An Overview of the Electricity Industry in Myanmar


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This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive current-state assessment of Myanmar’s electricity sector, and goes on to offer some policy recommendations to tackle the key issues at hand.

As Myanmar embarks upon reversing the damage and realizing its potential, availability of electricity is crucial in all spheres – economic, health-related and educational. However, nowhere is the immensity of the task at hand more apparent than in the electricity sector. Less than 30% of households are connected to the electric-grid. Per capita consumption of power is lowest in ASEAN. There is over-reliance on hydropower and erratic demand-side management, especially in summer months. Current supply is almost 30% below demand, manifested in sweeping load-shedding. Planning is centralized, haphazard and seemingly untouched by market dynamics. Power plants have numerous breakdowns and abysmal efficiency. Transmission and distribution networks are antiquated and omit large expanses. Highly-subsidized electricity tariffs and resulting fiscal deficits have crippled public investment in infrastructure. Skepticism over political stability, heavy-handed government terms, and deficient financing ecosystem discourage private entrants.

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An Overview of the Electricity Industry in Myanmar

  1. 1. An Overview of the Electricity Industry in Myanmar Vikas Sharma, PMP® Associate Director, Public Sector & Government Practice, Frost & Sullivan December, 2013 Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 1
  2. 2. Section 1 – Introduction Myanmar is the second-largest country in South East Asia, with a strategic geographic location bordering India, China, Thailand, Laos and Bangladesh. 70% of its 60-million strong population is rural. At USD 715, Myanmar’s GDP/capita is among the lowest in the region. Myanmar is ranked near the bottom on the UN Human Development Index too. The economy is predominantly agrarian and agriculture accounts for >70% of employment. Myanmar was riddled with deep economic sanctions for nearly three decades as the international community reacted to oppression of democratic liberties in the country. With restrictions on foreign investment and lack of assistance from multilateral organizations, Myanmar’s economy lagged behind its potential. With a new government taking office in 2011, Myanmar’s foreign relations have improved. Sanctions are increasingly being lifted and assistance has started pouring in from ADB and World Bank. As Myanmar embarks upon reversing the damage and realizing its potential, availability of electricity is crucial in all spheres – economic, health-related and educational. However, nowhere is the immensity of the task at hand more apparent than in the electricity sector. Less than 30% of households are connected to the electricgrid. Per capita consumption of power is lowest in ASEAN. There is over-reliance on hydropower and erratic demand-side management, especially in summer months. Current supply is almost 30% below demand, manifested in sweeping load-shedding. Planning is centralized, haphazard and seemingly untouched by market dynamics. Power plants have numerous breakdowns and abysmal efficiency. Transmission and distribution networks are antiquated and omit large expanses. Highly-subsidized electricity tariffs and resulting fiscal deficits have crippled public investment in infrastructure. Skepticism over political stability, heavy-handed government terms, and deficient financing ecosystem discourage private entrants. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive current-state assessment of Myanmar’s electricity sector, and goes on to offer some policy recommendations to tackle the key issues at hand. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 2
  3. 3. Section 2 – Current-State Assessment This section aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on Myanmar’s electricity industry, touching upon industry structure, generation, transmission & distribution, pricing, consumption – highlighting key trends and issues for each, and also future plans. a) Industry Structure The regulatory framework is laid down by the Electricity Act of 1948, the Myanmar Electricity Law (1984), and the Electricity Rules (1985). The power sector is centralized; and is primarily under the control and management of government enterprises. Key Entities Involved: Ministry of Electric Power (MOEP) was formed in September 2012 with the merger of two erstwhile ministries – MOEP1 and MOEP2. Before the merger: 1) MOEP1 was responsible for developing, implementing, operating and maintaining all large hydropower and coal-fired thermal power plants 2) MOEP2 was responsible for – a) developing, operating and maintaining the transmission and distribution systems, b) operating and maintaining gas-fired thermal power plants, and c) planning, implementing and operating mini-hydropower plants Post-merger, MOEP comprises seven distinct department-level organizations: 1) Department of Hydropower Planning (DHPP): plans hydropower projects to be implemented by MOEP itself, by local enterprises, or by joint ventures with foreign investors 2) Department of Hydropower Implementation (DHPI): has four institutes dedicated to design and investigation; and seven construction companies capable of undertaking large hydropower projects Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 3
  4. 4. 3) Hydropower Generation Enterprise (HPGE): participates in operation and maintenance of hydropower and coal-fired plants owned by MOEP and under joint ventures 4) Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE): develops, operates and maintains transmission networks and gas-fired power plants 5) Department of Electric Planning (DEP): carries out power-system strategic planning 6) Yangon City Electricity Supply Board (YESB): distributes power to consumers in Yangon 7) Electric Supply Enterprise (ESE): distributes power to rest of Myanmar, including off-grid generation and distribution; and plans, implements and operates mini-hydropower and diesel stations Other relevant ministries include – a) Ministry of Energy – in charge of oil and gas management b) Ministry of Mines – in charge of coal c) Ministry of Forestry – responsible for biomass and fuelwood d) Ministry of Science and Technology – responsible for renewable energy Other than joint-ventures, the government has also been encouraging private investment in electricity generation with its Independent Power Producer (IPP) system, especially in areas off the national grid. Industry Value Chain: The Myanmar power industry can be explained using the standard 3-part power-sector value chain as below: 1) Generation: Power is generated by three entities – a. HPGE and its joint ventures with foreign investors - coal-fired thermal power and hydropower b. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) – mostly mini-hydropower and diesel power stations c. ESE – mini-hydropower and diesel power stations d. MEPE – gas-fired power Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 4
  5. 5. 2) Transmission: All power generated is passed on to MEPE that then transmits it over its networks 3) Distribution: Power is then distributed to local end-customers by YESB and ESE. A significant amount is also exported to Thailand and China Generation HPGE MEPE JV/IPP Transmission MEPE End Customers Distribution ESE YESB ESE b) Power Generation Overview: Total power generated on the Myanmar grid in 2012 was 10,800 GWh, an impressive 58% increase on the 2009 number. Hydropower accounted for 71%, followed by gas-fired thermal power and coal-fired thermal power. The mix has changed considerably from 1995 when 50% of total power generated was gas-fired. Total Power Generation (GWh) 10,034 Total Power Generation (by Type) Gas 26% 10,804 7,810 Coal 2% 6,830 Hydro 71% 2009 Vikas Sharma, PMP® 2010 2011 2012 Page 5
  6. 6. Total installed capacity for Myanmar stood at 3896 MW in 2012, split among the 3 sources in a similar ratio as that for generated power. If operating at full capacity, the grid should be able to generate close to 34,100 GWh. However, actual generated power in 2012 was just 10,800 GWh. Several issues contribute to this inefficiency: 1) Plants across the three types have several operational issues and need to be shut down frequently for maintenance. This is especially severe for gas-powered plants that also suffer from lack of compression in pipelines 2) Due to lack of water, hydropower plants are unable to operate at full capacity during the dry season. With hydropower being the chief power source, this leads to major fluctuations in total generation. For instance, monthly output in May 2012 (peak dry season) was 792 GWh, almost 20% less than in October 2012 (peak wet season) at 981 GWh To manage shortfalls, frequent rolling blackouts (lasting 12-16 hours a day in some regions) are implemented across the country, especially during summer months when demand for electricity far outstrips supply. The following sub-sections provide an overview of key power generation sources, touching upon existing installed capacities, issues and future plans. 1) Hydropower: Myanmar has 20 grid-connected hydropower plants; all operated by HPGE. Their installed capacity of 2,780 MW accounts for 71% of national capacity. Off-grid supply from mini-hydropower stations is provided by ESE and IPPs, but is miniscule at just 33MW. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 6
  7. 7. Existing Hydropower Plants in Mynamar (>50MW) Station Yeywa Shweli-1 Paunglaung Dapein-1 Baluchaung-2 Thauk-ye-khat Mone Shwegyin Kyeeon Kyeewa Kun Kinda Keng Taung All others Total Installed Capacity (MW) 790.0 600.0 280.0 240.0 168.0 120.0 75.0 75.0 74.0 60.0 56.0 54.0 188.0 2,780.0 During the wet season (June-September), the stations are able to generate at optimum capacity. However, in the dry season, insufficient water storage leads to production drops that necessitate significant load-shedding. Going forward, MOEP is developing 20 hydropower projects, 14 of which involve investments from China and Japan. The China Power Investment Corporation (CPI) has invested USD 25.6 billion to build 7 stations in the upper reaches of Irrawady River. Loans worth USD 1.7 billion have been agreed from the Export-Import Bank of China and China Development Bank. 2) Gas-fired Myanmar has 10 gas-fired power plants; all operated by MEPE. Their installed capacity of 996 MW accounts for 26% of national grid capacity. Ahlone is the biggest plant with 275 MW capacity. These plants use gas produced in the offshore fields of Yadana and Yetagun, and from the onshore fields operated by Ministry of Energy. Output from these plants has been below expectations owing to low calorific value of local gas (high Nitrogen content) and low pressure without compression. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 7
  8. 8. Existing Gas-fired Plants in Mynamar Station Kyungchaung Mann Shwedaung Mawlamyaing Myanaung Hilawga Ywama Ahlone Thaketa Thaton Total Installed Capacity (MW) 54.3 36.9 55.3 12.0 34.7 208.7 122.3 275.2 145.6 51.0 996.0 Going forward, MOEP intends to focus on gas-power to reduce reliance on hydropower. In its official fiveyear-plan, MOEP has set an ambitious target to add >2500MW capacity by 2015-16. One key upcoming development is a 500MW plant set to complete end-2014. It will supply power to the Thilawa Special Economic Zone (SEZ) that is being jointly developed by Myanmar and Japan. Also, the World Bank lent USD 140 million in September 2013 to upgrade and add 125MW capacity to Thaton station. 3) Coal-fired Currently, Mynamar has one coal-fired thermal power plant – Tigyit – with an installed capacity of 120 MW. It suffers from severe efficiency issues, generating power at an average capacity factor of just around 30%. Going forward, MOEP aims to add 300 MW capacity by 2015-16. In a key development, World Bank sanctioned a USD 165 million loan in early 2013 to develop coal-fired plants. 4) Non-hydro renewable sources Using non-hydro renewable sources for power generation is still in its infancy in Myanmar and constitutes a small percentage of total installed capacity and generation. While Myanmar is rich in renewable resources, development remains severely hampered by limited availability of funds to support R&D; lack of a clear renewable energy policy; and lack of talented manpower. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 8
  9. 9. Bio-mass: There are 174 MW of biogas power projects operational Geothermal: Close to 90 geothermal locations have been identified to date. Of these, 43 are being tested by MOEP along with Electrical Power Development Company of Japan, as well as Union Oil Company of California Wind Energy: Wind-power projects are either in experimental phase or undergoing feasibility determination. There are some very small operational projects off the grid (Dattaw Mountain in Kyaukse, and Government Technical High School in Ahmar, Ayeyarwaddy). Gunkul Engineering Public Company Limited and China Three Gorges Corporation, both foreign, signed a MOU with MOEP in 2011 to conduct feasibility studies for the development of 4,032 MW of wind energy in Myanmar Solar Energy: Some pilot PV cell projects financed by MOEP and university reseach departments are underway in rural areas; being used to charge batteries and pump water for irrigation. Another example is the installation of 3KW PV systems in remote schools by Mandalay Technological University. Overall, however, at current costs, solar energy is unaffordable. Overall Assessment Given Myanmar’s fiscal condition, upgrading and expansion of generation infrastructure depend heavily on securing foreign investments and loans. With the lifting of sanctions, loans from multi-lateral organizations have started coming in. Significant investments have been promised by Japan and China. However, continued progress on both grounds relies on how soon Myanmar can convince the international community of its political stability and of its efforts to introduce clear policies and institutional frameworks. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 9
  10. 10. f) Power Transmission and Distribution The transmission network is the responsibility of the MEPE. Major power stations feed electricity into the national grid using 230kV, 132kV, and 66kV overhead transmission lines. These lines are predominantly single, with very few double lines. As of 2012, the total network length was almost 9,000km. The figure below shows the network’s composition by voltage types. Existing Transmission Lines (2012) Voltage (kV) 230 132 66 Total Num of Lines 51 40 137 228 Length (km) 2,983 2,289 3,614 8,886 Over long distances, 230kV transmission systems suffer from high voltage drops, sometimes exceeding 10%. To remedy this situation, MOEP has announced plans to build a 500kV system under its five-year plan from 2011-12 to 2015-16. This new system aims to connect Myanmar’s power generation plants in the north to main load centers in the south. Addition to other capacity lines is also being planned to improve the electrification ratio. Details are given below: Planned expansion - Transmission Lines Voltage (kV) 500 230 132 66 Total Num of Lines 3 28 3 58 92 Length (km) 313 2,227 64 1,900 4,504 Planned expansion - Substations Voltage (kV) 500 230 132 66 Total Vikas Sharma, PMP® Num of Lines Capacity (MVA) 3 1,500 30 3,420 10 1,030 73 748 116 6,698 Page 10
  11. 11. The distribution network is primarily controlled by YESB and ESE: 1) YESB supplies to all customers in Yangon City 2) ESE supplies electricity (including that produced in off-grid generation) to rest of Myanmar, comprising 13 states and regions The distribution system consists of low-voltage levels like 33kV, 11kV, 6.6kV, and 0.4kV. Lines connect to distribution transformers that supply both single-phase and three-phase 400/230V power. Existing Distribution Lines (2012) Voltage (kV) 33 11 6.6 0.4 Capacity (MVA) 3,697 3,719 1,593 NA Length (km) 6,743 12,781 1,435 15,469 Total 9,009 36,428 While distribution losses have shown improvement recently, losses incurred are still high due to outdated and dilapidated infrastructure, and its insufficient cross-section for present-day loads. 22.3% Distribution Losses (%) 21.6% 19.6% 19.2% 19.4% 18.2% 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 In view of this, ESE is planning infrastructure upgrades: a) Several 6.6kV systems are to be converted to 11kV systems to reduce losses and improve efficiency, b) Over 2013-14, ESE plans to expand the 33kV network by 400km, 11kV network by 360km, and 6.6kV network by 250km Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 11
  12. 12. Running low on available funds, the government is actively soliciting private sector participation in these upgrading exercises for transmission and distribution networks. Update – November 2013: Asian Development Bank (ADB) offered Myanmar a cheap long-term loan of USD 60 million to build new transmission infrastructure outside Yangon and Mandalay, which should significantly reduce electricity losses. The loan term is 24 years at 1.5%/annum interest. g) Power Pricing Tariffs in Myanmar are among lowest in the ASEAN region. Traditionally, they have followed this structure: 1) The two power distributors – YESB and ESE – purchase grid-electricity from MOEP and supply it to end-customers at two broad tariffs: 1) 35 Kyats (~3 US cents)/kWh for households 2) 75 Kyats (~7 US cents)/kWh for businesses. Foreigners are charged a premium rate of 12 US cents/kWh. 2) Tariffs for off-grid power vary widely depending on cost of generation (by means such as diesel, minihydropower, solar etc.) from anywhere between 100 Kyats (~9 US cents) to 300 Kyats (~27 US cents). Sellers have to pay a royalty of 20-25 Kyats (2-2.5 US cents) per kWh to ESE. 2011 Electricity Prices by Country (US cents/kWh) Country Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar Singapore Thailand Vietnam Residential 4.60-11.74 7.26-11.46 3.09 19.76 5.98-9.90 2.91-9.17 Commercial 5.93-12.19 9.67-11.10 6.17 10.95-18.05 5.55-5.75 4.38-15.49 Industrial 5.38-10.14 7.83-10.88 6.17 10.95-18.05 8.67-9.43 2.30-8.32 In essence, power is being provided at highly subsidized prices (lower than average cost which is estimated at 125 Kyats/kWh). MOEP estimates the size of annual subsidy at 185 billion Kyats (~USD 170 million). With MOEP making losses, available public funds to expand power generation and distribution infrastructure have seen severe downward pressure. Consequently, increase in power generation capacity has not been able to keep Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 12
  13. 13. up with increasing demand. MOEP minister Khin Maung Soe, in November 2013, said that MOEP’s inability to recover costs has directly contributed to its failure to build 7 hydropower, 3 thermal, and 2 coal-fired plants that had been originally planned. Needless to say, low prices have also deterred IPPs from entering the power generation market. The net effect has been that Myanmar has cheap power but not enough of it available, manifested in low electrification ratios and frequent load-shedding blackouts. Update - Revision to Pricing (October, 2013) On 29th October, 2013, YESB announced price hikes for both households and businesses, effective 1st November. MOEP explained that the decision was made to better cover rising costs of electricity production, to encourage private investment, and to fund an expansion of the national grid. Under the revised structure: 1) Households consuming more than 100 kWh/month will pay 50 Kyats/kWh, up from 35 Kyats/kWh 2) Businesses consuming up to 5000 kWh/month will see their rates increased to 100 Kyats/kWh, up from 75 Kyats/kWh previously. Those consuming more than 5000 kWh/month will pay 150 Kyats/kWh, a 100% increase over the previous tariff This price hike met with strong criticism from lawmakers, manufacturers and public alike, with several businesses under the threat of closing down due to increased costs. Analysts have warned of higher operating costs translating into higher prices for consumer goods. Following the controversial arrests of six activists and a parliamentary plea to review the hike, authorities have postponed it to fiscal year 2014-15. MOEP has also commissioned a public opinion survey on the proposed hike, with results to be reported to the parliament. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 13
  14. 14. g) Power Consumption Over 2001-2011, total power consumption almost doubled from 3,270GWh in 2001 to 6,300GWh in 2011, at an average annual growth rate of around 6.8%. Over the same period, per capita consumption rose from around 72kWh to 130kWh, at an average annual growth rate of 6%. 6,300 GWh Total Power Consumption . 3,270 GWh Power Consumption by User Segments (2011) Others 2% Commerce 20% 2001 2011 Residential 42% 130 kWh Industry Per Capita Power Consumption 36% 72 kWh 2001 2011 The biggest end-user segment is Residential, accounting for around 42% of total consumption, followed by the Industry (36%) and Commerce (20%). By region, Yangon City accounts for around 45% of total electricity consumption from the grid, followed by Mandalay City at 16%. Per capita consumption in Myanmar, while improving, is still lowest among all ASEAN countries. As discussed elsewhere in this paper, this is primarily due to low degree of electrification. Myanmar’s electrification ratio is around 30%, with rural areas at an abysmal 16%. Even in relatively developed urban areas of Yangon City, Nay Pyi Taw and Mandalay, the ratio ranges from 30% to 65%. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 14
  15. 15. The central planning approach used by Myanmar essentially bases demand and supply estimates on how many new power development projects can be implemented in the years of focus; and seems to overlook linkages to resource availability, technical specifications and changing customer dynamics. This approach is based entirely on supply availability and the assumption that all power generated will be consumed or exported. Governmentled forecasts of power demand have been criticized for being too infrequent, overly simplistic in their scenario building, and not cognizant of changing energy needs. The last projection exercise was done in 2001 and included 3 scenarios – 1) low scenario where demand doubles every 10 years 2) base scenario where demand growth follows Thailand’s and 3) high scenario based on GDP growth of 7% per annum. Not surprisingly, these forecasts have proven unreliable and severely underestimated actual demand. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 15
  16. 16. Section 3 – Policy Recommendations Having assessed various aspects of Myanmar’s electricity sector, and their associated issues in Section 2, this section provides some policy recommendations for consideration. Given the number and severity of issues, it is tempting to throw the proverbial ‘kitchen sink’ of policy measures at them. However, a conscious attempt has been made to keep suggested measures rooted in pragmatism and cognizant of Myanmar’s ground realities. 1) Facilitate private-sector investment Long-term health of this sector depends on the new administration’s success in attracting private investment domestically and from overseas. While there are several precedents of governments handling power generation and distribution exclusively, the model may not be useful in Myanmar’s context, with the administration lacking the resources to make needed investments for expansion and upgrading. Some initiatives to consider: a) Allow for long-term contracts to be granted. Currently IPPs have to renew contracts with regional governments yearly; this uncertainty leading to subdued scale of investment b) Review revenue-sharing terms of JV projects in favor of better terms for private investors. Currently, JV partners are obliged to provide hefty royalties (in the form of free/subsidized power) to MOEP, in addition to commercial/income taxes c) Study successful FDI-attraction campaigns by other nations and accordingly tailor incentive packages comprising measures such as – tax shelters, profit repatriation, relaxed foreign employment rules etc. Investment promotion is fast becoming a competitive activity with nations vying for limited capital d) Focus on developing a sound business ecosystem (business incorporation, availability of financing, legal enforcement etc.). Myanmar is rated 182nd (out of 189) by World Bank on ‘ease of doing business’. It takes 72 days to start a business compared to 3 days in nearby Singapore. Enforcement of contracts is 2nd worst worldwide. These statistics do not engender investor confidence e) Reducing subsidy on electricity prices (discussed in C) should also encourage private investment Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 16
  17. 17. 2) Work on maintaining improved foreign relations With the international community finally warming to Myanmar and inflow of investment and assistance starting, it is imperative that the government take measures to maintain this vote of confidence. In 2013 itself, Myanmar received low-interest loans worth hundreds of millions of dollars from World Bank and ADB to upgrade its electricity sector. Built into these loans are stipulations on performance and governance. Government should monitor projects closely to ensure they adhere to all stipulations, and share progress updates and plans regularly with aid-agencies and other international organizations to engender enduring trust. 3) Gather and implement best practices Myanmar should study and learn from development experiences of other countries in the region. For instance, neighboring Thailand has per capita electricity consumption of 2300kWh, an astounding 18 times that of Myanmar. The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) that initially operated on a model similar to MOEP’s, is now exploring complete privatization. Other areas where Myanmar should actively seek expertise and best practices are capacity planning and demand forecasting. This will add rigor to MOEP’s current approach that has been criticized for being simplistic and non-cognizant of market realities. 4) Reduce over-reliance on hydropower Myanmar’s over-reliance on hydropower is problematic, especially during the dry season when insufficient water-levels reduce hydropower production, leading to severe supply shortfalls and blackouts. With increasingly fluctuating rainfall patterns, production planning is going to only become more difficult going forward. Myanmar needs to diversify into other power sources. While wind/solar are currently too nascent and cost-prohibitive to serve as credible alternatives, gas-fired power is promising. Government should actively solicit and direct more investments/loans into gas-fired projects. It should invest in exploring Myanmar’s Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 17
  18. 18. abundant natural-gas reserves to provide easy access to gas, and encourage setting up of gas-fired plants. It could also consider importing gas-turbines and engines from overseas, and promoting small-scale private gasplants; to help meet short-term demand during dry season. 5) Raise electricity tariffs prudently and decisively Myanmar’s electricity tariffs are among the lowest in ASEAN and worldwide. Providing heavily subsidized electricity has debilitated MOEP’s fiscal situation, and rendered it unable to invest in increasing capacity and upgrading distribution networks. The attempt to keep electricity ‘affordable’ has inadvertently led to severe shortfalls and dismal electrification levels. Myanmar has to act decisively and raise tariffs if the situation is to improve. While increases may lead to widespread protests (like the backlash against proposed hikes in 2013), government should prioritize long-term benefits of increased investment funds over short-term populist pressure. A progressive tier-based tariff system that charges a lower price up to a threshold usage-level and a higher price above that would be ideal (MOEP proposed a similar system in 2013). Such a system would be equitable to poorer segments that have low-usage. Also, a phased-approach should be used whereby tariffs are increased incrementally over a number of years as opposed to suddenly. To further increase chances of success, a concerted campaign should be run to educate households/businesses on the rationale behind the hike, and on the benefits (higher electrification, reliable supply) that the hike would enable. Section 4 – Conclusion After decades of stagnation, Myanmar has started its arduous journey towards socio-economic development. With power such a necessary ingredient towards this aim, it is imperative that the electricity sector take massive steps forward from its current state. Renewed flow of assistance and increasing overseas investor interest are positive signs and need to be encouraged. At the same time, institutional improvements in price structures, planning frameworks and revenue-sharing are needed as well to set the sector on the right course. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 18
  19. 19. Section 5 – Reference Sources The key sources referred to for developing this paper are listed below: 1. October 2012. “Myanmar Energy Sector Initial Assessment” Asian Development Bank 2. May 2013. “Infrastructure in Myanmar” KPMG Advisory 3. Subha Krishnan, July 2013. “Analysis of Emerging Opportunities in Myanmar’s Electricity Industry” Frost & Sullivan, Energy & Power Systems Practice 4. U Maung Maung, Chief Engineer, Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE), February 2013. “Power System Development Scheme of MEPE”. 5. Statistics from Ministry of Electric Power (MOEP), Myanmar 6. David Dapice, December 2012. “Electricity Demand and Supply in Myanmar” ASH Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University 7. David Dapice, May 2012. “Electricity in Myanmar: The Missing Prerequisite for Development” ASH Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University 8. Win Naung Toe and Rachel Vandenbrink, November 2013. “Myanmar’s Parliament Calls for Freeze on Higher Electricity Rates” Radio Free Asia. 9. Soe Than Lynn, November 2013. “ADB grants $60m loan for power” Myanmar Times. Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 19
  20. 20. 10. Zaw Win Than, February 2013. “World Bank to support electricity access” Myanmar Times. 11. Kyaw Soe Lynn, February 2013. “World Bank Group to Support Myanmar’s Plan to Improve People’s Access to Electricity” The World Bank Vikas Sharma, PMP® Page 20