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Cultural studies 1(2)

Cultural studies 1(2)



all bba , mba projects available pm me for more porjects. also play free online games @ http://www.gameswala.com/

all bba , mba projects available pm me for more porjects. also play free online games @ http://www.gameswala.com/



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    Cultural studies 1(2) Cultural studies 1(2) Document Transcript

    • http://www.gameswala.com/ Cultural StudieCommunity Taken - BengaliGroup Members :-Ismail 36Shilpa 14Suchitra 28Swati 48Uravashi 46 http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/i am vikas gupta, age 31 years . i start a gaming website namedwww.GamesWala.com which has PR4 and ratings below 4 lakh.i need here 1 help from you, as i have no money to promote my gamingsite,i am running graphic shop with 1 PC (yes 1 PC :) think how i amsurviving with 1 PC and a family with 2 kids :P ), I do not know muchabout how to promote my website, so i decided to talk with you friendsto come and join my site and play all the games for free, all games arepersonally selected by me from thousands of games.I am updating my website daily with lots of awesome games.You canplay without register or register you id or you also can play with yourfacebook ID.hope you all will like my site and play free online gamesthere, and dont forgot to tell your friends about mywww.GamesWala.com :) AcknowledgementWe sincerely thank our professor Mrs.Padmaja who gave us this wonderfulopportunity to explore our views on thedifferent facets of the community. We would also like to extend our thanksto our parents and friends who had beena constant source of encouragement andsupport throughout this project. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/ EARLY HISTORYThe first evidence of Bengali literature is knownas Charyapada or Charyageeti, a collection of 8th-12thcentury CE Buddhist mystic poems from eastern India thatprovides early examples of Assamese, Oriya and Bengalilanguages. Poets of these Charyapadas,the Siddhas or Siddhacharyas belonged to the various regionsof Assam, Bengal, Orissa and Bihar.In the middle of 19th century, Bengali literature gainedmomentum. During this period, the Bengali Pandits of FortWilliam College did the tedious work of translating the textbooks in Bengali to help teach the British some Indianlanguages including Bengali. This work played a role in thebackground in the evolution of Bengali prose. In 1814, Raja http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Ram Mohan Roy arrived in Calcutta and engaged in literarypursuits. Translating from Sanskrit to Bengali, writing essayson religious topics and publishing magazines were some theareas he focussed on. He established a cultural group in thename of Atmiya Sabha (Club of Kins) in 1815. Anothersignificant contributor of Bengali literature in its early stagewas Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyaya. LITERATURE OF BENGALThe term Bengali literature refers to literary works writtenin Bengali language particularly from Bangladesh andthe Indian province of West Bengal. The history of Bengaliliterature traces back hundreds of years while it is impossibleto separate the literary trends of the two Bengals during thepre-independence period. Post independent Bangladesh hasgiven birth to its own distinct set of literature. POETSJatindramohan Bagchi, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Jibanananda Das,along with Buddhadeva Bose, marks the beginning of the majormove to transcend the Tagore legacy . Even thoughJibanananda went through a terbulent and difficult financialtroubles and met an unfortunate accident caliming his life earlyin his writing career, he remains to be the most influentialpoet of post-Rabindranath era. The new genre of Bengali poetsdeparted considerably from Tagores ideological style andadopted various themes and philosophies such as Marxism , http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Freudian interpretation of mind, which were avoided and oftencriticized by Rabindranath Tagore. These three marked thebeginning of the era that will burst with activities and urge tomerge with the greater world of poetry absorbing elements fromthem. Commonly called polli-kobi (pastoralpoet)Jasimuddin, Shamsur Rahman, widely known for his playingwith words are also notable . INFLUENCE OF RABINDRANATH TAGOREPossibly the most prolific writer in Bangla is Nobellaureate Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore dominated both the Bengali and Indian philosophical and literary scene for decades. His 2,000 Rabindrasangeets play a pivotal part in defining Bengali culture, both in West Bengal and Bangladesh. He is the author of the national anthems of both India and Bangladesh, both composed in Bangla. Other notableBangla works of his are Gitanjali, a book of poems for which hewas awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, and manyshort stories and a few novels. It is widely accepted thatBangla Literature accomplished its contemporary look by thewritings and influence of Rabindranath.INFLUENCE OF KAZI NAZRULISLAM http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/ Kazi Nazrul Islam was invited to post- partition Bangladesh as the National Poet and whose work transcends sectarian boundaries. Adored by Bengalis both in Bangladesh and West Bengal, his work includes 3,000 songs, known as "nazrul sangeet". He is frequently called the rebel poet mainly because of hismost famous and electrifying poem "Bidrohi" or "The Rebel",and also because of his strong sympathy and support forrevolutionary activities leading to Indias independence fromBritish Rule. His songs and poems were frequently used duringthe Bangladesh Liberation War as well. Though he isacknowledged as the rebel poet, Nazrul very effectivelycontributed in all branches of literature. He wrote poems thatlight the fire against inequality or injustice and at the sametime is known for his poignant romantic poems as well. He wrotea lot of Islami Ghazals and in the same time wrote a number ofShyama Sangeet (songs for the Hindu Mother Goddess, Kali).Nazrul was not only a poet, he was writer, musician, journalistand philosopher. He was sent to jail for his literary worksagainst the then prevailing British rule. MUSICIANS http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/ Seminal Hindu religious works in Bangla include the many songs of Ramprasad Sen. His works (still sung today) from the 17th century cover an astonishing range of emotional responses to the goddess Kali, detailing complex philosophical statements based on Vedanta teachings and morevisceral pronouncements of his love of the goddess. They areknown as Shyama Sangeet and were the literary inspiration forKazi Nazrul Islams later, famed Shyama Sangeet. There arealso the laudatory accounts of the lives and teachings ofthe Vaishnava saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (the ChoitanyoChoritamrit) and Shri Ramakrishna(the Ramakrishna Kathamrita,translated roughly as Gospel of Ramakrishna). There is also alarge body of Islamic literature, that can be traced backatleast to Noornama by Abdul Hakim. Bishad Sindhu depictingthe death of Hussain in Karbala is very popular novel writtenby Mir Mosharraf Hossain. Later works influenced by Islaminclude devotional songs written by Nazrul, and popularizedby Abbas Uddin, among others. NOVELISTSSarat Chandra Chattopadhyaywas one of the most popularnovelists of early 20th century whose speciality was exploringlife and sufferings of women in contemporary rural Bengal. Hissympathy towards the common rural folks in "pallisamaj" and atrademark simplified Bengali as a writing style made him one of http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/the most popular writer in his time. Even long after his deathmany Bengali and Bollywood blockbusters were based on hisnovels. After him Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, BibhutibhushanBandopadhyay, Manik Bandopadhyay, are the threeBandopadhyays who broke out into a new era of realistic writingstyle. Where the two of the above Bibhutibhusan and Manikhad long standing influence on the two of the most brilliantfilm directors from Bengal, Satyajit Ray and RitwikGhatak respectively. Other famous bengali novelistsare Jagadish Gupta, Satinath Bhaduri, Balai ChandMukhopadhyay(Banophool), Saradindu Bandopadhyay, KamalKumar Majumdar, Sunil Gangopadhyay, SandipanChattopadhyay,Shumotho Nath Ghosh, Gagendra KumarMitra , Bimal Mitra, Bimal Kar, Samaresh Basu, Mani ShankarMukherjee(Shankar), etc. Seeds of bengali sciencefiction could be observed in the writings of Jagadish ChandraBose, which was later put into a definite genre by writers suchas Jagadananda Roy, Hemlal Dutta, Begum Roquia SakhawatHussain, Premendra Mitra, Satyajit Ray. Where Satyajit Ray isalso notable for his short stories where he revives the traditionof Thakurmar Jhuli into a mixture of fantasy, mystery, science,and fairy tale.The genre of parallel novel-writing started from the 1960swith the Hungryalist Movement. Malay Roy Choudhury, SubimalBasak and Basudeb Dasgupta are known to be the mostexperimental novelists belonging to this movement. Basudeb isknown to his readers for his only novel Kheladhula. Malay isfamous for his Dubjaley trilogy and Subimal for his brokennarrative CHHATAMATHA. More experimental novelists whocame into the scene in the midst of surging change in Bengali http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Literature are: Udayan Ghosh, Rabindra Guha, KamalChakraborty, Barin Ghoshal, Subimal Mishra, Arupratan Basu,Nabarun Bhattacharya. In the New Age (21stCentury), Arupratan Ghosh can be considered the only novelistof this genre with his novel Suryaheen (published in 2007). ART PAINTINGSIn the nineteenth century, the only school of painting thatwas flourishing in Bengal was the traditional art of scrollpaintings that was popular in the rural areas. These paintingswere done on cloth or patas. They depicted conventional imagesof gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas’Rama charita manas. The artistes were villagers who travelledfrom place to place with their scroll paintings and sang thescenes from the epics depicted in the paintings during villagegatherings and festivals. These artists, called patuas or‘painters on cloth’ were said to be half Hindu and half Muslimand practised Islam.THE KALIGHAT PAINTINGSKalighat painting originated in the 19thcentury Bengal, in the vicinity of KalighatKali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, andfrom being items of souvenir taken by thevisitors to the Kali temple, the paintings http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indianpainting. From the depiction of Hindu gods, goddesses, andother mythological characters, the Kalighat paintings developedto reflect a variety of themes.Jatra Jatra is a form of traditional folk theatre from the eastern region of India, In other words, Jatra is a form of folk drama combining acting, songs and music and dance altogether by the troop that is traveling from one placeto another visiting many villages on the occasion of Durga Pujain the month of Ashvin. It has laid roots for the modernBengali drama culture. Oriental and Occidental KalighatOriental Painting OccidentalPaintings http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/The Kalighat School was an agreeable and unique blend of twodifferent styles of painting—the Oriental and the Occidental—and steadily gained popularity. Among the deities that theKalighat artists painted, the goddess Kali was a favorite.Images of Durga, Lakshmi, and Annapurna were also popular,especially during the Durga Puja festival. The artists alsoportrayed themes like Sita-Rama, Radha-Krishna and theexploits of Hanuman. Another theme depicted, dear to theBengali ethos, was that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and hisdisciples. But the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselvesto religious themes. Their paintings depicting differentprofessions and costumes were also popular with the tourists.Even contemporary events like crime were the subject of manypaintings. The artists also chose to portray secular themes andpersonalities and in the process played a role in theIndependence movement. They painted heroic characters likeTipu Sultan and Rani Lakshmibai. Dance There are five main dances practiced in West Bengal. They are the Brita, the Chaau, the Tusu, the Santhal, and Gambhira. Brita is one of the popular folk dances of West Bengal. It is an invocation dance, generally performed by barren women. Through this dance, http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/the dancers invoke the blessings of Gods so that they areblessed with a child. This dance is also performed afterrecovering from a contagious disease. The Chaau is a masked dance. In West Bengal, this dance form is centred around the Purulia region. It is a very vibrant dance form and is usually performed by males, with the accompaniment of drum beats or the music of bamboo flutes. No songaccompanies the dance, and the dancer also doesnt utter aword. The dancer has to communicate the emotions and tensionsof the character he portrays only through body movements. Thedance is very vibrant and is accompanied with acrobatic feats.The themes of these dances mostly revolve around the twoepics of Mahabharata and Ramayana.The Santhals are worshippers of nature, and to that end, thecommunity (mostly women) performs different kinds of vibrantdances to the sound of sweet music.Gambhira is popular in north Bengal, especially in the Maldahdistrict. It is performed by a pair of dancers, one representingthe grandfather, and the other, the grandson. The charactersof the dance voice contemporary social, political and moralconcerns through their dances. The dance also involves songs,and dialogues in both prose and verse. The supportinginstrument to the dance is the dhak, which is a big drum,harmonium and flute. The artistes also wear masks. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/ Festivals of West BengalThe festivals of West Bengal would not only enliven yourspirits but also would be a warm welcome from the monotonousschedule of your regular life. The festivals of the state ofWest Bengal are in fact characterized by joyous ceremonies,enthusiasm paralleled with ample fun and celebration. Not onlythat during the festive celebrations the rich and the poor alikeassemble together to enhance the spirit of their festive moods.The festivals of West Bengal embody the robust and compositecultural heritage of our nation. Various communities of theIndian subcontinent celebrate as many as forty festivals withcomplete communal concordance. The most important festival ofthe Bengalis of West Bengal are:Durga PujaDurga Puja is the most important festival of West Bengal .Thisfestival recalls the power of female Shakti symbolized by theGoddess Durga .Bengalis all overthe world during these days ofDurga Puja rejoice to theirhearts content reconnecting withfriends and relatives. Durga Pujais an occasion when the familiarsound of Dhak, Dhunuchinachh,the mild fragrance of Shiuli,gives a familiar tug to everyBengali heart. Durga Puja‘Worship of Durga’, also referred http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/as Durgotsab is an annual Hindu festival that celebrates worshipof Hindu goddess Durga. This festival is observed in the monthsof September/October and in not only limited to Bengal only.A spirit of euphoria sets in during the four-day festivecelebrations. The whole state is found to explode into a riot ofcolors during the Durga Puja celebrations. For the Bengalicommunity the advent of Goddess Durga along with her childrenfrom her icy abode in Kailash to her maternal house is believedto bring prosperity among the rich and poor alike. The religiousrites and rituals are celebrated by all with much veneration.Prasads are distributed everyday after the daily rituals getover .Apart from Eastern part of India, Durga Puja is also celebratedin Delhi, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir, Karnataka andKerala. Durga Puja is also celebrated as a major festival inNepal and Bangladesh. Nowadays, many non-residential Bengalicultural organizations arrange for Durgotsab in the countrieslike the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany,France, Kuwait etc. In 2006, a grand Durga Puja ceremonywas held in the Great Court of the British Museum. The prominence of Durga Puja increased gradually during the British Raj in Bengal. After the Hindu reformists resemble Durga with India, she had become an icon for the Indian independence movement. It is the most http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/important festival in Bengal, and Bengalis celebrate with newclothes and other gifts, which are worn on the evenings whenthe family goes out to see the pandals (temporary structuresset up to venerate the goddess). Although it is a Hindufestival, religion takes a back seat on these four days: DurgaPuja in Bengal is a carnival, where people from allbackgrounds, regardless of their religious beliefs, participateand enjoy themselves to the hilt.HoliThe festive celebration of Holi in the state of West Bengal isalmost similar to that of Orissa except for some minor aspects.The other names by which the festival of Holi is popular in thisstate are `Dol Purnima`, `Vasant Utsav`. This festival wasstarted in this state by the far-famed pet laureateRabindranath Tagore at the university of Shantiniketan of whichhe was the pioneer. The youth of the state not only welcomesthe season of spring with colors and sweets but also bychanting of hymns and other devotional songs. Holika is burntin the evening as the symbol of the victory of good over evil.Saraswati PujaThis is one of the most devotional festivals of West Bengal andthe worship of Goddess Saraswati is held at a time when thewinter comes to an end and the spring begins. Amidst thepleasant weather the worship of Goddess Saraswati starts earlyin the morning with `aarti`. The chanting of various `mantras`marks the beginning of the `arti` and `boi puja` also forms an http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/important aspect. This festival is celebrated in all schools andcolleges and the youth can be seen participating in the pujawith much enthusiasm. It is also marked as the day of eatingplums.JanmashtamiThis festival is celebrated in West Bengal with muchexuberance and ebullience to mark the birth of the Lord ofLove, Krishna. It falls on the day of Ashtami in the Sharavanmonth according to the Hindu calendar. In the Krishna templesRasila is performed to recreate incidents from the life ofKrishna and to commemorate his love for Radha.Naba BarshoThis much-awaited festival of WestBengal is the New Year celebrationof the Bengali community and iscelebrated in the month of Baisakhor in the month of April. It is anextreme joyous occasion for theBengalis and the businessmen inparticular. It is a great time forvisiting the temples and relatives,making offerings, buying new clothes, greeting people and muchmore. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Rath YatraThe Rath Yatra festivalcelebrated in the region ofMahesh few miles away fromCalcutta in the state of WestBengal attracts lakhs of touristsfrom all over the state as well asthe country. This day isconsidered as very auspicious andmarks the start of the sowingseason for the monsoon crop throughout Eastern India.Grand fairs are held throughout the state.Muslim FestivalsThe Muslim festivals are celebrated in the state of WestBengal with much fun and vigor. The principal Islam festivals ofWest Bengal are Muharrum, Iduzzoha, Id-Ul-Fitr and thebirthday of the prophet.Bhratri DwitiyaThis festival is celebrated in the state of West Bengal with asmuch exuberance as in the other states. It is a festival purelydedicated to the love and affection between brothers andsisters. Brothers bless their sisters and also promises toprotect them from all hardships. The celebration of BhratriDwitiya or Bhaiya Dooj in this state can be redefined as a bondthat speaks of sensitivity and timeless relationship. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/DiwaliThe worship of Goddess Kali makes the festival of Diwali in thestate of West Bengal very unique. The houses and temples allover the state are vivaciously decorated and lit with oil lamps,candles or `diyas`. All the family members gather around in theevening for the worship of Goddess Lakshmi. In this state theDiwali festival stretches over a period of three days. The firsttwo days mainly comprises of feasting, gambling, drinking,family foregatherings, lighting of fire crackers and other suchactivities. The celebrations and lights are much less on thefinal day of Amavasya. Exchange of gifts and greetings alsoform a vital part of the festivities.ChristmasThis is the most splendid Christian festival of West Bengal. Inthe `City of Joy` the Christmas festivities continues till theNew Year. From the month of November itself, part of theMaidan in central Kolkata is converted in to fairgrounds.Brightly decorated Christmas trees can be observed in thehouses of many and also the churches. The city is resonantwith an assortment of fairs and cultural performances. Thespirit of Christmas comes alive in Christmas carols that rendthe air. Costumes of West Bengal http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/The costumes of West Bengal reflect the states rich culturaltraditions. The range and variation in costumes is breathtaking.From the use of traditional fabrics, designs and motifs to theincorporation of western attires and styles within the Bengalis’cultural domain, the apparels of West Bengal display fine worksof artistry and sophistication. For the men in West Bengal, the traditional garment is the Dhoti and the panjabia. Dhotis are lengthy pieces of fabric spun in cotton or silk worn by the Hindus. Previously, dhotis were prevalent only in white though at present coloured dhotis are also in vogue. The dhoti is tied at the waist and wrapped around like a loin cloth passing in between the legs. It is suitably matched by a panjabi, worn atop, also made of silk or cotton. The panjabis are loosely fitted garments, reaching close to the knees and are available in a widevariety of colours. The lungi is another variation of the dhotisworn by men in West Bengal. It is also wound around the waistand is often plaid. Over the years, the traditional dhoti andpanjabi have lost much of their appeal and the pyajamas are invogue. While western attire has overtaken the dhoti’spopularity as regular wear, the combination of dhoti and panjabiis an irreplaceable ingredient during traditional festivals andoccasions like the Durga Puja and wedding ceremonies. In the http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/rural areas, though, the dhoti is worn by the men as regularattire. The graceful icon of elegance that symbolises the quintessential Bengali woman is the saree. Indian sarees can be draped in various ways. In Bengal, a section the saree is wrapped around the waist and the remaining portion is swathed over the shoulder. In the olden days, women had to cover their heads with the ends of their saree or pallu as a mark of respect for the family elders. However, such conventions have subsided gradually with the passage of time. They are worn with immense poise and perfection especially during Social occasions and festivals. Sarees are worn over petticoats or long skirts tied at thewaist with cords which help in keeping the saree tightlyfastened about the waist. The exquisite beauty of a saree isfurther enhanced when it is accessorised aptly with a blouse.At present, blouses are available in multitudes of fashionablepatterns which when teamed with a saree does wonders to theattire. The salwar kameez is nowadays equally popular amongthe Bengali women as the sarees. Salwar are loosely fittedtrousers worn with a kameez or long tunic. During wedding http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/ceremonies however, the Bengali women usually resort to thetraditional Banarasi sarees in shades of red coupled with agolden veil to cover their heads. Ornamented with glitteringstones and detailed threadwork, sarees are characteristic of therefined Bengali woman of today.Over the years, different civilizations have left their mark uponthe culture of West Bengal which finds its manifestation in thevaried costumes and accessories of the people of the State.With the progress of the passage of time, a shift towardswestern trends has been noticed. Yet, such cross-culturalinfluences have by no means demeaned the worth of thetraditional garbs. FOOD OF BENGALISRice and fish are traditional favorite foods, leading to a sayingthat in Bengali, machhe bhate bangali, that translates as "fishand rice make a Bengali".Bengali cuisine is appreciated for its fabulous use ofpanchphoron, a term used to refer to the five essential spices,namely mustard, fenugreek seed, cumin seed, aniseed, andblack cumin seed. The specialty of Bengali food lies in theperfect blend of sweet and spicy flavors. For Bengalis, food isone of the most essential aspects of their day to day lives. The staple food of people in Bengal is rice and fish. A typical Bengali needs to have fish in every meal; otherwise http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/there is a feeling that the meal is incomplete. There is anample stock of fish in every household, because fish is cookedfrequently, almost on a daily basis. Even the Brahmin Bengalisrelish fish. Fish is a part of every festivity celebration. Tolend a distinctive flavor to the fish, it is deep fried in mustardoil and then cooked in gravy. Most of the cooking is done usingmustard oil.When it comes to cooking fish, there are unlimited options.The range of different ways to cook fish in a Bengali home isphenomenal. You can either fry, or cook it with gravy. SomeBengalis prefer eating steamed fish to avoid the intake of extracalories. Another great option is to sauté the fish with curdThe fish market in Bengal is always stocked with wide varietiesof fish, the popular ones being salmon, hilsa, bhekti, magur,carp, rui and prawns. ROSGULLA SONDESHMISHTI - DOI http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/ The Bengalis are compulsive sweet lovers. Mention Bengal and one is immediately reminded of the delicious sweets of the state- rasogolla, sondesh, chum chum and many more. Made of milk and cottage cheese, these are light and delectable. Noaccount of Bengali food is complete without a eulogy to itssweet dahi or mishti doi as it is more popularly called. Poyodi-a thick sweet curd that is colored a subtle pink and rich intexture is synonymous with the city of Calcutta.These Bengali sweets have come downthe ages but the one Bengali sweet thatis popular all over the world is arelatively new creation.Of the local fast food, two very popularsnacks are jhaal-muri and phuchkaa(better known as gol-gappas) sold byroadside vendors. Jhal-muri, a Calcuttaspecialty, consists of puffed rice (muri) spiced with lemon andcoriander and mixed with peanuts, chopped onions and chilli. BENGALI CULTURE: ITS HISTORICAL HERITAGE WITH ITS INFLUENCE ON FOOD.If you ask a Bengali for the shortest description of Bengalifood, the answer is likely to be rice and fish, unless he is avegetarian, in which case he may say subji (veg.) and rice. Aninvitee to a Bengali house for an elaborate, well-cooked meal http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/includes varieties of fish, vegetables and meat, with off coursesweets.In this fertile, tropical delta that serves as a basin forinnumerable rivers, rivulets and tributaries, it is rice that hasbeen the common sustaining staple from pre-Aryan times untiltoday. Thus the commonest way of enquiring if a person has hada meal, especially lunch is to ask if he has "taken rice". Tothe rural Hindi Bengali, rice is almost synonymous withLakshmi, goddess of wealth and prosperity. Even today, manysophisticated urban Bengalis, who don’t directly participate inthe cultivation or processing of rice, finds it irrationallydifficult, to waste a single grain of rice.The dual entity of rice – fish that is at the heart of Bengalicuisine is reflected in a thousand and one ways in the ritualsand ceremonies of the Bengalis. Unhusked rice, called Dhan, isan inevitable part of any ceremonial offering to the gods. Inparts of West Bengal there is a custom, that when a new bridedrives with her husband to his house, she is welcomed with aplatter of offerings containing dhan. For her part, she wouldhave to hold a live fish in her left hand. This fish would laterbe released into the family fishpond to breed and multiply.During the ceremony of eating the shadh or derived foods,which takes place towards the end of pregnancy, probably basedon the assumption that if the mother has no unsatisfiedcarvings left she will produce a healthy child, rice and fish arethe compulsory items.Apart from rice and fish, Bengalis have always taken advantageof the green vegetables and tubers that grow all over the land. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Even, the rice plant and the banana tree has strong mythicalsignificance in Bengali life. A young specimen, is always placedoutside the front door, together with a green coconut sitting atop an earthern pitcher, when a weeding or any otherauspicious ceremony takes place.A stable agricultural way of life also meant the presence ofcattle. Milk and milk products become an important part ofBengali food from very early times. In rural households nothingcould be more welcome symbol of plenty than the cows standingin the bynes and the pitchers of foaming milk they produced.Bengali culture has a set of rules which is very muchintertwined with a set of rules regarding food habits, called‘achar-bichar’. It was a set of taboos centered around thebasic item, the pot of rice. Bengali, is probably one of the fewlanguages that has two different words for raw and cooked rice:- chaal and bhaat.The Bengalis are perhaps the greatest food lovers in theIndian subcontinent. A long leisurely meal of many items whichrequires long hours of laborand ingenuity in the kitchento be produced has been apart of Bengali culture. Thetraditional way of serving foodis on the floor whereindividual pieces of carpet,called asans, would be spreadfor each person to sit on.Infront of this seat would be placed a large platter, made ofbell metal or silver depending on the family’s economic status. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Around this platter would be arranged a number of small metalor silver bowls in which portions of dal, vegetable, fish, meat,chutney, and dessert would be served. In the center of theplatter there would be a small mound of piping hot rice flankedby vegetable fritters, wedges of lime, whole green chillies andperhaps a bit of pickle. Finally, in the center of the mound, alittle hole would be made to pour a spoonful of ghee orclassified butter to flavour the initial mouthful of rice.The star of the eating scene was inevitably the male: husband,father, son, son-in-law and others. The women would movearound, anxiously serving extra helpings or directing theservants to bring them. Some of the women would sit and plypalm-leaf fans to cool the heated male as the pleasure ofintake intensified. But, in traditional homes, there wouldalways be the secondary-eating scene where the women couldfinally sit down and enjoy their meal. But, the best portion offish and meat would be gone, devoured by the superior sex, butthat did not detract significantly from their enjoyment.Bengalis eat everything with their fingers, as they believe thatnothing is better than ones own sensitive fingers to pick outthe bones of fish like Hilsa. The most important part of eatingBengali food is eating each dish separately with a little bit ofrice.The meal is very interesting as the bitter vegetables areeaten first. Then comes dal (lentil) accompanied by fritters offish and vegetables. After this comes vegetable curry and it isfollowed by fish jhol (a thin stew) and other fish preparations.Meat always follows fish and, after meat, chutney provides therefreshing touch of tartness to make the tongue anticipate thesweet dish. At the end pan (betel leaf) is served, which acts http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/as a mouth freshener and aids digestion. The most importantaspect of a joint family in Bengal is eating together, food fromsame handi (cooking pot) prepared in the same henshel(hearth). http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/ SPORTS OF BENGALThe people of West Bengal simply love sports. Cricket andFootball are undoubtedly the most favorite sports of WestBengal. Kolkata is one of the major football centers in Indiaand can be regarded as the Mecca of football in India. Ithouses various football clubs like Mohun Bagan, East Bengaland Mohammedan Sporting Club, which are famous all over thecountry. EAST BENGAL CLUB LOGO MOHAMMEDANSPORTING CLUB LOGOBesides football and cricket, kho kho and kabaddi are alsoplayed in the state. Polo and golf are also played in Kolkatasince a long time. Polo in its international form originated inKolkata. The Calcutta Polo Club is regarded as the oldestpolo club in the world. Also, the Royal Calcutta Golf Club isthe oldest of its kind. However, sports of West Bengal are notonly concentrated in Kolkata. Sporting events of national andinternational levels are also being held in Durgapur, Kharagpurand Siliguri.Mohun Bagan was founded in 1889 and theywon the Indian Football Association (IFA)shield in 1911 by defeating a British team. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Sports like tennis, table tennis, volley ball, badminton, fieldhockey, swimming, rowing and kabbadi are also popular.MOHUN BAGANAll these clubs have produced andnurtured illustrious footballers overthe course of years. Kolkata is hometo many famous stadiums and sportsclubs which show the inherentsporting culture of its people. EdenGardens of Kolkata is the famouscricketing ground of India, which canseat a crowd of more than one hundred thousand. Salt Lake Stadium is the thirdlargest, highest-capacity footballstadium in the world. However,besides football, Salt Lake Stadiumis used for hosting other sportingevents too. Calcutta Cricket andFootball Club is the oldest cricketclub in the world outside the UK.Racing too is very popular and an ideal afternoon can be spentat Kolkatas excellent racecourse. Kolkata boasts of the worldssecond oldest golf courses at the Royal Kolkata Golf Club.There are other good golf courses at the Tollygunge Club andthe Armys Fort William. Hockey also has its following. KolkataSouth Club is the venue for many a stirring national and http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/international tennis battle and has been the nursery from whichmany of the countrys tennis greats have sprung.Dola Banarjee is a player of international calibre in the fieldof archery, whereas Mantu Ghosh and Poulomi Ghatak arefamous table tennis players of the state, who have earnedlaurels for the country. Jyotirmoyee Sikdar was aninternationally renowned athlete hailing from West Bengal, whoafter retirement from active sports, have turned to politics.Kolkata has produced summer Olympic medalists like NormanPritchard (Athletics-1900), Richard James Allen, LeslieClaudius Field Hockey (1924, 1928, 1936), Gurbux Singh, Dr.Vece Paes Field Hockey (1980), Leander Paes (Mens singlesTennis,1996) and the most successful, cricket captain of IndiaSourav Ganguly.SOURAV GANGULY (CRICKET) DIBYENDU BARUA (CHESS) LEANDER PAES (TENNIS)Other sportspersons who have won laurels for Kolkata are GoborGoho (World Amateur Wrestling Championship USA 1900-2),Manotosh Roy (former Mr. Universe) and Manohar Aich(former Mr. World) [both in the 1950s], Mihir Sen (GuinnessRecord holder of being the first person to swim across theEnglish Channel in 1948 and the seven straits across all major http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/continents), Jyotirmoyee Sikdar (1998 Asian Games Goldmedallist in four events in racing), Leander Adrian Paes(Wimbledon and French Open Mens Doubles, with MaheshBhupathi and Mixed Doubles Champion 1999 and WimbledonMixed Doubles Champion 2003, with ace Martina Navratilova),Arjun Atwal (PGA Golf champion 2003),Dibyendu Barua and Surya Sekhar Ganguly (current FIDEChess Grandmasters) and trans-continental wizards Mohd.Salauddin and wife Neena, who were first team to race acrossthe world in their Contessa Classic 1989 car in 1993 and ina Nissan jeep in 1998; in the shortest possible time, a recordacknowledged by the Guinness Book of World Records. BENGALI MARRIAGEBengalis take pride in being the intellectual community ofIndia. The rituals of their rich and warm weddings bring outtheir intellectual dignity. One of the salient features ofBengali weddings is blowing of conch shell, which is also blownduring any religious or holy ceremonies. Another pious sound isOoli, made by women with their tongues and by beating thepalms on the mouth. Symbolically it is meant for ensuring thateveryone’s attention is drawn to main ceremony. Bengalimarriages give away scores of simple rituals to cherish theonce-in-lifetime wedding experience. A typical Bengalimarriage takes place with imploring the ancestors to be presentand shower blessings on the "to be married" couple.Bridal attire: http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/ This is a ritual in itself. The bride adorns herself in all her bridal finery. Her hair is tied into a bun and covered with a veil. The mukut is placed on her head and secured in place by pinning it to the veil. After her bridal makeover, a design of the mukut is traced on her face using the chandan paste. The bride must sit with the gaach kouto and kaajal laata for theceremonies that follow.Groom’s attire: The bridegrooms in Bengali wedding wear a silk dhoti. However, while performing the marriage rituals the groom drapes a silk cloth around his body known as the "jor". The end of this cloth is tied to the anchal of the bride`s saree. The groom is well dressed in Dhoti and Kurta, along with topor, which is a paper and shoal conicalhat.Pre -Wedding Customs :-Aashirwad :Literal meaning of Aashirwad is blessings. It can be conductedeither at the groom`s or at the Bride`s house. The ceremonystarts with offering of a Sandalwood Tilak with gifts including apiece of gold jewellery along with some `daan` (Rice husksignifying plenitude) and darba grass (symbolizing that he will http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/treat the bride with tenderness). Later as per Hindu tradition,mishti (sweets) are offered to celebrate the wedding.Decoration :An alpana (rangoli) with designs like lotus plant, fish, whichare considered as auspicious elements of the wedding, is drawn.Along with that small banana tree is placed at the entrance ofthe house. Under the tree a copper vessel called mangol ghotis placed .The door is decorated with a string of mango leaveswhich stays on fr a period of one year after the weddingceremony .Ai Buro Bhaat :The bride`s family gives a grand rich supper the night beforethe wedding at their home.Wedding Piris :Piris are artistically designed and painted wooden planksusually done by a close relative. These are brought to thebride`s house the day prior to wedding day and are used toseat the bride and groom during the wedding ceremony.During the wedding conch shells are blown and ululation taken.Haldi Uptan :In this ceremony the bride is made to sit in midst of fourplantain trees, which are considered auspicious, kept at fourcorners of the room. The paste of turmeric mixed with mustardoil is applied to her body, which is symbolic of making bride’sskin glow. It is followed by Totto ceremony that consists ofgiving of gifts to the bride.Dhodhi Mangal : http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/This ceremony is performed at both bride and groom`s houses atthe crack of dawn. About ten marriedwomen accompany bride/groom to anearby pond. They invite the GoddessGanga for the wedding at return witha pitcher of water from pond to bathebride/groom.Then they serve food tobride/groom, which consists of macherlaija bhaja (fried fish) followed by jal dhana bhaja (ricecooked in water), curd and churiya.Vridhi: This ceremony is about offering worship to the ancestors ofBride and Groom. All the samagri (items)for puja are arranged in `barandola`(silver plate) with sign of `sri` madeon it. The priest brings an idol ofBhagwan Narayan that is worshipped bylighting agarbattis (incense) and diyas(lamps). According to their tradition the paternal uncleperforming the puja has to be on liquid diet the whole day.Shakha PaulaWhile priest says Vedic chants, sevenmarried women embellish the bride`s handswith the traditional bangles made ofShankha (shell) and Paula (coral). Theshell is supposed to mirror the qualitiesof moon-serene and calm, on the bride. The coral is supposedto be beneficial for the health.Tattvas : http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Tattvas are gifts that are exchanged between the bride andgroom`s family before and after the wedding. The gifts that aresent to bride`s house are called Gae hallud tattva and the onessent to groom`s house are known as Adhibas Tattva.Kubbi patta :A short ceremony to revere Saint Kuber in the houses of brideand groom. On the day of marriage, family members place threemetal glasses filled to the brim with dhaan, khoi(pulses),andcrushed rice at the altar of the Saint.Snan :The snan takes place in the late afternoon or evening, thebride and groom must individually follow on the day of thewedding. A few married women apply turmeric and oil on thehair and body of the bride/groom. After bathing, the bride andgroom must wear the new set of clothes that have beenpresented to them by their in-laws. The worn clothes are latergiven away to a napti (barber).Mandap :The mandap is the place where the wedding ceremony isconducted, two banana trees are planted at the mandap and alarge alpana is made with rice paste. The mandap is decoratedfor the event with flowers and lights.MAIN WEDDING RITUALSBor Jatri : The members of the grooms house as well as hisfriends dress in their best attire and journey to the brideshouse where the wedding takes place. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Bor Boron : When the bor jatri reaches the brides place,usually the mother of the bride along with other members comeout to welcome the groom and his family by showing the holyearthen lamp, sprinkling trefoil, and husked rice placed on abamboo winnow (kula). Then they are served sweets and drinks.Potto Bastra : After the groom is seated at the chadnatolla(wedding altar and canopy) - the sanctum sanctorum whereonly the groom, bride and the priest takes their place, thegroom is offered new clothes by the person who is to do thesampradaan - a kind of gift to the boy from the girls side.Saat Paak : The bride, usually seated on alow wooden stool called pidi is lifted by herbrothers and is taken round the groom inseven complete circles. The significance isthey are winded up securely to each other.Mala Badal : After the circles arecompleted, still sitting high on the piri, thebride and the groom exchange garlands offragrant flowers thrice. This is the first stepin which they accept each other.Subho Dristi : After garlanding one another the bride and thegroom are made to look at each other in front of all theassembled invitees. This exchange of loving glance is to initiatethem to be together officially by the society. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/Sampradan : The bride then takes herplace at the chadnatolla where anelderly male member of the bridesfamily hands her over to the groom andthe couples hands are bound by thesacred thread amidst recital of Vedicchants and are placed on the mangalghot - a brass pitcher filled with water that is covered withmango leaves attached to one twig and a green coconut placedon it.Anjali : An offering to the fire is made. Thebrides brother puts puffed rice ( khoi ) in thehands of the bride, and the groom standing closeto her holds her hands from the back andextends their arms forward. They then pour theoffering into the fire together.Yagna : The bride and groom sit in front of the sacred fireand chant mantras after the priest. Agni, thefire god is made the divine witness to themarriage.This is followed by the traditionalpheras. The grinding stone, on which spices aregrounded, is placed upside down. Seven circularrangolis are drawn near it and one paan is placedon each of them. The girl stands in front and as she takes herfirst step on the stone, the boy gently nudges her left footwith his right. She then places her foot on the first alpana. http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/These seven rounds are known as Saat Pheras, signifying thesanctity and solemnity of marriage.Sindoor Daan and Ghomta : Once again seated at theirrespective places in chadnatolla the groom applies sindoor orvermilion (a symbol of marriage worn byHindu women thereafter) on the brideshair-parting. The bride then covers herhead with a new sari offered by thegroom as ghomta or veil. Now the coupleis considered officially married. A lavishwedding feast follows this where anumber of varieties of fish are served along with a variety ofnon-vegetarian dishes and sweets.Post Wedding CeremoniesManpan : The bride`s mother does oti bharane and gives saristo the groom`s mother, sisters/sister-in-laws. Bride`s fathergives gifts to the groom`s father and brothers/brother-in-laws.Similarly, groom`s parents give gifts to the bride`s family.BIDAAI : This is a farewell - mixed moment of joy and sorrow asthe bride is bid adieu with blessings of her parents andrelatives to start a new life with her beau.BOU BARAN : Bou Baran refers to theformal reception accorded to the bride asshe steps into her husbands home. As theirvehicle comes to a stop in front of thehouse, the grooms elder brothers wife holdsa plate containing dye and milk under the brides http://www.gameswala.com/
    • http://www.gameswala.com/feet. Having imprinted the soles of her feet thus, she leadsher by the arm into the house. The elders of the house blessthe newlyweds. Amidst loud ringing of bells and blowing ofconch shells the groom puts an iron bangle on to his bridesleft arm.BOU BHAT : Bou Bhat signifies the first time that the brideserves food, usually delicious rice preparations to the familyelders and her meal in her new home. At this point, thehusband proffers a plate full of food, along with a new sari asan affirmation that from now he is responsible for all herneeds- food, shelter and clothingRECEPTION : The reception follows the Bou Bhat in theevening. Hosted by the grooms family, it is a chance for thenew bride to get acquainted with all the family members andfriendsPHOOL SAJJA OR FLOWER DECORTATION : It marks thethird night after the wedding when the nuptial bedroom isdecorated with beautiful flowers and the newly weds too put onnew clothes for this special occasion. The flowers, clothes andsweets for the occasion usually arrive as gifts from the brideshouseDIRA GAMAN : This is a ceremony that is conducted when thenewlyweds visit the brides house for the first time after thewedding. The thread that was tied by the Purohit (priest) onthe brides wrist during the wedding rituals is cut during thisritual. Conch shells are blown to the accompaniment ofululation to mark the auspicious moment http://www.gameswala.com/
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