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A Survey on Mobile Cloud Computing: Concept, Application and Challenges (Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844)

A Survey on Mobile Cloud Computing: Concept, Application and Challenges (Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844)



(Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ...

(Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3
ISSN: 2278-7844)
Abstract— The capabilities of mobile devices have been improving
very quickly in terms of speed, computing power, storage,
feature support, and real world user friendly applications. The
worldwide shipments of smart phones are exceeding PCs in
2011 [1],and According to the top ten strategic technology
trends for 2013 [2] provided by Gartner (a famous global
analytical and consulting company), more users predicted to
access the Internet from mobile devices than from PCs by 2013.
Together with an explosive growth in the usage of smart phones,
their applications and emerging of cloud computing concept,
mobile cloud computing (MCC) has been introduced to be a
potential technology for mobile services.
MCC integrates the cloud computing into the mobile
environment and overcomes obstacles related to the performance
(e.g., battery life, storage, and bandwidth), environment (e.g.,
heterogeneity, scalability, and availability), and security (e.g.,
reliability and privacy) in mobile computing. Although several
striking research work has been conducted in the high
computing counterparts of mobile technology, the field of cloud
computing for mobile world is vastly unexplored. As MCC is
still at the early stage of development, it is necessary to grasp a
thorough understanding of the technology in order to point out
the direction of future research. In this paper, we introduce the
backg round and concept of Mobile Cloud Computing
(MCC), applications and challenges in the area of MCC.



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    A Survey on Mobile Cloud Computing: Concept, Application and Challenges (Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844) A Survey on Mobile Cloud Computing: Concept, Application and Challenges (Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844) Document Transcript

    • Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844© 2013 IJAIR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED487A Survey on Mobile Cloud Computing: Concept,Applications and ChallengesVikas Kottari#1, Vishwanath Kamath G#2, Lloyd Presley Saldanha#3, Chandan Mohan#4#Computer Science and Engineering, Canara Engineering College, Mangalore, India1vikaskottari92@gmail.com2vishwa.kth@gmail.com3lldsaldanha@gmail.com4chandan.mohan16@gmail.comAbstract— The capabilities of mobile devices have been improvingvery quickly in terms of speed, computing power, storage,feature support, and real world user friendly applications. Theworldwide shipments of smart phones are exceeding PCs in2011 [1],and According to the top ten strategic technologytrends for 2013 [2] provided by Gartner (a famous globalanalytical and consulting company), more users predicted toaccess the Internet from mobile devices than from PCs by 2013.Together with an explosive growth in the usage of smart phones,their applications and emerging of cloud computing concept,mobile cloud computing (MCC) has been introduced to be apotential technology for mobile services.MCC integrates the cloud computing into the mobileenvironment and overcomes obstacles related to the performance(e.g., battery life, storage, and bandwidth), environment (e.g.,heterogeneity, scalability, and availability), and security (e.g.,reliability and privacy) in mobile computing. Although severalstriking research work has been conducted in the highcomputing counterparts of mobile technology, the field of cloudcomputing for mobile world is vastly unexplored. As MCC isstill at the early stage of development, it is necessary to grasp athorough understanding of the technology in order to point outthe direction of future research. In this paper, we introduce thebackground and concept of Mobile Cloud Computing(MCC), applications and challenges in the area of MCC.Keywords— Mobile Cloud Computing, Mobile Computing, CloudComputing.I. INTRODUCTIONOver the last few years, there has been an increasednumber of applications that have migrated to the cloud, andnew cloud-based applications that have become popular.As a major application model in the era of the Internet, CloudComputing has become a significant research topic of thescientific and industrial communities since 2007. Accordingto the top ten strategic technology trends for 2012 [3]provided by Gartner, cloud computing has been on the topof the list, which means cloud computing will have anincreased impact on the enterprise and most organizationsin 2012.The end mobile device user will eventually be thebenefactor of the Mobile Cloud Computing. Nature of cloudapplications also is advantageous for users since they do notneed to have very technical hardware to run applications asthese computing operations are run within the cloud. Thisreduces the price of mobile computing to the end users. Theycould see a huge number of new features enhancingtheir phones due to Mobile Cloud Computing.As an inheritance and development of cloud computing,resources in mobile cloud computing networks arevirtualized and assigned in a group of numerous distributedcomputers rather than in traditional local computers orservers, and are provided to mobile devices such assmartphones, portable ter- minal, and so on. (see Fig. 1).Meanwhile, various applications based on mobile cloudcomputing have been developed and served to users, such asGoogles Gmail, Maps and Navigation systems for Mobile,Voice Search, and some applications on an Androidplatform, MobileMe from Apple, Live Mesh from Microsoft,and MotoBlur from Motorola. According to the researchfrom Juniper, the cloud computing based mobile softwareand application are expected to rise 88% annually from 2009to 2014, and such growth may create US 9.5 billion dollars in2014.Fig. 1: Mobile Cloud ComputingMobile DevicesServers and VMsInternet(cloud)Wireless accessPointRadio Tower
    • Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844© 2013 IJAIR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED488II.BACKGROUNDAs a development and extension of Cloud Computingand Mobile Computing, Mobile Cloud Computing, as a newphrase, has been devised since 2009. In order to help usgrasp- ing better understanding of Mobile Cloud Computing,let’s start from the previous technique: Cloud Computing.Cloud ComputingIn the era of PC, many users found that the PCs theybought 2 years ago cannot keep pace with the development ofsoftware nowadays; they need a higher speed CPU, a largercapacity hard disk, and a higher performance OperationSystem (OS). Thus, a term called ’Cloud Computing’ burstupon our lives.Cloud Computing has become a popular phrase since2007. However, there is no consensual definition on what aCloud Computing or Cloud Computing System is, due todozens of developers and organizations described it fromdifferent perspectives. Techterms.com[4] gives a definitionof Cloud computing: Cloud computing refersto applications and services offered over the Internet. Theseservices are offered from data canters all over the world,which collectively are referred to as the "cloud." Thismetaphor represents the intangible, yet universal nature ofthe Internet. The idea of the "cloud" simplifies the manynetwork connections and computer systems involvedin online services.1) Framework: Cloud computing systems actually can beconsidered as a collection of different services, thus theframework of cloud computing is divided into three layers,which are infrastructure layer, platform layer, and applicationlayer as shown in Fig. 2.2) Features: the features of Cloud Computing are asfollows:a) Virtualization: The ’Cloud’ can be considered as avirtual resource pool [5] where all bottom layer hardware de-vices is virtualized. End users access desired resourcesthrough a browser and get data from cloud computingproviders without maintaining their own data centres.b) Reliability, usability and extensibility: Cloud comput-ing provides a safe mode to store user’s data while usersdo not worry about the issues such as software updating,leak patching, virus attacks and data loss.c) Large-scale: In order to possess the capability ofsupercomputing and mass storage, a cloud computingsystem normally consists of thousands of servers and PCs.d) Autonomous System: Cloud computing systems areautonomous systems managed transparently to users.However, software and data inside clouds can beautomatically reconfigured and consolidated to a simpleplatform depending on user’s needs.3) Challenges: The new paradigm of cloud computingprovides an array of benefits and advantages over theprevious computing paradigms and many organizations aremigrating and adopting it. However, there are still a numberof challenges, which are currently addressed by researchers,academicians and practitioners in the field.a)PerformanceThe major issue in performance can be for some intensivetransaction-oriented and other data intensive applications, inwhich cloud computing may lack adequate performance.Also, users who are at a long distance from cloud providersmay experience high latency and delays.b) Security and PrivacyCompanies are still concerned about security when usingcloud computing. Users are worried about thevulnerability to attacks, when information and critical ITresources are outside the firewall.d) ControlA quantity of IT wings or departments are concernedbecause cloud computing providers have a full control ofthe platforms. Cloud computing providers typically donot design platforms for specific companies and theirbusiness practices.e) Bandwidth CostsCloud computing, companies can save money on hardwareand software; however they could incur higher networkbandwidth charges. Bandwidth cost may be lowfor smaller Internet-based applications, which are notvirtualizationFig. 2: The Framework of Cloud ComputingParallel Programming EnvironmentStructured Data ManagementDistribued File SytemOther System Management ToolsClient & agentPhyscal Hardware server & storageResource Pool Computing storage networkVarious software serviceSaaSPaaSIaaSInternet (cloud)
    • Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844© 2013 IJAIR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED489data intensive, but could significantly grow for data-intensive applications.f) ReliabilityCloud computing still does not always offer round theclock reliability. There were cases where cloudcomputing services suffered few hours’ outages. In thepresent and future days to expect more cloud computingproviders, richer services, established standards and bestpractices.III. MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTINGNowadays, both hardware and software of mobile devicesget greater improvement than before, some smartphonessuch as iPhone 5, Android serials, Windows Phone serialsand Blackberry, are no longer just traditional mobile phoneswith conversation, SMS, Email and website browser, but aredaily necessities to users. Meanwhile, those smartphonesinclude various sensing modules like navigation, optics,gravity, ori- entation, and so on. which brings aconvenient and intelli- gent mobile experience to users. In2010, Google CEO Eric Schmidt described mobile cloudcomputing in an interview that ’based on cloud computingservice development, mobile phones will becomeincreasingly complicated, and evolve to a portable supercomputer’ [6]. In the face of various mobile cloud servicesprovided by Microsoft, Apple, Google, HTC, and so on,users may be confused about what mobile cloud computingexactly is, and what its features are.The Mobile Cloud Computing Forum [7] defines MCCas “Mobile Cloud computing at its simplest refers to aninfrastructure where both the data storage and the dataprocessing happen outside of the mobile device. Mobilecloud applications move the computing power and datastorage away from mobile phones and into the cloud,bringing applications and mobile computing to not justsmart phone users but a much broader range of mobilesubscribers”.A. Concept and principleSimilar with Cloud Computing, there are a lot but noconsensual definitions on what mobile cloud computingis. In this paper, we consider it is a novel computingmode consisting of mobile computing and cloud computing,which provide cloud based services to users through theInternet and mobile devices.On one hand, the mobile cloud computing is adevelopment of mobile computing, and an extension tocloud computing. In mobile cloud computing, the previousmobile device-based intensive computing, data storage andmass information processing have been transferredto ’cloud’ and thus the requirements of mobile devices incomputing capability and resources have been reduced, so thedeveloping, running, deploying and using mode of mobileapplications have been totally changed. On the other hand,the terminals which people used to access and acquire cloudservices are suitable for mobile devices like smartphone,PDA, Tablet, and iPad but not restricted to fixed devices(such as PC), which reflects the advantages and originalintention of cloud computing. Therefore, from both aspectsof mobile computing and cloud computing, the mobile cloudcomputing is a combi- nation of the two technologies, adevelopment of distributed, grid and centralized algorithms,and have broad prospects for application.B. ArchitectureFig. 3 Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) ArchitectureThe general architecture of MCC proposed by [8]can be shown in Fig.3 [9]. Mobile devices areconnected to the mobile networks via base stations (e.g.,base transceiver station (BTS), access point, or satellite)that establish and control the connections (air links) andfunctional interfaces between the networks and mobiledevices. Mobile user’s requests and information (e.g., IDand location) are transmitted to the central processors thatare connected to servers providing mobile network services.Here, Mobile network operators can provide services tomobile users as AAA (Authentication, Authorization, andAccounting) based on the home agent (HA) andsubscriber’s data stored in databases. After that, thesubscriber’s requests are delivered to a cloud through theInternet. In cloud, the cloud controllers process therequests to provide mobile users with thecorresponding cloud services. These services aredeveloped with the concepts of utility computing,virtualization, and service oriented architecture (eg.webapplication, and database servers).c) Key Requirements for Mobile Cloud ComputingThere are some key features of Mobile Cloud Computing
    • Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844© 2013 IJAIR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED490that make it possible to implement seamless service deliveryin across the network environment. From the perspective ofthe enterprise solution provider or web/mobile applicationdeveloper, the objectives of the Mobile Cloud Computingplatform are:1. Simple APIs offering transparent access tomobile services, and requiring no specificknowledge of underlying network technologies.2. The ability to deploy applications across multiplecarrier networks, under a single commercialagreement.3. Seamless handling of each carrier’s specificnetwork policy, such as chosen mobile subscriberconfirmed opt-in / confirmed opt-out and privacymanagement principles.IV.APPLICATIONSMobile cloud computing is one of the mobile technologytrends in the future since it combines the advantages of theintegration of both mobile computing and cloudcomputing, thereby providing optimal services for mobileusers. The applications supported by mobile cloud computingincluding mobile commerce, mobile learning, and mobilehealthcare and other areas.Mobile cloud applications move the computing power anddata storage away from mobile phones and into the cloud,bringing apps and mobile computing to not just Smartphoneusers but a much broader range of mobile subscribers.A) Offloading ComputationA new generation of mobile applications in Apple Appstore,and Google Android Marketplace, etc are pushing the boundaryon how we interact with the physical world and the cyberworld. These days the mobile apps are such that, they requirecompute intensive capabilities such as speech recognition,natural language processing, computer vision and graphics,machine learning, augmented reality, planning and decisionmaking. These capabilities run counter to the resourcepoverty nature of mobile devices. This constraint is not just atemporary limitation of current technology, but is intrinsic tomobility.On one hand are small form factor handheld devices and onthe other is the cloud, a nearly limitless pool of computingresources that is being heavily touted as the future ofcomputing.B) Processing Speed and Data StorageMobile Cloud Computing will help to overcomelimita- tions of mobile devices in particular of theprocessing power and data storage.C) Increased Battery LifeMCC also might help to extend the battery life bymoving the execution of commutation-intensiveapplication ‘to the cloud’.D) Improving reliabilityStoring data or running applications on clouds is aneffective way to improve the reliability since the data andapplication are stored and backed up on a number ofcomputers. This reduces the chance of data and applicationlost on the mobile devices. In addition, MCC can bedesigned as a comprehensive data security model for bothservice providers and users. For example, the cloud canbe used to protect copyrighted digital contents (e.g., video,clip, and music) from being abused and unauthorizeddistribution [10]. Also, the cloud can remotely provide tomobile users with security services such as virus scanning,malicious code detection, and authentication [11]. Also, suchcloud-based security services can make efficient use of thecollected record from different users to improve theeffectiveness of the services.E) SecurityMobile Cloud Computing can increase security level formobile devices achieved by a centralized monitoring andmaintenance of software.F) Online shoppingMCC can also become a one-stop shopping option forusers of mobile devices since Mobile Cloud Operators cansimultaneously act as virtual network operators, provide e-payment services, and provide software, data storage, etc. asa service.G) A number of new technical functionalities might beprovided by mobile clouds. In particular, provisioning ofcontext- and location-awareness enables personalization ofservices is an attractive functionality.H) m-Health CareThe purpose of applying MCC in medical applications isto minimize the limitations of traditional medical treatment(e.g., small physical storage, security and privacy, andmedical errors [12]). Mobile healthcare (m-healthcare)provides mobile users with convenient helps to accessresources (e.g., patient health records) easily and quickly.Besides, m-healthcare offers hospitals and healthcareorganizations a variety of on-demand services on cloudsrather than owning standalone applications on local servers.I) m-GameMobile game (m-game) is a potential market generatingrevenues for service providers. M-game can completelyoffload game engine requiring large computing resource(e.g., graphic rendering) to the server in the cloud, andgamers only interact with the screen interface on their
    • Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844© 2013 IJAIR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED491devices [13] demonstrates that offloading (multimediacode) can save energy for mobile devices, therebyincreasing game playing time on mobile devices.V. CHALLENGESCloud Mobile Media (CMM) applications, unlike other bicloud applications, will need to overcome the challenges ofthe wireless network, including limited bandwidth andimpact on user experience. Moreover, many of theCMM applications will be very compute and networkbandwidth intensive, and hence will have majorimplications on cloud and network costs incurred per user,and the ability to scale to millions of users as mobile cloudcomputing becomes popular. In this section, we discuss inmore details about the challenges.A) Cloud Service Cost and ScalabilityOne of the primary advantages of using cloud services is toeliminate capital expenses, and depend on the elasticity ofcloud computing, and the cloud utility or on-demand pricingmodel, to scale to varying capacity needs. However, as weshow in this section, there will be challenges faced bycomputing and bandwidth intensive CMM applications likecloud based mobile gaming, in terms of prohibitively highoperating expenses when using on-demand cloud pricingmodels.B) Mobile Network Cost and ScalabilityBesides the potentially high cloud operating expenses, andcloud scalability concern, CMM applications can have veryhigh demand on wireless network bandwidth, havingimplications on the capacity of the mobile networks, inparticular during peak demand periods, potentially negativelyimpacting network latency, packet loss, and response time,with the consequent negative impact on user experience.Moreover, the high wireless bandwidth requirement mayprohibitively increase the wireless data bills of mobile users,making CMM applications impractical.C) AvailabilityService availability becomes more important issue inMCC than that in the cloud computing with wired networks.Mobile users may not be able to connect to the cloud toobtain service due to traffic congestion, network failures, andthe out-of-signal.D) HeterogeneityMCC will be used in the highly heterogeneous networks interms of wireless network interfaces. Different mobile nodesaccess to the cloud through different radio accesstechnologies such as WCDMA, GPRS, WiMAX,CDMA2000, and WLAN. As a result, an issue of how tohandle the wireless connectivity while satisfying MCC’srequirements arises (e.g., always-on connectivity, on-demandscalability of wireless connectivity, and the energy efficiencyof mobile devices).E) Issues in Computing offloadingOffloading is one of the main features of MCC toimprove the battery lifetime for the mobile devices and toincrease the performance of applications. However, offloadingis not always the effective way to save energy. For a codecompilation, offloading might consume more energy thanthat of local processing when the size of codes is small. Forexample, when the size of altered codes after compilation is500KB, offloading consumes about 5% of a device’s batteryfor its communication while the local processing consumesabout 10% of the battery for its computation. In this case,the offloading can save the battery up to 50%. However,when the size of altered codes is 250KB, the efficiencyreduces to 30%. When the size of altered codes is small, theoffloading consumes more battery than that of localprocessing.F) Security for Mobile UsersMobile devices such as cellular phone, PDA, andsmartphone are exposed to numerous security threats likemalicious codes (e.g., virus, worm, and Trojan horses) andtheir vulnerability. In addition, with mobile phones integratedglobal positioning system (GPS) device, they can causeprivacy issues for subscribers.VI.CONCLUSIONThe concept of cloud computing provides a brand newopportunity for the development of mobile applications sinceit allows the mobile devices to maintain a very thin layerfor user applications and shift the computation and processingoverhead to the virtual environment.A cloud application needs a constant connection that mightprove to be an Achilles heel for the cloud computing move-ment. However as mobile internet capabilities continue to getbetter, it is likely that solutions to this particular problemwill become apparent. New programming languages such asHTML 5 already provide a solution by enabling data cachingthrough a mobile device, and this allows a cloud applicationto continue working if connection has been momentarily lost.Today’s mobile applications are demanding computeintensive capabilities such as speech recognition, naturallanguage process- ing, computer vision and graphics, machinelearning, augmented reality, planning and decision making.These demands will not be met solely by making morepowerful mobile devices.In this paper, we envision that the new capabilities enablemobile users to seamlessly utilize the cloud to obtain theresource benefits without incurring delays and jitter andwithout worrying about energy. By thus empowering mobileusers, mobile computing will be able to break free of the
    • Vikas Kottari et al. / IJAIR Vol. 2 Issue 3 ISSN: 2278-7844© 2013 IJAIR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED492fundamental constraints that have been keeping us fromtransform many areas of human activity. We envision thefuture of mobile computing applications will be built on top ofa rich eco-system of basic mobile cloud services.ACKNOWLEDGMENTWe are thankful to Mr. Alok Ranjan for supporting us.REFERENCES[1] Canalys, “Smart phones overtake client PCs in 2011”,http://www.canalys.com/newsroom/smart-phones-overtake-client-pcs-2011 ”, Feb. 2012.[2] ORLANDO, Fla., October 23, 2012Gartner Identifies the Top10 Strategic Technologies for 2013http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2209615[3] Orlando, Fla., October 18, 2011Gartner Identifies the Top10 Strategic Technologies for 2012http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/1826214[4] Cloud Computing definitionhttp://www.techterms.com/definition/cloud_computing[5] B. Rochwerger, D. Breitgand, E. Levy, A. Galis, K. Nagin, I.Llorente, R. Montero, Y. Wolfsthal, E. Elmroth, J. Ca´ceres et al.,“The reservoir model and architecture for open federated cloudcomputing,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 53, no.4, pp. 1–11, 2009.[6] B. Marrapese. (2010, Dec.) Google ceo: a few years later,the mobile phone becomes a super computer. [Online]. Available:http://www.itnews-blog.com/it/21320.html[7] http://www.mobilecloudcomputingforum.com[8] Hong T.Dinh, Chonho Lee, Dusit Niyato, and Ping Wang,” ASurvey of Mobile CloudComputing: Architecture, Applications, and Approaches”http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.[9] Mobile Cloud Computing Architecturehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mobile_Cloud_Architecture.jpg[10] P. Zou, C. Wang, Z. Liu, and D. Bao, “Phosphor: A Cloud BasedDRM Scheme with Sim Card,” in Proceedings of the 12thInternational Asia-Pacific on Web Conference (APWEB), pp. 459,June 2010.[11] J. Oberheide, K. Veeraraghavan, E. Cooke, J. Flinn, and F.Jahanian. “Virtualized in-cloud security services for mobiledevices,” in Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Virtualization inMobile Computing (MobiVirt), pp. 31-35, June 2008.[12] D. Kopec, M. H. Kabir, D. Reinharth, O. Rothschild, and J. A.Castiglione, “Human Errors in Medical Practice: SystematicClassification and Reduction with Automated InformationSystems,” Journal of Medical Systems, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 297 - 313,August 2003.[14] Z. Li, C. Wang, and R. Xu, “Computation offloading to saveenergy on handheld devices: a partition scheme,” inProceedings of the 2001 international conference on Compilers,architecture, and synthesis for embedded systems (CASES), pp.238 - 246, November 2001[15] Mobile Cloud Computing Challengeshttp://www2.alcatel-lucent.com/techzine/mobile-cloud-computing-challenges/