because it forms long-term relationship.If you want to be successful negotiator it`s good to remember that individuals who negotiate in teams reach more win-win solutions than those who bargain individually. This happens because more ideas are generated when more people at the bargaining table.
Ask audience fortheiropinion.
Conflict and Negotiation
The work life of a project manager is a life of
conflict. Although conflict is not necessarily bad,
it is an issue that has to be resolved by the
project manager. Without excellent negotiation
skills, the project manager has little chance for
Taylor, J. 1998. A survival guide for project managers. AMACON
Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of needs,
values and interests.
Traditional view of conflict – all conflict is harmful and must be
Human relations view of conflict –conflict is a natural and inevitable
outcome in any group.
Interactionist view of conflict – conflict is not only a positive force in
a group, but it is also an absolute necessity for a group to
3 types of conflict:
Task conflict – conflict over content and goals of the
Relationship conflict – conflict based on interpersonal
Process conflict – conflict over how work gets done.
I POTENTIAL OPPOSITION OR INCOMPATIBILITY
II COGNITION AND PERSONALZIATION
Overt efforts to destroy the
Aggressive physical attacks
Threats and ultimatums
Assertive verbal attacks
Overt questioning or
challanging of others
Minor disagreements or
CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES
Expansion of resources
Alreing the human variable
Altering the structural variable
Bringing in outsiders
Restructuring the organization
Appointing a devil’s advocate
Negotiation = bargaining
Two or more parties exchange goods
And attempt to agree on exchange rates
Approaches to negotiation:
Target point/resistance point
Approaches to negotiation
One or more settlements
Negotiation Style Number 5
• What is the nature of conflict?
• Who is involved?
• What are your goals?
• BATNA ( the best alternative to a negotiated agreement)
• Who will do the negotiating?
• Where it will take place?
• What is the time limit?
• Educating and informing
• Concessions time
• Formalizing the agreement and developing
• BUT closure of the negotiation process for
most cases is nothing more than a formal
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN
•The best bargainer is Disagreeable introvert (according to the Big Five Test)
•a popular stereotype: women are more cooperative and pleasant in negotiations
•Brazilians on average said “no” 83 times, Japanese 5 and North Americans 9
•Brazilians interrupted 2.5 to 3 times more often than the North Americans and
•Japanese and North Americans had no physical contact while Brazilians
touched each other almost 5 times every half hour
THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS
Mediator – a neutral
third party who
facilitates a negotiated
solution by using
and suggestions for
Arbitrator – a third party
to a negotiation who has
the authority to dictate an
THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS
Conciliator – a trusted
third party who
provides an informal
between the negotiator
and the opponent.
Consultant – a skilled and
impartial third party who attempts
to facilitate problem solving through
communication and analysis, aided
by a knowledge of conflict