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Conflict and negotiation

Conflict and negotiation

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  • The interactionist view does not propose that all conflicts are good. Rather, some conflicts support the goals of the group and improve its performance, these are functional, constructive, forms of conflict. In addition, there are conflicts that hinder group performance; these are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict.
  • Stage I: The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise: communication, structure, personal variables.Stage II: Here conflict issues tend to be defined – what conflict is about. Perceived conflict – awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt conflict – emotional involvement in a conflict that creates anxiety, tenseness, frustration or hostility.Stage III: Intentions intervene between people’s perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. These intentions are decisions to act in a given way.
  • Communications: You know, there are some people you find easy to communicate with. But there are some – it seems to be impossible. The causes are – cannotations, jargons, insufficiant exchange of information as well as noise in communication channel.Structure: It is nothing personal – it is just their jobs bringing them into conflict. They could be the best friends otherwise.Personal Variable: Personality does appear to play a role in the conflict process: some people just tend to get into conflict and troubles. Have you ever met someone for whoom you felt an imediate dislike? You automatically disagree with most expressions made by such person.
  • This is the stage when conflict is defined, when persons decide what will the conflict be about.It is also a metter of positive and negative emotions to play a great role at this stage.Perceived conflict: it is not about emotions. Even if there is a serious dissagreement that doesnt mean that some of persons are anxious.Felt conflict: the very opposite is with felt conflict. Thats when people get emotionally involved with ager, anxious etc.
  • INTENTIONS. This is an interaction of perception, emotions and behaviour.5 conflict-handling intentions can be identified:Competing – when a person seeks to satisfy his/her own interests, regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict. (winning a bet)Collaborating – when the each of the parties desire to fully satisfy the concerns of all parties.Avoiding – a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it.Accommodating – the willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his/her own.Compromising – when each party seeks to give up something, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome.Intentions might change during the conflict, however the research indicates that people have an underlying disposition to handle conflicts in certain ways, especially individuals. Person’s intentions can be predicted rather well from a combination of intellectual and personality characteristics.
  • This is the stage where conflicts become visible.Actions vs reactions.Sometimes even the behaviour and actions leads off the original intentions just to proof someones opinion.
  • As lower you are as better.
  • Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them
  • There are two approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and interactive bargaining.In distributive bargaining any gain one makes is at other negotiator expense and vice versa. Distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what piece of fixed pie. Fixed pie is a set of goods or services over which the two parties are fighting. Each of negotiators have target points that they would like to achieve and resistance point which is the lowest acceptable outcome. The area between these two points makes each one`s aspiration range. As soon as both negotiator`s aspiration ranges overlap, there exists a settlement range – the room for negotiated outcome.How to grab the biggest piece of fixed pie? According to research best negotiators are those who make the first offer and also who set s deadline for his opponent`s decision.
  • Integrative bargaining operates under assumption that there are one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. In terms of organizational behavior Integrative bargaining is more preferable than distributive one, because it forms long-term relationship.If you want to be successful negotiator it`s good to remember that individuals who negotiate in teams reach more win-win solutions than those who bargain individually. This happens because more ideas are generated when more people at the bargaining table.
  • Ask audience fortheiropinion.

Conflict and negotiation presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Conflict and Negotiation The work life of a project manager is a life of conflict. Although conflict is not necessarily bad, it is an issue that has to be resolved by the project manager. Without excellent negotiation skills, the project manager has little chance for success. Taylor, J. 1998. A survival guide for project managers. AMACON
  • 2. Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests. Traditional view of conflict – all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Human relations view of conflict –conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Interactionist view of conflict – conflict is not only a positive force in a group, but it is also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively.
  • 3. 3 types of conflict: Task conflict – conflict over content and goals of the work. Relationship conflict – conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Process conflict – conflict over how work gets done.
  • 4. I POTENTIAL OPPOSITION OR INCOMPATIBILITY COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE PERSONAL VARIABLE
  • 5. II COGNITION AND PERSONALZIATION Perceived conflict Felt conflict
  • 6. III INTENTIONS
  • 7. IV BEHAVIOUR Party’s behavior Other’s reaction
  • 8. IV BEHAVIOUR Overt efforts to destroy the other party Aggressive physical attacks Threats and ultimatums Assertive verbal attacks Overt questioning or challanging of others Minor disagreements or misunderstandings Annihilatory conflict No conflict
  • 9. IV BEHAVIOUR CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES Problem solving Superordinate goals Expansion of resources Avoidance Smoothing Compromise Authoritative command Alreing the human variable Altering the structural variable
  • 10. IV BEHAVIOUR CONFLICT STIMULATION TECHNIQUES Communication Bringing in outsiders Restructuring the organization Appointing a devil’s advocate
  • 11. V OUTCOMES Increased group performance Increased group performance
  • 12. Negotiation = bargaining Two or more parties exchange goods And attempt to agree on exchange rates
  • 13. Approaches to negotiation: Distributive bargaining Fixed pie Opposed interests Win/lose Target point/resistance point
  • 14. Approaches to negotiation Integrative bargaining One or more settlements Win/win Long-term relationship
  • 15. Negotiation Style Number 5 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3oKwg6W05MU
  • 16. THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS
  • 17. Preparation and planning • What is the nature of conflict? • Who is involved? • What are your goals? • BATNA ( the best alternative to a negotiated agreement) Definition of ground rules • Who will do the negotiating? • Where it will take place? • What is the time limit? Clarification and justification • Educating and informing
  • 18. Bargaining and Problem Solving • Concessions time Closure and implementation • Formalizing the agreement and developing procedure • BUT closure of the negotiation process for most cases is nothing more than a formal handshake
  • 19. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NEGOTIATION EFFECTIVENESS Personality traits •The best bargainer is Disagreeable introvert (according to the Big Five Test) Moods/emotions Gender differences •a popular stereotype: women are more cooperative and pleasant in negotiations than men. Cultural differences •Brazilians on average said “no” 83 times, Japanese 5 and North Americans 9 •Brazilians interrupted 2.5 to 3 times more often than the North Americans and Japanese •Japanese and North Americans had no physical contact while Brazilians touched each other almost 5 times every half hour
  • 20. THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS Mediator – a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion and suggestions for alternatives. Arbitrator – a third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement
  • 21. THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATIONS Conciliator – a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Consultant – a skilled and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem solving through communication and analysis, aided by a knowledge of conflict management.