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Sustainable concrete design and construction

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David Bennett, consultant, David Bennett Associates

David Bennett, consultant, David Bennett Associates

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  • 1. Sustainable Concrete Design • · • Lowering CO2 in Construction • CO2 Construction Audit • Elegance in Architecture David Bennett Architectural Concrete Consultant
  • 2. Picture a Glass of Latte What’s the Embodied C02? • Raw Material • Production • Packing • Transport • Shop • Hot Water • Coffee Container • Milk • Sugar
  • 3. Concrete and C02 It’s just like a good cup of coffee Expresso, Americano, Latte, Macchiato, Mocha Insitu, Precast, SCC, GRC, Ductal, Rammed Discuss
  • 4. C02 and Concrete Construction • Cement • Aggregates • Ready Mix • Rebar • Formwork /Temporary Work • Plant & Machinery • Labour
  • 5. Concrete Cement is one sixth of concrete kg C02/tonne • OPC range 930 > 760 • GGBS 54 • PFA 4 • Rocktron 50
  • 6. Persistence Works
  • 7. Lowering Cement C02 by 50% • Blend OPC with GGBS/PFA • Carbonation Benefits of OPC
  • 8. Aggregates are 80% of Concrete Aggregates kg C02/tonne • Natural Washed - 4 • Natural Crushed - 4-10 Synthetic Aggregates • Lytag Sintered PFA 60 • Liapor (expanded shale) 12
  • 9. Typical Concrete Mix Constituents kgC02/m3 OPC 180 kg Ribblesdale 137 GGBS 180 kg C&M 8 Sand 750 kg Lea Valley 3 Gravel 1200 kg Thames Estuary 5 Water 180 kg Thames Water 0 Admixture ignore Embodied kg C02/m3 153
  • 10. CO2 of Wood Captured CO2 = 1.84 x density Embodied CO2 Process plywood 670 kg C02/tonne Wisa – birch phenolic faced 18mm thick 29 kg CO2/m2 (assumes the wood is carbon zero)
  • 11. Formwork Temporary Support/ Falsework Disposable Items • Form Face Ply 18mm thick • Plastic Cones • Tie Rods
  • 12. The Form Face & Sustainable Design • Select Material for a Good Finish • High Reuse Factor • FSC Grade • Re-use in Permanent Architecture • Responsible Design
  • 13. Rebar C02 kg C02/tonne Total Two Stage Process 1. Coil Manufacture 422 2. Fabrication a) Bar 63 485 b) Mesh 88 501 Celsa/ BRC Audit includes production , staff travel and transport
  • 14. Concrete Quality and Aesthetic • Visual Concrete Specification • the choice, the mix, the form, the finish Get it right!
  • 15. Thrifty Beeches
  • 16. Spedant Works
  • 17. Kew Herbarium
  • 18. CHUR House
  • 19. The C02 Construction Audit Four Buildings Assessed two concrete, two steel • Bill of Quantities • Embodied C02 of Materials • Plant/Machinery/Labour
  • 20. Some Anomalies Some references are distorted • Resin, Polyurethane, Paint, PVC resolve micron/m2 • Structural Steel new or recycled? check • Lightweight Lytag Concrete high C02/m3 RECONCILE them
  • 21. Construction Audit Examples • Substructure • Superstructure • External Cladding • Finishes • Mechanical Ducting
  • 22. Building CO2 Audit Summary Element M4C3 % M4S3 % M4C7 % M4S7 % Substructure 136 10 95 4 254 9 160 3 Superstructure 350 27 1348 59 904 31 3411 63 External cladding 263 20 267 11 532 18 545 10 Finishes 432 33 433 19 893 31 911 1 M&E: Fully air conditioned 59 4 59 3 137 5 137 3 Plant & labour 83 6 89 4 190 6 189 4 Total (av.) 1322 100 2291 100 291 100 5353 100 Tonnes CO2
  • 23. Building CO2 Audit Summary Possible reductions in CO2 for lean solution Element M4C3 % M4S3 % M4C7 % M4S7 % Frame - na -768 na -1972 All recycled steel M&E; a) eliminate suspended -60 na -149 na ceiling b) Reduce ductwork -53 na -124 na Public transport -77 -83 -183 -182 Total CO2 reduction -190 -14 -851 -37 -455 -16 -2154 -40
  • 24. Total C02 Design Solution • Minimise Construction C02 • Utilise Thermal Mass for Long Term Energy Reduction Lower Total C02 Emissions
  • 25. Concrete is just like a good coffee - Make it the low C02 blend!