Desirability of personal characeristics
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Desirability of personal characeristics Desirability of personal characeristics Document Transcript

  • http://www.gameswala.com/DESIRABILITY OF PERSONAL CHARACERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CREATIVITY THROUGH THE EYES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE PANJAB UNIVERSITY CHANDIGARH IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.ED. (GUIDANCE & COUNSELLING) 2010-2011 SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Dr. Kuldeep Kaur Gaganpreet KaurDepartment of Education M.Ed.(Guidance & CounselingPanjab university,Chandigarh Department of Education Panjab University,Chandigarh http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/i am vikas gupta, age 31 years . i start a gaming website namedwww.GamesWala.com which has PR4 and ratings below 4 lakh.i need here 1 help from you, as i have no money to promote my gamingsite,i am running graphic shop with 1 PC (yes 1 PC :) think how i amsurviving with 1 PC and a family with 2 kids :P ), I do not know muchabout how to promote my website, so i decided to talk with you friendsto come and join my site and play all the games for free, all games arepersonally selected by me from thousands of games.I am updating my website daily with lots of awesome games.You canplay without register or register you id or you also can play with yourfacebook ID.hope you all will like my site and play free online gamesthere, and dont forgot to tell your friends about mywww.GamesWala.com :) Certificate Certified that Miss Gaganpreet kaur Student M.Ed (Guidance & Counseling) Department of Education of Panjab University, Chandigarh, worked under my supervision for her dissertation entitled “Desirability of personal characteristics associated with creativity through the eyes of http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ university students”.This dissertation is complete and is fit for submission to the Panjab University Chandigarh. Dated: Supervisor Prof. Dr. Kuldeep Kaur Department Of Education Panjab University, Chandigarh. Acknowledgement“There is no knowledge which is not valuable”-Burke Thanks giving may be a a matter of mere formalities in a case of other,but with me it is an expression of heart felt gratitude to my learned researchsupervisor, Prof. Dr.Kuldeep Kaur Department of Education PanjabUniversity,Chandigarh without whose encouragement, guidance and patiencethis study would not have been possible .Her understanding nature and http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/intellect is wonderful to our faculty and I am proud to have recipient to thesame. I owe my gratitude to her for her selfless and timely help andencouragement during the course of research, whenever I needed. I extend my special gratitude to my parents and friends who werealways there to encourage me to put in my best throughout this endeavor.Date: Gaganpreet Kaur M.Ed(Guidance & Counselling) CONTENT CHAPTER NO. PAGE NO. 1. Introduction Levels & types of Creativity Factors that effect creativity Characteristics of a creative person 2. Review of related literature Review of related studies Emergence of the problem Statement of the problem http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/Objectives of the studyDelimitation of the study3. Method and ProcedureDesign of the studySampleTools used in the study4. Analysis & Interpretation5. Summary6. References7. Appendix INTRODUCTION http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/INTRODUCTION- CREATIVITYCreativity is regarded as the greatest single attribute of humans. It is thepulsating force underneath scientific as well as artistic activities, whether inchildren, adolescents or youth it is a socially commendable asset. That is whyit has assumed a great importance for researchers aiming to understand itand its correlates. Creativity stands out as an activity to be studied, cherishedand cultivated (Arieti, 1976) . Human creativity may prove to be the key tosuccess of failure in mankind quest for knowledge, in his journey beyond the http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/bounds of sure and the seen, in his exploration of unknown Barron (1968).Radhakrishan (1960) observed “ He (man) is a unique representation of theuniverse in whom the conscious creativity of the nature become consciouscreativity (Guilford,1966) A highly influential figure In the field of creativitywrites that the most urgent reason for studying creativity is that we are in amoral struggle for the survival of our ways of life in the world . Creativity,thus accounts for the process of socialization, internal dynamize of societychange without disrupting social cohesiveness. Trowbridge (1966) comments the creative person can contribute something tosociety which the intelligent person cannot. Similarly the intelligent person makescontributions which the creative one cannot. Also, the achievements of creativitysuperior individual do not equal the sum of achievements of any number of lesscreative people. The definition of a creative person who does with relative ease whatno one else has done at all is appropriate here. Taylor (1972) in discussing the work of Arnold Toynbee, the historian,describe the need for society to utilize its potential creativity. In fact he says to do ismatter of survival for any society ,and Americans destiny to help indigent majorityof mankind to struggle up wards to a better life. It is to complete this mission http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/successfully, then it must foster and utilize all of the creative ability it has creativitymay express itself in the form of artistic creation of mind or in visual and plasticarts.In others it may express or may seem to manifest itself in the ability to establishconstructive social relationship in the ability to give leadership to group etc. It is generally seen that our family & school programme are not giving dueplace to the educational experience and proper environment which are conducive tothe development of creative potential. This may be due to inadequate understandingof the creative process on the part of teachers or difficulties in identifying thecreative children or lack of knowledge of factors which inhibit and accelerate thedevelopment of creativity. This view has been further highlighted by Vernon (1967),“the present system is criticized for favoring the conformists, mentality-------thepupil or student who is good at accepting the learning what his teachers andlectures tells him and thinking and writing along conventional lines, whereas itdiscourages spontaneous and independent thinking.” Torrance(1969)is of the view that if waste of human talent is to be preventedand if creatively gifted student are not to choose the path of delinquency, mentalillness or at best a list of mediocrity and unrealized potentialities, it becomes http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/undoubtedly essential that serious attempts are made towards measurement offactors which would determine creativity. As is generally observed, many students seem to possess the seeds ofcreativeness but environment fails to provide full nourishment for their growth.Modern education must therefore not content itself with developing mere rotelearning but also the ability of children to produce relevant new meaning of theirclassroom experiences. It is obligatory on the part of the school to equip the childwith generalized intellectual and other skills which will unable him to copeeffectively with whatever state of these generalized skills in creative thinking. Thegreatest joy of the teacher and greatest hope for a better world lies in the cultivationof creative power. “To teach toward creativity is to teach towards the future ofsociety” (Lowenfeld and Britian 1966). The plain fact is that there is a need fornurturing creativity in every school whatever is done; it is by chance and accidentrather than by design and understanding. A review committee 1977 appointed bythe government of India pointed out the distortion that has crept into oureducational system. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ The Review committee 1977 observed that the general conditions prevailing inmajority of our schools regressively reduce the urge to experiment and undertakecreative work. The educational environment in any society should place a high value uponthe creative thinking potential of its school children.This has been necessitated bystepped up cultural changes in world characterized by population and explosion ofknowledge which is becoming specialized day by day due to technologicaladvancement and scientific innovations.LEVELS AND TYPES OF CREATIVITY Creativity operates at different levels in different person. Markaberry (1963)commented, “It is believed that there are continuous gradation of creativityextending from the spontaneous drawing of children to high level types illustrated inthe production of such creations as space satellite.” Ghilson (1963) hasdistinguished between two levels of creativity (a) Creative action of higher sortwhich alter “ The universe of meaning itself by introducing into it some newelements of meaning or some new order of significance and (b) Creative actions oflower sort which gives,”-------further development to an established body of http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/meaning through initiating some advance in its use.” Taylor (1959) suggests fivelevels of creativity; (a) Expressive creativity: Accounting for independent expression where skills originality and the quality of product are unimportant as in the spontaneous drawing of children. (b) Productive creativity: Deals with the artistic and control free play and develop techniques for producing finished products. (c) Inventive creativity: Related to inventors, explorers and discoverers where ingenuity is displayed with materials methods and techniques. (d) Innovative creativity: Concerning improvement through modification involving conceptualizing skills. (e) Emergenetic creativity: Which is an entirely new principal or assumption. Taylor point out that many people have this fifth level in mind when they talkabout creativity,since this level of creativity is so rare, the lower level have usuallybeen involved in this most of the investigations concerning creative behavior.Maslow (1950) speaks of three levels; The physical, mental and super ordinateculture creation from the point of view of creative activity. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ Dehan and Havighurst (1961) makes mention of three types, namely (a)affective creativity in which emotions,senses and feeling of person act as media ; (b)Functional or problem solving creativity involving situations related to the situationof mechanical and social problem; and (c) abstract creativity concerning conceptsdefinitions abstractions and generalization. Mackinnon (1960) suggests the possibility of coming across atleast two typesof creativity. In the first type, the product of creation is clearly an expression of theinner state as the need, perception, evaluation of the creative. In this type ofcreativity, the creator externalizes something of himself into the public field. Mostappropriate example of this kind would be find in the work of the expressionisticpainter or sculpturor, the poet, the novelist, the play writer and composer. In thesecond type of creativity as a person who is in his creative work act largely asmediator between externally defined needs and goals. Example of this kindcreativity would be found in the work of research scientist, in industry, engineers,the mechanical inventors. A third type of creativity may be revealed in the work ofrepresentational painter, common scenario writer, music arrangers and performersand perhaps most clearly of all architects having characteristics of both type oneand type two. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ Guilford(1956) opined that divergent thinking can be classified as figural,symbolic, semantic and behavioral depending upon the type of content in involved.Based upon the extension of production he further classified divergent thinking intosix types namely (a) Unit ?(b) Classes(c) Relations (d) System (e) Transformation (f)Implications.FACTORS THAT EFFECT CREATIVITY Creativity products essentially include an element of newness which impliesnovelty, freshness and inventiveness. But this element of newness effected by thefollowing factors:Attitude of parents:Some parents look upon creative thinking in school asthreatening and dangerous. This indifferent attitude of parents also effect thecreative thinking of childrenAttitude of teacher: Getzel and Jakson(1962) in their nonmetal study revealed thateven in their present time there is a tendency among teachers to prefer high IQstudents as against the high creativity students.School and environment: It was observed in that report of education commission1964-1966 that the quantitative expansion in secondary education has mercilessly http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/dwarfed the quality of education and that the schools have failed to enroll a largeproportion of talented students who could not study further on account of social oreconomical handicaps. India has problems of typical of a developing country, andthe poverty and illiteracy of parents in a great majority of Indian homes have been asource of proving the deprecatory environment in which the native talent ofchildren does not find an outlet and proper manifestation. Besides, a great deal oftalent never enters Indian schools and many often indifferent attitudes of themembers of educational institutions toward pupil.CHARACTERISTICS OF CREATIVE PERSON Thomas Moore said, "We are all poets and artists as we live ourdaily lives, whether or not we recognize our role and whether or not webelieve it." Human beings have an innate need to create. Even you!There is a continuum of creativity, ranging from being slightly creativeto highly creative. The good news is that you can learn to be morecreative by observing creative people and modeling yourself after them.Artists, writers, and creative types seem to have similar characteristics.Some of the personality traits listed below may seem eccentric, odd,even "out there"---but that is where creativity lies--- in the outreaches http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/of our consciousness, in the depths of our souls. If you had theopportunity tow with their own way of thinking and living. They haveoriginal ideas that literally turn the world upside down and right-sideout. Take for example, the 16th century Italian astronomer, Galileo,who proved that the earth revolved around the sun (instead of the otherway around), which was revolutionary in his time.2. IndividualisticCreative people want to find out what the truth is, and they have astrong need to decide for themselves what works and what does not.Often they are ahead of their time, and much of their work isappreciated/acknowledged after they are dead and gone. Many writersare famous for marching to the tune of their own drum, such as RalphWaldo Emerson, who wrote the book, Self-Reliance, and Robert Frostwho penned, "two roads diverged in a wood, and I took the one less-traveled."3. InventiveCreative people live in the world of ideas, and dont always have thebest interpersonal skills. Because they are so highly intelligent, and live http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/in the realm of possibility, they are constantly coming up with brightideas. They also take notice of what is missing in the world and/or whatcould be improved. Take for instance, Thomas Edison, who inventedhundreds of things in his time, his most famous invention being the lightbulb. He saw that there was darkness and then created light.4. DrivenCreative people cannot "not do something"—they are almostcompulsive until they can bring their internal vision into fruition. Theyhave that "fire in their belly"---a passion to contribute to the beautyand betterment of the world. Because of their high drive, they canproduce a lot in a relative short amount of time. Talk about drive---thematerial girl herself, Madonna, has not let public praise or criticismstop her from being a super star. She is a modern day Diva, multi-talented as a singer, dancer, and actress who has released hundreds ofsongs, albums, videos, movies, books--- all the while reinventing herselfas someone new.5.Visionary http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/Creative people have a guiding vision in their head, heart, and soul thatthey are often called to bring to life. Who else but Michelangelo couldlook at a large piece of marble and "chip away at everything that wasntDavid?" According to him, "I saw an angel in the marble and carveduntil I set him free." One of his best-known works is the immenseceiling of the Sistine Chapel, which took him three years to complete,where he often had to work upside down for hours at a time. If you everhave seen any of his work, you can easily see that it is a vision to behold.6. IntuitiveCreative people are very in touch with their inner selves. They payattention to the signs, synchronicities, symbols around them, and makeuse of that information in their work. They often act as a channel,where ideas and inspiration come from a higher plane. They allow thework to guide them to where it needs to go. The work clearly originatesin their soul, not from their ego. Talk about ideas coming from out ofthe blue, remember how the scientist, Isaac Newton "discovered"gravity? He was sitting under a tree and an apple fell on his head! Hadhe not made a connection with his intuitive nature, he would havemissed a major theory about the world we live. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The oxford dictionary defines (1974), “Create” as to cause to come intoexistence; bring into beings,make; originate to produce as a new construct out ofexisting materials. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ Anderson (1959) Creativity is emergence of originality and individuality. Guilford (1950) The basic component of creativity and sensitivity of toproblems; an ability to produce many novel ideas and solutions, a flexible approachto solving problems , and capacity to analyze and systematize a complex collectionor ideas. Hallman (1963) makes a mention of two reason namely (1) the tendency toemphasize separate interests by a wide variety of disciplines to investigate thecreativity process, and (2) the complex nature of creativity experience, which seemto be mainly responsible for the disorganized state of research evidence. Thetendency to assign different meanings to the term creativity by different workers inthe field of has been reported by vinacke(1952). Stein (1953) in his definition of creativity asserted that, creativity represent aregeneration of existence material of knowledge as consequences of interactionbetween creative individual and his environment for the production of somethingnew that is expectable as tenable or useful or satisfying by a group of some point oftime. Rogers (1962) and Arnold, includes a poem, a work of art for scientific theoryunder tangible products. Torrance (1964), envisaged creativity through the approaches of process,pressand products.He defined creativity as ,‘---------- a noun naming the phenomenon in http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/which a person communicates a new concept which is the product. He felt that themental process was implicit in the definition and it would be Impossible to conceiveof a person living or operating in a vacuum,so the term press is also implicit in it.’ Dehaan and Havighurst(1961) reported the efforts of Wilson who tried tofocus the diversity in the meaning of creativity. 1. The out flow of individual or group through which a product is structured. 2. An action of the mind that produces a new idea or insight. 3. The mental process of manipulating the environment which results in the production of new ideas, patterns or relationships. 4. The capacity to produce through thought or imagination, the capacity of original work. 5. The emergence in the action of a novel rational product, growing out of the uniqueness of the individual on the one hand and materials, events, people or circumstances of his life on others. 6. The mental process that involves the rearrangement of past experience with possibly some distortion, into new patterns to better satisfy some expressed or implied need. 7. The process which results in a novel work that is accepted as tenable or useful or satisfying by a group at some point in time. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/8. The creative process is any process by something new is produces anidea or an object including a new form or arrangements of old element. The newcreation must contribute to the solution of problem. Piers et al (1960) remarked that creativity could be taken as theindividual to avoid usual, routine and conventional ways of thinking and doingthings, and to produce a quality of ideas/ and or original, novel and usefulproducts. The further observed that creatively thinking is purposeful and gotdirected , involves the information of new patterns or combination ofinformation derived from past experiences and transplanting of newrelationship. Gorden (1961) and koestler (1964) unlike lebois(1963) have taken creativityas a unitary traits.Ghiselin (1964) reported the existence of verbal factor ofcreativity and speculated that an analogous nonverbal factor of creativity mightnot exist. Sultan (1962), Anderson (1964) thought of the responsibilities ofdifferent factors being involved in the concept of creativity. To conclude, creativity involves an action of the mind directed tomanipulate the environment with a view to produce new idea, patterns orrelationship. It is the capacity for original work involving the restructuring ofpast experiences intended towards new useful creations. In the light of these http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/diverse views, it is clear that the recent trend is to accept creativity as amultidimensional ability which is a complex universal human attributemanifested by the cognitive empirical process and differently distributed amongdifferent people.EMERGENCE OF THE PROBLEM Creativity is regarded as the greatest single attribute of humans. it is pulsating force underneath scientific as well as artistic activities. Creative people are those who think differently from the group of average people. They display a good deal of intellectual playfulness. They are involved in more peak experiences, Integration within the person and between the person and the world.If we look at the history the person who thought away from the main track.They emerged as the one with more valuable thoughts which ultimately changed the perception towards the world. These people never followed the conventional approach. They do not feel need to confirm to society standards.Such people has always been more valuable to the society and hence we need to study about such people and the different types of characteristics found in such people.This view to study the creative people and their characteristics thus gave rise to conduct the research on this subject. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem under investigation thus reads as follow: DESIRABILITY OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CREATIVITY: THROUGH THE EYES OF PANJAB UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To find characteristics associated with creativity. 2. To study desirability of personal characteristics associated with creativity.DESIGN OF THE STUDYThe proposed study will be descriptive survey type.SAMPLEThe data for the study will be collected from approximately 200 students of studentsof Panjab University. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/TOOLSFollowing tools will be used in the study for the purpose of data collection 1. Self prepared list of characteristics of creative persons. 2. Torrance test of creativity(1968)STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO BE EMPLOYEDFollowing statistical techniques will be used for analysis of the data: 1. Descriptive techniques such as mean, percentage of most desirable characteristics will be used to ascertain the nature of distribution of variables.DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY: 1. The study will be limited to science group. 2. Study will be delimited to the area of Panjab University, Chandigarh. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ METHOD & PROCEDUREMETHOD AND PROCEDUREMethodology makes the most important contribution towards the environment ofthe environment of any study. To undertake any research it is necessary to design, http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/plan the procedure and the method to be used.In research there are numerousmethods and procedures to be applied but it is the nature of the problem underinvestigation, which determines the adoption of a particular method and carpenter.It helps to achieve economy in time and coordination of efforts. Taking a specific pinpointed problem and trying to find a solution in a specific manner to it ,Is a researchdecision based on system alike research in education save a lot of failure andfrustration. One to proceeds a well planned manner and it will conduct researchprogramme and keeping in view the nature of the problem. The researcher dealswith the relationship between variables to testing of hypothesis and developmentgeneralization that has universal reality. It explains the sample and also the toolsused in the exclusion of the study.According to Best (1963) all research involves the elements ofobservation,description and the analysis of what happens under certaincircumstances.Asystematic procedure is must to collect the necessary data,whichhelps to achieve the objectives and to test the hypotheses,formulated for the study.DESIGN OF THE STUDY http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/The design of the study is necessary to adopt a systematic procedure to collect datawhich helps to test the hypotheses of the study under investigation.In the presentstudy survey method of research has been employed to study the desirability ofpersonal characteristics associated with creativity through the eyes of universitystudents.SAMPLEAccording to the Cambridge dictionary of statistics 1998.Sample is a selectedsubject of population chosen by some process usually with the objective ofinvestigating particular properties of the parent population. The process of selectingsome part of a population to observe so as to estimate something of interest aboutthe whole population is known as sampling.the sample pool for present studycomprises of 200 students from Under Graduate,Post Graduate and ResearchScholar grades from science and non science department.it consist of both male andfemale students from Panjab University, Chandigarh. All the 200 students were given the test for non verbal form of Torrance testof creativity. The answer sheet for all were evaluated with the help of the respective http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/keys. The raw scores of non verbal Torrance test of creativity were taken intoconsideration for the analysis of the result.TOOLS USED IN THE STUDY It is necessary to involve a systematic procedure to collect essential data. Thecollection of data should be relevant in quality and in quantity. It should besufficient. Variable and valid and the instrument which we use to collect this type ofdata is known as tools and three application is a important step for the researcheris at liberty to use one or more tools in the combination for carrying out the study. The following tools were used for the collection of the data in this study. 1. Torrance test of creativity(1968) 2. Self prepared list of characteristics of creative persons.TORRANACE TEST OF CREATIVE THINKING: 1968 The figural form of the Torrance test of creative thinking requires responsesthat are mainly drawing or pictorial in nature. Use of figural test batteries isrecommended in kindergarten through graduate schools .A small amount of writing http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/is required by examinees when they are directed to table or name some of thepictures they have drawn with children who are not yet writing. This part of the testis accomplished by the examiner. The figural form of the Torrance test of creativethinking involves three types of activities involves three types of activities namelypicture construction activity, incomplete figures activity and repeated figureactivity.In Picture construction activity The subjects are required to think a picture in which the given shape made ofcolored paper with adhesive backing is an integral part. An effort is made to elite anoriginal response by asking subjects to try to think of something that no else in thegroup will produce. Elaboration is encouraged by the instructions to add ideas thatwill make the picture tell as complete as interesting story as possible. Thus theproduct is evaluated only for originality and elaboration. To complete the test thesubjects are given ten minutes. The scoring guides for originality on the pictureconstruction test is based on the responses of 500 subjects and ranging fromkindergarten through college. Responses occurring on 5% or more of the recordsreceived no credit. Responses occurring from 4.00% to 4.99% received 1 point;responses found in 3.00 to 3.99% of the records are scored two ; those occurring in2.00% to 2.99% are awarded three credits; those founded from 1.00% to 1.99% of http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/the records received four credits. All other responses showing imagination andcreative strength are credited with five points. This list of responses following ineach of the five categories is given in the manual. Two assumptions underlie thescoring of elaboration for the picture construction test. The first is that theminimum and primary response to the stimulus figure is a single response. Thesecond is that the imagination and exposition of detail is a function of creativeability appropriately ladled elaboration.2. a self prepared list of questionnaire is used in which 41 characteristicsare given . all these characteristics are associated with creativity.students aresupposed to rank top ten characteristics according to the desirability .the topmost element is given 1st rank and 2nd rank is given to the second mostdesirable characteristic.Hence 200 students have chosen to ten elementsaccording to their priority . http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ ANALSIS & INTERPRETATIIONANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Importance of analysis and interpretation in research unless and untilraw data are analyzed and interpreted with the use of appropriate techniques,valid generalizations can not be drawn. Hence, this section is the heart of the http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/research report. Analysis of data means studying the tabulated material inorder to determine the inherent facts or meaning. It involves breaking downthe existing complex factors into simple parts and putting the parts togetherin new management for the purpose of interpretation. The process ofinterpretation is essentially that of stating the results (What finding shows) .What it mean? What is the standard deviation? What is there significance?What is the answer of the original problem? Interpretation is thus, by nomeans a mechanic process. It calls for a careful logical and criticalexamination of the results obtained after analysis, keeping in view thelimitation of the sample chosen, the tool selected and used in the study. Thus itis a very important step in the total process of research. Interpretation and discussion: The present chapter deals with thepresentation of the results and discussion’s is based on the analysis of theresults. This section shows the desirability of personal characteristicsassociated with creativity in ranks and percentage the top ten characteristicsare chosen on the basis of the average ranks. The results have been presentedin the form of form of table in our section.The table is as follows:-Item Sampl Averageno. e Frequency Percentage Rank 1 200 50 25 1.82 4 200 3 1.5 6.3 http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ 8 200 4 2 5 11 200 7 3.5 2.14 12 200 8 4 2 13 200 31 15.5 2.12 15 200 4 2 5.7 17 200 20 10 2.15 19 200 6 3 1.6 23 200 5 2.5 1.8 26 200 15 7.5 2.06 27 200 5 2.5 4 29 200 4 2 1.5 30 200 10 5 3.3 32 200 10 5 2.1 34 200 3 1.5 6.3 35 200 6 3 4.3 37 200 6 3 3.16 38 200 3 1.5 7.6 Here 41 characteristics of creativity were given in the questionnaire.Students were asked to choose or rank the top ten characteristic. The sampleconsist of 200 students of Panjab Unversity,Chandigarh.The number of http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/students who have ranked any characteristic are taken under frequency onthe basis of frequency and sample the percentage and average ranks arefound.This percentage and average rank show the desirability of thatcharacteristics.On the basis of average ranks the top ten characteristics arechosen which are as follows according to their ranking: Item No. Average Rank 29 1.5 19 1.6 23 1.8 1 1.82 12 2 26 2.06 32 2.1 13 2.12 11 2.14 17 2.15 As shown in the table the item no. 29 has got rank 1.5 which is on thetop.This is the top most desirable characteristic.Item no. 19 is on the secondrank and 10th characteristic is item no.17th which is one of last most desirablecharacteristic.This is also shown in the following line graph: http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ Desirablities of personal characteristics associated with creativity through the eyes of university students 35 30 25 Item no. 20 Item no. 15 Average Rank 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average Rank Thus we observe that the creative people prefer complexity, asymmetryaccording to the results that we have got. Displaying a god deal of intellectualplayfulness. Fantasizing, day dreaming and imagining is the second desirablecharacteristic. Self discipline and independency is given the third rank.Creative people are curious is on the fourth rank. Flexibility of imaginationcomes on fifth rank. Sixth rank is given to the adventurous nature of creativeperson. They need supportive climate and they are sensitive to environment,this characteristic comes on seventh rank. Eighth rank is given to theoptimistic nature. Sticking to their ideas falls under ninth rank and the tenthcharacteristic is that creative people are hard workers. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ There are also some of the characteristics which are not considereddesirable by the students because they have not given them any rank. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONSUMMARYIn the present time when knowledge is progressing by most incredible leaps andbounds in an ambigious and fantastic age generally creative adaptation seems torepresent the only possibility that can help man keep abreast of the continuous http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/change in the world. Scientific discoveries are growing at an extremely fast rate andgenerally passive and culture bon people. People can not cope with the multiplyingissues and problems. It has become imperative for survival that individual ,groupsand nations must imagine, construct and creatively revise new ways of relating tothese complex changes and make new and original deputation to this changingenvironment .the life of man is becoming more and more complex.The advent ofautomation has resulted in routine task being turned over to machines.Creativethinking will prove very fruitful to handle these complexities of life.Creativethinking is a unique ability of mankind and it is natural for man to learn creativity.Trowbridge(1966) comments the creative person can contribute something tosociety which the intelligent person can not. Similarly the intelligent person makescontribution which the creative one can not,also the achievements of creativelysuperiors individual do not equal to some of the achievements of any number of lesscreative people.It is generally seen that our family and school environment are notgiving due place to the educational experience and proper environment which areconducive to the development of creative potential.This may be due to inadequateunderstanding of creative process on the part of the teacher or difficulties inidentifying the creative children or lack of knowledge of factors which inhibit andaccelerate development of creativity.The plain fact is that there is a need fornurturing creativity in every school whatever is done by chance an accident rather http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/than by design an understanding.A review committee (1977) observed that thegeneral conditions prevailing in the majority of our schools progressively reduce theurge to experiment and undertake creative work as is generally observed, manystudents seem to possess the seeds of creativity or creativeness but the environmentfails to provide full nourishment for their growth. The educational environment inany society should place a high value upon the creative thinking potential of itsschool children.This has been necessitated by the stepped up cultural changes in theworld characterized by the population explosion and explosion of knowledge whichis becoming specialized day by day due to technological advancements and scientificinnovation.CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED CREATIVITY http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/According to Roger Vonoech"Creative thinking involves imagining familiar thingsin a new light, digging below the surface to find previously undetected patterns, andfinding connections among unrelated phenomena."Highly creative individuals may: 1. Display a great deal of curiosity about many things; are constantly asking questions about anything and everything; may have broad interests in many unrelated areas. May devise collections based on unusual things and interests. 2. Generate a large number of ideas or solutions to problems and questions; often offer unusual ("way out"), unique, clever responses. 3. Are often uninhibited in expressions of opinion; are sometimes radical and spirited in disagreement; are unusually tenacious or persistent fixating on an idea or project. 4. Are willing to take risks, are often people who are described as a "high risk taker, or adventurous, or speculative." 5. Display a good deal of intellectual playfulness; may frequently be caught fantasizing, daydreaming or imagining. Often wonder out loud and might be heard saying, "I wonder what would http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/happen if. . ."; or "What if we change . . .." Can manipulate ideas byeasily changing, elaborating, adapting, improving, or modifying theoriginal idea or the ideas of others. Are often concerned improvingthe conceptual frameworks of institutions, objects, and systems.6. Display keen senses of humor and see humor in situationsthat may not appear to be humorous to others. Sometimes theirhumor may appear bizarre, inappropriate, irreverent to others.7. Are unusually aware of his or her impulses and are oftenmore open to the irrational within him or herself. May freely displayopposite gender characteristics (freer expression of feminineinterests in boys, greater than usual amount of independence forgirls).8. Exhibit heightened emotional sensitivity. May be verysensitive to beauty, and visibly moved by aesthetic experiences.9. Are frequently perceived as nonconforming; acceptdisordered of chaotic environments or situations; are frequently notinterested in details, are described as individualistic; or do not fearbeing classified as "different." http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ 10. Criticize constructively, and are unwilling to accept authoritarian pronouncements without overly critical self- examination. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem under investigation thus reads as followS: DESIRABILITY OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CREATIVITY: THROUGH THE EYES OF PANJAB UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To find characteristics associated with creativity. 2. To study desirability of personal characteristics associated with creativity.DESIGN OF THE STUDYThe proposed study will be descriptive survey type. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/SAMPLEThe data for the study will be collected from approximately 200 students of studentsof Panjab University.TOOLSFollowing tools will be used in the study for the purpose of data collection 1. Self prepared list of characteristics of creative persons. 2. Torrance test of creativity(1968)STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO BE EMPLOYEDFollowing statistical techniques will be used for analysis of the data Descriptive techniques such as mean, percentage of most desirable characteristics will be used to ascertain the nature of distribution of variables.DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ 1. The study will be limited to science group. 2. Study will be delimited to the area of Panjab University, Chandigarh.SIGNIFICANCE:The quality as well as depth of creativity in various areas of knowledge andindifferent nations is significant because creativity acts effect environment not anyscientific progress but the society in general also. The nations who learn best how toidentify, develop and encourage the creative potential in their people may findthemselves in advantageous position. The students are the milestones in building thenations so imbibing creativity in the student population is essentilal.The reason fortaking up a study of this type on university students is to equip the teachers withvaluable statistics to know their people better…..their creative levels.CONCLUSION http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ we observe that the creative people prefer complexity, asymmetryaccording to the results that we have got. Displaying a god deal of intellectualplayfulness. Fantasizing, day dreaming and imagining is the second desirablecharacteristic. Self discipline and independency is given the third rank.Creative people are curious is on the fourth rank. Flexibility of imaginationcomes on fifth rank. Sixth rank is given to the adventurous nature of creativeperson. They need supportive climate and they are sensitive to environment,this characteristic comes on seventh rank. Eighth rank is given to theoptimistic nature. Sticking to their ideas falls under ninth rank and the tenthcharacteristic is that creative people are hard workers. There are also some of the characteristics which are not considereddesirable by the students because they have not given them any rank. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/ REFERENCESAllen edverd john(1982), The relationship of locus of control ofachievement, self esteem and creativity in open and traditionaleducation setting Dissertation abstract http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/Altenhaus,C.B.,(1964) .An exploration of the relationship of intelligenceto creativity in school children, Dissertation abstract, volume 24Anderson, HE(Ed.), (1959). Creativity and its cultivation.New York:Harper and raw publicationArieti, S.(1976). Creativity- The magic synthesis.New York: Basic BookBarron,F (1969) . Creative person and creative process, New York: HaltRinehart and WinstonBurgess, Willams Vander, (1971). The analysis of teacher creativity, pupil sexand sources of variation among elementary pupils performance of pre andpost test of creativity thinking, Dissertation abstract, Volume 32Burt,C .(1962). The psychology of creative ability, Br.J.Ed. psychol ,Volume32. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/Draper, N.M. (1987). Parental assessment of creativity and curiosity in thekindergarten child, Dissertation abstract, Volume 47.Gakhar S.S.(1975). Intellectual and personality correlates of creativity Ph.DThesis,Panjab University.Guilford, J.P.(1950). Creativity American Psychologist.II, 445-454.Lowenfled & Britain (1966). Creativity and Mental Growth, (4th Edition), NewYork; McMillianPassi B.K. ans Lalitha, M.S.(1975). A Factorial study of creativity, intelligenceand self concept and adolescence and psychol studies.Radeloff , Deanna Jean Bolfa, (1978). Correlations of creativity achievementsand parental variables of early school entrance, Children DissertationAbstract.Radhakrishan. S (1960). Occasional speeches and Writing, Delhi, ThePublication Division http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/Taylor, C.W, (1964) Creativity;progress and potentials: New York McGrawHill Book Company.Torrance, E.P.(1962). Regarding creative behavior Englewood cliff : N.J.Perentice Hall .Torrance, E.P.(1962). Guiding creative talent Englewood cliff : N.J. PerenticeHall.Trowbridge, N.(1966). Research on creativity in patel, A.S. & Shah,G.B.(Edn), Education of the backward and gifted children, Baroda, C.A.S.E.The characteristics associated with creativity are taken from : http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/The listed characteristics are from the research of : 1. Albert, 1998 2. Amabile, 1990 3. Fromm, 1959 4. Guilford, 1959 5. Heath, 1983 6.Koestler, 1964 7. Krippner, 1968 8. MacKinnon, 1964 9. Martindale, 1975 10. Maslow, 1959 11. May, 1959 12. Maynard, 1970 13. Miliora, 1987 14. Parnes, 1967 15. Rogers, 1959 16. Runco and Nemiro, 1994 17. Schaefer, 1970 18. Sternberg and Lubart, 1993 http://www.gameswala.com/
  • http://www.gameswala.com/19. Taylor & Williams, 196620. Torrance, 196221. Williams, 1968 http://www.gameswala.com/