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Exploring refurbishment and local partnerships as the number one option to improve the education of students in poor socio-economic areas

Exploring refurbishment and local partnerships as the number one option to improve the education of students in poor socio-economic areas

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Frank Locker, Frank Locker Educational Planning Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Improving Learning with Refurbished Buildings for Students in Lower-Economic Areas Frank Locker PhD Frank Locker Educational Planning [email_address] Remodelling Education Spaces Conference Manchester UK September 2010
  • 2. Glen Earthman: 112,000 Google entries Baltimore NAACP report Link: http://www.aclu.org/rightsofthepoor/edu/13429prs20040113.html Research DR GLEN EARTHMAN
  • 3. SCHOOL BUILDINGS + STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
    • Students in poor buildings perform less well than students in functional buildings
    • Most research shows 5 to 10 percentile rank points difference
    • Can be as much as 17 percentile points
    Dr Glen Earthman Research
  • 4. OLDER BUILDINGS ARE DETRIMENTAL TO STUDENT PERFORMANCE
    • Age is proxy for conditions
    • Age is often a reliable indicator that building condition is poor
    • 14 studies: all reported students in modern schools with higher achievements than older buildings
    • Students in old buildings: 5 – 7 percentage points lower than in new buildings
    • Students in new buildings significantly outperform in reading, listening, language & math
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 5. CRITERIA THAT MOST IMPACT STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE
    • Human comfort
    • Indoor air quality
    • Lighting
    • Acoustical control
    • Secondary Science Laboratories
    • Student capacity- Elementary
    • Student capacity- Secondary
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 6. SCIENCE EQUIPMENT/FURNITURE
    • 4 studies conclude if building has poor science equipment & furnishings, students perform less well
    • 8 percentile rank points lower than those with newer, functional equipment
    • Same holds true for elementary schools
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 7. WEST VIRGINIA HIGH SCHOOLS
    • 119 of 126 high schools in the state
    • Higher poverty schools had been renovated through state funded programme
    • Student achievement in high poverty high schools statistically similar to non-poverty schools
    Research Lyn Guy
  • 8. SYRACUSE, NY REFURBISHED BUILDINGS
    • 21 “recently renovated” urban schools serving 10,000 students: high poverty
    • Three focus schools
    • 6 th grade maths scores rose 20% after renovation
    • No similar results for reading
    • No similar results for 3 rd grade maths
    Research Dr Lorraine Maxwell
  • 9. BOSTON SCHOOLYARD REFURBISHMENT
    • 82 urban schools: high poverty
    • 2/3 had improved schoolyards
    • 72 schools reported improved 4 th year maths scores: 25% more students passed state tests
    • No similar effect on English scores
    • Increased physical activity = more learning?
    • Increased teacher/staff/student morale?
    • Community-based participatory process led to more engagement?
    Research Lopez, Campbell,+ Jennings
  • 10. VARIABLES
    • Physical conditions
    • Schoolyard conditions
    • School size
    • Class size
    • Community/parent involvement
    • Evaluation tools
    • Research procedures
    • Educational delivery/learning modalities
    • School organisation
    Research
  • 11. Teachers’ opinions of problem areas: “ The Condition of Education 2003”, National Center for Educational Statistics Small schools mitigate the negative effect of poverty VARIABLES Research
  • 12. School Campuses NEW YORK, NY
    • Subdivide large high school buildings
    • Small choice high schools with learning themes
    • Research: small schools mitigate many negative aspects of poverty
    • CLOSE 20 FAILING SCHOOLS
    • OPEN 100+ SMALL CHOICE SCHOOLS
  • 13. Laura Kurgan, New Visions: Peter Bachmann, HLW Architects
  • 14. Laura Kurgan, New Visions: Peter Bachmann, HLW Architects
  • 15. School Campuses NEW YORK, NY
    • SMALL SCHOOLS
    • Clear focus + high expectations
    • Rigorous instructional programme
    • Personalised learning programmes
    • Schoolwide focus on student achievement
    • School-based professional development
    • Meaningful assessment
    • Partnerships with community organisations
    • Parent + caregiver engagement
    • Student voice + participation
    • Student choice of learning theme
  • 16. School Campuses NEW YORK, NY
    • 59% on track to graduate on time, compared with 49%
    • 11% increase in college credits attained
    • Attendance up 5%+-
    • Graduation rates up from 62% to 69%
  • 17. School of One NEW YORK, NY
    • IS 339, middle school, Manhattan near Chinatown
    • STUDENT LEARNING
    • 2004:
      • Maths: 9% students on grade level
      • English Language Arts: 12% on grade level
    • TEACHER ATTRITION
    • 60% quit within 5 years
    • 40% are disheartened
  • 18. School of One NEW YORK, NY
    • IS 339, middle school, Manhattan near Chinatown
    • STUDENT LEARNING
    • 2004:
      • Maths: 9% students on grade level
      • English Language Arts: 12% on grade level
    • 2009:
      • Maths: 62% on grade level
      • English language arts: 42% on grade level
    • SCHOOL OF ONE
    • One of Time Magazine’s
    • Top 50 Inventions 2009
  • 19. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 20. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 21. School of One NEW YORK, NY
    • Pilot summer programme
    • Pilot after school programme, 2 hrs/day
    • Now operational at several high poverty middle schools
    • 4 teachers work together
    • + Teaching aides
    • Student playlist
    • Learning task orientation
    • Personalised learning
    • Variety of learning modalities, simultaneously
    • Immediate assessment and feedback
    • Daily change in student’s playlist
  • 22. School of One NEW YORK, NY
    • Learning gains 4 to 8 X traditional classroom approach
    • In 1/3 the learning time
    • Student learning needs are assessed
    • Student preferred learning modalities are identified
      • Collaborative learner?
      • Reflective learner?
      • Visual learner?
      • Auditory learner?
      • Etc
  • 23. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 24. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 25. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 26. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 27. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 28. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 29. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 30.
    • Charter, choice school
    • Now multiple small schools, 500 students max
    • San Diego demographic: 1/3 poverty
    • Student test scores in top 25% statewide
    • 99% university acceptance rate
      • 40% are first in their family to attend
    • +84% university completion rate (2x national average)
    • 38% major in STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) (2x national average)
    High Tech High School SAN DIEGO, CA
  • 31.
    • Personalised, hands-on learning
    • Internships in local businesses
    • Adult world connections
    • Mixed ability levels
    • Integrated curriculum/dual certifications
      • maths/science
      • humanities
    High Tech High School SAN DIEGO, CA
  • 32.
    • Larry Rosenstock, CEO
    • Mobile Learning Institute
    • Talking about project-based learning
    • www.mobilelearninginstitute.org
    High Tech High School SAN DIEGO, CA
  • 33. PHYS ED MEDIA CTR SCIENCE ENGLISH HISTORY MATH ART PERF ARTS SCIENCE
    • Technical school in disguise
    High Tech High School SAN DIEGO, CA David Stephen, Architect
  • 34. David Stephen, Architect High Tech High School SAN DIEGO, CA
  • 35. PHYS ED MEDIA CTR SCIENCE ENGLISH HISTORY MATH ART PERF ARTS SCIENCE High Tech High School SAN DIEGO, CA David Stephen, Architect
  • 36. PHYS ED MEDIA CTR SCIENCE ENGLISH HISTORY MATH ART PERF ARTS SCIENCE High Tech High School SAN DIEGO, CA David Stephen, Architect
  • 37. DALLAS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA Dallas Community Primary School
    • One of poorest communities in Victoria:
      • .87 out of .99 scale
    • One of most multicultural:
      • English not spoken in 87% of homes
    • 25% migration/transfer rate
  • 38. DALLAS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA Dallas Community Primary School
    • Starting in 2006
    • Child development approach
    • Teacher teams: 3 to 5 teachers
    • 2 year levels grouped together: 1-2, 3-4, 5-6
    • Project based “discovery learning”
    • Students take control of learning
    • Microsoft Pathfinder School
    • Guided by Kenn Fisher +
    • Fielding Nair
    • Now enrollment growth by
    • 150 students due to popularity
    • of the programmes
  • 39. DALLAS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA Dallas Community Primary School
    • 2006
    • Start of educational change
    • 2007
    • Interactive whiteboards
    • 2008
    • More desktops
    • 2009
    • 1:1 netbooks for years 3-6
    • i-pods
    • Cameras
  • 40. DALLAS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA Dallas Community Primary School
    • New school in construction
    • Existing building remodelled to meet new curriculum
  • 41. DALLAS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA Dallas Community Primary School
    • New school in construction
    • Existing building remodelled to meet new curriculum
  • 42. DALLAS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA Dallas Community Primary School
    • New school in construction
    • Existing building remodelled to meet new curriculum
  • 43. DALLAS, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA Dallas Community Primary School
    • Learning results
    • Compared to all other schools in Victoria
  • 44. MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Wooranna Park Primary School
    • High Poverty
    • Test Scores at 36% - 73% vs 12% Expected per Student Family Occupation
    • Reggio Emilia self-guided curriculum model
    • Students responsible for own learning
    • Student collaboration
    • Personal learning passions: students negotiate OWN curriculum
    • Teacher teams: 3 to 5 teachers
    • Emphasis on media literacy
    • Interdisciplinary learning
    • Deep, authentic learning
    • Project-based learning
  • 45. Mary Featherston Designer BEFORE AFTER MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Wooranna Park Primary School
    • Started in year 5-6
      • This was the wrong place
    • 110 Students
    • Teacher Teams
    • Activity Zones
    • Project-Based Learning
  • 46. Mary Featherston Designer MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Wooranna Park Primary School
  • 47. Mary Featherston Designer MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Wooranna Park Primary School
  • 48. MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Wooranna Park Primary School
    • Year 2-3-4
  • 49. MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Wooranna Park Primary School
  • 50. TRADE FOR YOUR BUSINESS CARD Want a Colour Copy of this Slide Show?
  • 51. SMALL SCHOOL; STRATEGIC LOCATION MATCH School – Boston, MA HMFH Architects Tutorials Flexible Space Dormitory Cell Phone Store RELATIONSHIPS Low SES High success
  • 52. HIGH STUDENT SUCCESS; TUTORS MATCH School – Boston, MA HMFH Architects Tutorials Flexible Space Dormitory Cell Phone Store RIGOR, ROLE MODELS 8AM TO 5PM Summer school MCAS RESULTS 8 th grade: 80% fail 10 th grade: Math 3rd highest in state COLLEGE RATE: 100%
  • 53. SHARED FACILITIES, LOW SF/STDNT MATCH School – Boston, MA HMFH Architects No Gym No Library No Tech Ed No Family/Consumer Use YMCA Use Public Lib Sports based on interest 185 Stdnts+- 107SF/stdnt
  • 54. MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT SUCCESS
    • TESTS
    • Standardized testing
    • All 6 New England states
    • Mandated by NCLB
    • Measurement of easily measured learning
    • AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENTS
      • Measurement of higher level learning
      • Exhibitions
      • Portfolios
      • Teacher observations
      • Measurement of higher level learning
  • 55.
    • TESTS vs. AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENTS
    • Coalition of Essential Schools
    • Initiative on authentic testing
    • ATLAS: Authentic Teaching & Learning for All Students
    • Connecticut:
    • State test includes essay questions
    • Administered at grades 5, 8, 11
    • Expensive to administer
    • Feds:
    • Administer every year, grades 3-8
    • Use multiple choice to cut costs
    MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT SUCCESS
  • 56.
    • TESTS vs. AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENTS
    • Reports of rising test performance should lead us to ask” What was taken away from my child’s education in order to make them better at taking standardized tests?”
    • Alfie Kohn
    • 71% of school districts report they have reduced time in at least 1 other subject in order to make more time for reading and mathematics
    • Study of 25,000 MS & HS students: students with “high arts” involvement (took at least 2 art classes per week and participated in extracurricular arts )… performed far better on standardized tests than students with “low arts involvement.”
    MEASUREMENT OF STUDENT SUCCESS
  • 57.
    • SCHOOLS WITHIN SCHOOLS
    • A team of colleagues to work with (other students)
    • Relationships
    • Role models
    • Sense of comfort & security
    RELATIONSHIPS
    • How small is small?
      • How many teachers can sit around a conference table?
      • How many students can a principal know by name?
  • 58. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 59. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 60. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 61.
    • Effective Education/Innovative Leaning Places
    • 15-16 July
    • Graduate School of Design
    • 15 architects + 15 educators X 2 days = magic
    Coming Soon HARVARD EXECUTIVE EDUCATION Frank Locker Educational Planning “ Hands-on” 12 October Framingham area conference center Charles Fadel keynote Experts: 6 Teachers + 20 Students 100+- teachers create ideas for P-BL in their own schools PROJECT-BASED LEARNING CONFERENCE
  • 62. FRANK LOCKER Educational Planning with HMFH Architects ADVISORY COMMONS ADVISORY ADVISORIES Metropolitan Regional Career & Technical Center
    • Lower socio-economic students who otherwise might have dropped out
    • 92% attendance rate (local average 81%)
    • 98% graduation rate (local average 87%)
    • 98% college attendance rate; 75% college graduation rate (50% national average; 6% national average for lower socio-economic students)
    • 75% are first ones in their families to go to college
    • #1 in state for School Climate
    • #1 in state for Parent Involvement
    • #1 in state for Teacher Availability (Academic Issues)
    • #1 in state for Teacher Availability (Personal Issues)
    Met School Providence, RI, USA
  • 63. FRANK LOCKER Educational Planning with HMFH Architects ADVISORY COMMONS ADVISORY ADVISORIES
    • Small school:120 students
    • Internships in business + institutions 2 days/week, 4 years
    • Personalized learning: curriculum wrapped around student interests
    • Project-based learning/didactic teaching
    • Teachers are advisors
    • School integral in community
    • Use Sports Hall+ services in community centre
    • Use Community College for Advanced Placement
    Metropolitan Regional Career & Technical Center Met School Providence, RI, USA Newport, RI, USA
  • 64. OLDER BUILDINGS ARE DETRIMENTAL TO STUDET PERFORMANCE CAUTION!!!
    • Most older buildings/ buildings in poor condition are in areas of greatest poverty (SES status)
    • Low SES students generally perform less well than students in more affluent areas
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 65. NATURAL DAYLIGHTING
    • Students with most daylight progressed 20% faster than those with least amount of daylight
    Research Heshong Mehone Group
  • 66. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 67. School of One NEW YORK, NY American Architectural Foundation
  • 68. NEW YORK, NEW YORK Bushwick High School Laura Kurgan, New Visions: Peter Bachmann, HLW Architects
  • 69. NEW YORK, NEW YORK Bushwick High School Laura Kurgan, New Visions: Peter Bachmann, HLW Architects
  • 70. Laura Kurgan, New Visions: Peter Bachmann, HLW Architects
  • 71. NEW YORK, NEW YORK Bushwick High School Laura Kurgan, New Visions: Peter Bachmann, HLW Architects
  • 72. NEW YORK, NEW YORK Bushwick High School Laura Kurgan, New Visions: Peter Bachmann, HLW Architects
  • 73. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 74. School of One NEW YORK, NY
    • Learning gains 4 to 8 X traditional classroom approach
    • In 1/3 the learning time
  • 75. Thanks
    • New York City
    • Peter Bachmann, JCJ Architects
    • Xenia Cox
    • Adam Rubin
    • Bruce Eisenberg, STV Architects
    • San Diego
    • Rob Riordan
    • Larry Rosenstock
    • Dallas
    • Valerie Karaitiana, Acting Principal, Dallas Brooks Community Primary School, Dallas, Victoria, AU
    • Amanda Henning, Acting Principal, Dallas Primary School, Dallas, Victoria, AU
    • Lynne Gunning, Assistant Principal, Dallas, Victoria, AU
    • Wooranna Park Primary School
    • Ray Trotter, Principal
    • Annalise Gehling
    • Paul Cuffee Charter School
    • David Bourne, Director
    • Nina Gianotti
    • MATCH School
    • Alan Safran, Director
    • School of One
    • Joel Rose
  • 76. School of One NEW YORK, NY
  • 77. High Tech High School SAN DIEGO, CA David Stephen, Architect
  • 78. FIRST ORDER OF IMPORTANCE: SAFETY
    • Potable water
    • Fire safety
    • Adequate lavatories
    • Security systems
    • Communication system for use in emergencies
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 79. HUMAN COMFORT
    • Significant positive correlation between student achievement and temperatures within comfort zone
    • 8 studies: positive relationship: controlled environment & student achievement/behavior
    • 15 studies: strong relationship AC & student performance
    • Non-AC’d buildings: 3-1/2 percentile rank points lower on various measures than AC’d buildings
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 80. POOR INDOOR AIR QUALITY
    • EPA: 10,000,000 school days lost/ year: asthma attacks
    • More doctor diagnosed asthma symptoms higher in dirty buildings
    • High CO2: more reported health symptoms & lower test scores
    • Remove allergens from carpeting:
    • math scores up 3.8%
    • logical reasoning up 3-4%
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 81. LIGHTING
    • Good quality lighting & proper FC: increases in student performance
    • Schools w/ poor lighting: lower student performance
    • Schools w/ daylighting: 20% higher student achievement on standardized tests
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 82. ACOUSTICS
    • Positive correlation between appropriate acoustical conditions & student achievements
    • California study of achievement of students in noisy building:
    • 3 rd graders:
    • .4 years behind in reading
    • .7 years in math
    • 6 th graders: .7 years behind in reading
    • Higher levels of noise, in & outside classroom, hinders achievement
    Research Dr Glen Earthman
  • 83. SOUND ENHANCEMENT SYSTEMS
    • Wireless microphone, 4 speakers
    • $2000+- per classroom
    • 10-15 percentage gains in student performance
    • Regardless of class size, individual learning needs, socioeconomic status (SES), or English Language Learner (ELL) proficiency
    • One study: 36% drop in teacher absenteeism
    Research Dr Paul McCarty
  • 84. OVERCROWDED SCHOOL FACILITIES
    • Lower student achievement
    • Elementary
    • Secondary
    • Lower HS graduation rates
    • Negatively impacts work of teachers
    Research Dr Glen Earthman