Cargill

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all bba , mba projects available pm me for more porjects. also play free online games @ http://www.gameswala.com/

all bba , mba projects available pm me for more porjects. also play free online games @ http://www.gameswala.com/

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  • 1. http://www.gameswala.com/ A PROJECT REPORT ON INDUSTRY VISITS BY RAHUL RAMANI (BBA) (2010 – 2011) IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF Bachelor of Business Administration UNIVERSITY OF PUNE MITSOM Collegehttp://www.gameswala.com/
  • 2. http://www.gameswala.com/ PUNE: 411038i am vikas gupta, age 31 years . i start a gaming website namedwww.GamesWala.com which has PR4 and ratings below 4 lakh.i need here 1 help from you, as i have no money to promote my gaming site,iam running graphic shop with 1 PC (yes 1 PC :) think how i am survivingwith 1 PC and a family with 2 kids :P ), I do not know much about how topromote my website, so i decided to talk with you friends to come and join mysite and play all the games for free, all games are personally selected by mefrom thousands of games.I am updating my website daily with lots of awesome games.You can playwithout register or register you id or you also can play with your facebookID.hope you all will like my site and play free online games there, and dontforgot to tell your friends about mywww.GamesWala.com :) CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. RAHUL RAMANI of MAEER‟s MITSOM College has successfully completed the project work in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of Bachelor of Business Administration prescribed by http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 3. http://www.gameswala.com/ the University of PUNE. This project is the record of authentic work carried out during the academic year 2010-2011.Course-in-charge Principal DECLARATIONI, Mr.RAHUL RAMANI hereby declare that this project is the record of authentic work carried out by me during the academic year 2010-2011 and has not been submitted to any other University or Institute towards the award of any degree. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 4. http://www.gameswala.com/ INDEXSERIAL NO. NAME OF THE DATE OF PAGE NO. COMPANY VISIT http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 5. http://www.gameswala.com/1 CARGILL INDIA PVT LTD2 SEMINAR 27TH DEC’20103 UNIVERSAL CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 6. http://www.gameswala.com/ORGANIZATION’S PROFILE:Cargill is an international producer and marketer of food, agricultural, financial and industrialproducts and services. Founded in 1865, our privately held company employs 131,000 people in66 countries.We help customers succeed through collaboration and innovation, and are committed to sharingour global knowledge and experience to help meet economic, environmental and socialchallenges. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 7. http://www.gameswala.com/HEADQUARTERS OF CARGILLBALTIC STATES, BELGIUM, DENMARK, FINLAND, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY,POLAND, RUSSIA, SPAIN, SWEDEN, THE NETHERLANDS, TURKEY, UNITEDKINGDOM,CARGILL IN INDIACargill maintains a number of businesses in India, with operations including the handling andprocessing of a wide range of products, including refined oils, grain and oilseeds, sugar, cottonand animal feed. In addition, Cargill develops flavour systems and operates a value investingbusiness. Our presence in India has been growing since we began a joint venture operation in1987.PRODUCTS & SERVICESCocoa & Chocolate, Cultures & Enzymes, Flavor, Functional System,Health Promoting Ingredients, Hydrocolloids, Juices, Mait, Oil & Fats,Proteins, Starches & Derivatives, Sweeteners CARGILL GROUP OF COMPANIES Cargill Refined Oils India imports, refines, sells and markets a wide range of vegetable oils andfats to wholesale trade, industrial and household consumers across India. they own and operatethree vegetable oil refineries located at PARADIP (Orissa), KANDLA (Gujarat) andKURKUMBH (Maharashtra). Cargill Refined Oils India has been operating within India since2005 and employs more than 750 people. These are http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 8. http://www.gameswala.com/  (K2)CARGILL INDIA PVT.LTD.,POST-BHIMASAR,TALUKA- ANJAN,KUTCH-370240(GUJARAT)  (KK)CARGILL INDIA PVT.LTD.,E-4,E-45,MIDC,KURKUMBH- 413802(MAHARASHTRA)  (PD)CARGILL INDIA PVT.LTD.,OIL TERMINAL ROAD, ATHARBANKI,JAGATSINGHPUR-754142 (PARADIP)CARGILL MILESTONES IN INDIA1987 Cargill Seeds - a joint venture operation - commenced in India.1994 Cargill starts its fertilizer/crop nutrients operations in India.1997 Cargill launches its primary sugar and edible oils trading business in India.1998 Commences grain and oil seeds business in India.2001 Launches food business under Cargill Foods – launch of brand “Nature Fresh”.2003 Cargill acquires the Food Flavors business from Duckworth Group UK, and Duckworth Flavors India becomes part of Cargill India. Cargill sets up green field edible oil refineries at Kandla and Paradip.2004 Cargill diversifies its fertilizer business into a joint venture with IMC global. Cargill Indias DAP business renamed as Mosaic India.2005 Cargill acquires Parakh Foods with brand "Gemini" and sets up a new Business Unit called Cargill Refined Oils India. This is first business unit with headquarters in India. Cargill launches SAANJHI UNNATI Program in Rajasthan for development of malt barley in active collaboration with the Government of Rajasthan and SAB Miller.2006 Cargill starts its sugar off shoring business to support the execution activities of Cargill Netherlands. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 9. http://www.gameswala.com/ Cargill sets up CARVAL India Pvt. Ltd Cargill entered into tolling arrangements with local Soybean crushers in Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh Cargill enters into a joint venture and subsequently owns and leads a shrimp feed manufacturing business in Rajahmundry in Andhra Pradesh.2007 Cargill launches cotton trading business in India.2008 An independently managed subsidiary of Cargill, Black River Advisor India Pvt.CUSTOMERS WE SERVEAGRICULTUREWe originate, process and distribute grain, oilseeds and other commodities to makers of food andanimal nutrition products. We also provide crop and livestock producers with farm services andproducts.FOODWe collaborate with food manufacturers, food service companies and retailers to provide high-quality food and beverage ingredients, meat and poultry products, and health promotingingredients and ingredient systems.FINANCIALWe provide our agricultural, food, financial and energy customers with risk management andfinancial solutions in world markets.INDUSTRIALCargill serves industrial users of salt, starch and steel products. We also develop anmarketsustainable products made from agricultural feed stocks. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 10. http://www.gameswala.com/BrandsYou may know us from the range of refined sunflower, soy, palm, olein and ground nut oils,hydrogenated fats and bakery shortenings we market under our national brands, NatureFresh®,Gemini™ and Purita™, as well as other region-specific brands. The most exotic olive oil from SpainPerson contacted :Focus Area: Production and Packaging http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 11. http://www.gameswala.com/Theoretical Background of the Focus Area:Definition: “Production management deals with decision-making relatedto production process so that the resulting goods or service is producedaccording to specification in the amount by the schedule demanded andat minimum cost.” “Production as a process by which goods and services arecreated.” - E.S. BuffaWHAT IS PRODUCTION? Production is converting raw materials to finished products. Itinvolves a number of factors to be able to produce the goods andservices that cater to our needs. Production means the development andcreation of goods and services using resources to stimulate exchange. Itis the physical output of a manufacturing or service company.Production involves three processes – raw materials, work in process andfinished goods. Means of production refer to the concept whichcombines the means of labor and the subject of labor. Means of laborsimply means all the things which require labor to transform it. Subjectof labor means the material to work on. Production, therefore, is thecombined resources and equipment needed to come up with goods orservices.Types of Production Systems:The various methods of production used at different stages of the overallproduction process are: http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 12. http://www.gameswala.com/ 1. Batch Production. 2. Jobbing Production. 3. Flow Production.Batch Production: As businesses grow and production volumes increase, it is notunusual to see the production process organized so that "Batch methods"can be used. Batch methods require that the work for any task is dividedinto parts or operations. Each operation is completed through the wholebatch before the next operation is performed. By using the batchMethod, it is possible to achieve specialization of labor. Capitalexpenditure can also be kept lower although careful planning is requiredto ensure that production equipment is not idle.Jobbing Production: With Job production, the complete task is handled by a singleworker or group of workers. Jobs can be small-scale/low technology aswell as complex/high technology.Low technology jobs: here the organization of production is extremelysimply, with the required skills and equipment easily obtainable. Thismethod enables customers specific requirements to be included, often asthe job progresses. High technology jobs: high technology jobs involvemuch greater complexity - and therefore present greater managementchallenge. The important ingredient in high-technology job production isproject management, or project control.Flow Production: http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 13. http://www.gameswala.com/ Flow has been defined as a "method of productionorganization where the task is worked on continuously or where theprocessing of material is continuous and progressive." Flow methods mean that as work on a task at a particularstage is complete, it must be passed directly to the next stage forprocessing without waiting for the remaining tasks in the "batch". Whenit arrives at the next stage, work must start immediately on the nextprocess. In order for the flow to be smooth, the times that each taskrequires on each stage must be of equal length and there should be nomovement off the flow production line.PACKAGING:Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protectingproducts for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers tothe process of design, evaluation, and production of packages.Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goodsfor transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packagingcontains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. In manycountries it is fully integrated into government, business, institutional,industrial, and personal use.Packaging and package labeling have several objectives Physical protection Barrier protection Containment or agglomeration Information transmission Marketing http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 14. http://www.gameswala.com/ Security Portion control ConveniencePre-requisites Required for Packing, Norms: Type of materials to be used for packing. Name of the Company and Product. General details of the product. Product designed. Ingredients. Nutritional information. Date of packing and expiry. Bar code and batch number. Symbols of VEG and NON-VEG. Quantity filled in it. Details of manufacturing of the product address and contact number. Seal and the registration of product under any organization.PLANT LAYOUT: http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 15. http://www.gameswala.com/Definition: Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilitiessuch as machines, equipment, tools, furniture etc. in such a manner so asto have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the leastamount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of rawmaterial to the delivery of the final product.Plant Layout helps the organization in the Following ways: · Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space · Transportation of work from one point to another point without anydelay · Proper utilization of production capacity. · Reduce material handling costs · Utilize labor efficiently · Reduce accidents · Provide for volume and product flexibility · Provide ease of supervision and control · Provide for employee safety and health · Allow easy maintenance of machines and plant. · Improve productivity.Types of Plant Layout:There are mainly four types of plant layout:(a) Product or line layout(b) Process or functional layout http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 16. http://www.gameswala.com/(c) Fixed position or location layout(d) Combined or group layout1. PRODUCT OR LINE LAYOUT: In this type of layout the machines and equipments arearranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations requiredfor the product. It is also called as line layout. The material moves toanother machine sequentially without any backtracking or deviation i.e.the output of one machine becomes input of the next machine. It requiresa very little material handling.It is used for mass production of standardized products.2. PROCESS LAYOUT: In this type of layout the machines of a similar type arearranged together at one place. This type of layout is used for batchproduction. It is preferred when the product is not standardized and thequantity produced is very small. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 17. http://www.gameswala.com/3. COMBINED LAYOUT: A combination of process & product layout is known ascombined layout.Manufacturing concerns where several products are produced inrepeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production,combined layout is followed.4. FIXED POSITION OR LOCATION LAYOUT: Fixed position layout involves the movement of manpowerand machines to the product which remains stationary. The movement ofmen and machines is advisable as the cost of moving them would belesser. This type of layout is preferred where the size of the job is bulkyand heavy. Example of such type of layout is locomotives, ships, boilers,generators, wagon building, aircraft manufacturing, etc. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 18. http://www.gameswala.com/OBSERVATIONS: As we reached the place the security at the gate was commendable. We were then taken to the rest room where we were divided into two groups. After that, we were given the refreshments. Then the observation can divided into 2 parts: Presentation. Plant Visit.Presentation: 1. The presentation was given to us about the refineries in India. Kandla in Gujarat, Kurkumbh plant in Pune which is biggest amongst three, Paradeep plant in Orissa which is like Cargill Malasiya. 2. The person who presented the presentation “Mr. Nitin Choudhary” made the session very interactive and shared the knowledge about different sources of energy, need of oil. 3. We also got to know the Gemini product produced with the joint venture between Parakh Foods and Cargill. 4. In Presentation we saw that the crude oil contains the main impurities like free fatty Acid, Sludge & fines, coloring bodies, gummy material, odoriferous bodies, moisture, wax, hydrocarbons. 5. For that crude oil treatment, we saw the 5 stages of refining process. It includes: Degumming (remove gums), http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 19. http://www.gameswala.com/ Neutralization (removes free fatty Acid), Bleaching (removes color), Deodorization (removes odor), Filling and Packaging. 6. We were also shown the various social activities undertaken by Cargill India. 7. In presentation, we also came to know that the main customers of Cargill are: Mc Donald Pantaloon ITC Cipla Britania Parle Asian Paints ICI Paint Fun Food Nestle Craft Food Haldiram 8. Lastly the session was ended with some questions and answers.Plant Visit:  The company was situated far away from the city and all environmental issues were taken into considerations.  The premise of the company was very clean and maintained.  They have an excellent Quality Management System.  We were then provided with the safety caps and helmet for the visit of the production plant.  The Cargill Company is very strict regarding the safety measures. Various charts were put on the wall giving very useful instructions about the safety measures and safety tips for the http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 20. http://www.gameswala.com/ employees as well as visitors. The production process was done under the strict supervision of the engineers. The production process includes the conversion of crude oil into good or refined oil and the oil gets color through production process by the combination of red, yellow and green color. We also saw the refining process including the 5 stages of refining like Degumming, Neutralization, Bleaching, Deodorization, Filling and Packaging. After refining process, we also saw the difference in the color of crude oil and refined oil in the glass jar. The workers at the factory were in the uniform of the company. Then we were taken to the packaging section. In the packaging section, the flooring was slippery so the workers were provided the proper shoes and hand gloves. There were 2 types of packaging done in the plant:  Cans,  Pouches. In 1 hour, 600 cans were packed. This was the capacity of that Packing Machine. Along with packaging, labeling was also done here. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 21. http://www.gameswala.com/ The packed product was then rechecked by the workers. SEMINAR http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 22. http://www.gameswala.com/ ON SERVICE MARKRTING ANDITS APPLICABILITY IN BANKING, INSURANCE, AND MUTUAL FUND BY: SANDEEP SAHASTRABUDHIWhat are Services: “A service is an activity that one party offers another that is essentially intangible anddoes not result in the ownership of anything. Its production may or may not be tied to a physicalproduct.” -Philip Kotler A service is the action of doing something for someone or something. It is largelyintangible, i.e., not material. A service tends to be an experience that is consumed at the point, http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 23. http://www.gameswala.com/where it is purchased and cannot be owned since is quickly perishes. Services are defined inconventional economic literature as “intangible goods.”What is marketing:Definitions: “Marketing is a process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion,and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchange that satisfy individual andorganizational objectives.” - American Marketing Association. “Marketing is a human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchangeprocesses.” -Philip Kotler. Marketing occupies an important place in the organization of a business unit. Thetraditional view of marketing, „Caveat Emptor‟, i.e., let the buyer beware, underwent a seachange at turn of the century and has transformed into „Caveat Vendor‟, i.e., let the sellerbeware. With this philosophy, the consumer has become the focal point of all marketingactivities. Customers‟ needs are the starting point for all marketing activities. Marketing managertry to identify these needs and develop products, which can satisfy customers‟ needs through anexchange process.What is Service Marketing: Service marketing is a subfield of marketing, which can be split into the two mainareas of goods marketing (which includes the marketing of fast moving consumer goods(FMCG) and durables) and services marketing. Service marketing typically refers to bothbusiness to consumer (B2C) and business to business (B2B) services, and includes marketing ofservices like telecommunications services, financial services, all types of hospitality services, carrental services, air travel, health care services and professional services. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 24. http://www.gameswala.com/ Services are economic activities offered by one party to another. Often time-based,performances bring about desired results to recipients, objects, or other assets for whichpurchasers have responsibility. In exchange for money, time, and effort, service customersexpect value from access to goods, labor, professional skills, facilities, networks, and systems;but they do not normally take ownership of any of the physical elements involved.Intangibility of Service Marketing : Unlike product, a service cannot have a real and physical presence. A service cannot beseen, tasted, felt, heard or smelt. A service tends to be an experience that is consumed at thepoint where it is purchased and cannot be owned since it quickly perishes. Since, services are nottangible; they do not feature that to appeal to the customer‟s sense. Tangibility allows customers do not assess quality by using sense and choice criteria.Therefore, marketers use various tangible elements such as, infrastructure in hotel,advertisement, qualification of doctors in hospitals, etc. to convey quality of a service.Features of Services: 1. Perishability 2. Inseparability 3. Non-Ownership 4. Heteroginity.1. Perishability: Services are deeds, performances or act whose consumption take place simultaneously. It refers to the fact that services cannot be saved, stored, resold or returned. They tend to perish in the absence of consumption. The services go waste if they are consumed simultaneously. The perishable character of services adds to the service marketers problems. The inability of service sector to regulate supply with the changes in demand; poses many quality http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 25. http://www.gameswala.com/ management problems. Hence, service quality level deteriorates during peak hours in restaurants, banks, transportation, etc; this is a challenge for a service marketer.2. Inseparability: A service is inseparable from the point where it is consumed and from the provider of a service. For example, a doctor cannot operate form long distances or an Accountant cannot audit financial records form long distances. Services are produced and consumed at the same time, unlike goods which may be manufactured, then stored for latter distribution. Thus, the services provider is a part of a service. For example, a taxi driver drives a taxi and the passenger uses the service. Here, the presence of a taxi driver is essential to provide the service to its customers.3. Non-Ownership: Lack of ownership refers that customers receive only the right to a service process and it is assumed that payment for services and not physical transfer of ownership to customers. The customer never owns anything at the end of the transactions. Customers view the lack of ownership of a service as a perceived risk. Firstly, they are presented with the uncertainty as to whether the right service has been obtained and secondly, with the uncertainty about the consequences of the service purchase. The inability to own a service also has direct implications on the distribution of services.4. Heteroginity: Services are highly Heterogeneous, as they depend on the service provider and where and when they are provided. Heteroginity in services occurs due the one-on-one interaction between service providers and a customer, both of whom are subject to vagaries. For example, a concert performed by a group on two different nights is bound to differ as no one can perform exactly in the same manner. Heterogeneity is high in the case of labor intensive and high-contract services. Even, service buyers are aware of this http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 26. http://www.gameswala.com/Heteroginity. Hence, service firms should try to attain consistency in their services byselecting good and qualified personnel.Marketing Mix: According to Prof. Neil H. Borden “Marketing mix refers to the apportionment ofeffort, the combination, the designing and the integration of the elements of marketing into aprogrammers or mix which on the basis of an appraisal of the market force will be bestachieve the objective of an enterprise at a given time.”“Marketing Mix is the set of controllable marketing variables that the firm blends to producethe response it wants in the target market.”Marketing Mix is one of the important concepts in modern Marketing. The concept ofmarketing mix was first used or coined in the year 1953 by Professor “Neil H. Borden”.Marketing mix is the combination of the four controllable variables, which constitute the coreof a company‟s marketing system. These four controllable variables are: The product; The price; The promotion; The placement. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 27. http://www.gameswala.com/These elements are interrelated and interdependent since decisions in one area usually affectactions in the others.7 P’s of Services Marketing: 1. Product 2. Price 3. Place 4. Promotion 5. People 6. Process 7. Physical evidence http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 28. http://www.gameswala.com/ 1. PRODUCT:Product definition is a critical starting point in the development of any new product. Yet for itsimportance, there are a number of common shortcomings to the process of product definition inmany companies: No defined product strategy or product plan Lack of formal requirements as a basis for initiating product development Product requirements developed without true customer input A marketing requirement specification (MRS) that is completed late - after development is underwayA company doesnt blindly respond to customer needs and opportunities. A business strategywhich defines customers and markets to be served, competitors, and competitive strengthsprovides a framework from which to evaluate potential opportunities. The result of thisevaluation of opportunities is expressed in a product plan. 2. PRICE:To determine if a particular service is “worth it”, customers go beyond monetary considerationsand assess the outlays of their time and effort. Thus, service marketers must set prices that targetcustomers are willing and able to pay and minimize other burdensome outlays that are incurred.These may include additional monetary expense in traveling, time expenditures, unwantedmental and physical effort and exposure to negative sensory experiences. 3. PLACE:This term really refers to any way that the customer can obtain a product or receive a service.Provision of a product or service can occur via any number of distribution channels, such as in aretail store, through the mail, via downloadable files, on a cruise ship, in a hair salon, etc. Theease and options through which you can make your product or service available to yourcustomers will have an effect on your sales volume. The number of branches OF AXIS: 1900 inIndia and 33 in Mumbai. 4. PROMOTION: http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 29. http://www.gameswala.com/In services marketing is also educational in nature, especially for new customers. Suppliers needto teach these customers about the benefits of the service, where and when to obtain it, and howto participate in service processes to get the best results. This can be delivered via individualssuch as salespeople, at websites, on display screens in self-service equipment and through avariety of advertising media. 5. PEOPLE:An essential ingredient to any service provision is the use of appropriate staff and people.Recruiting the right staff and training them appropriately in the delivery of their service isessential if the organization wants to obtain a form of competitive advantage 6. PROCESS:Process of delivering the service is very often as important as the function of the service.Operational inputs and outputs can vary widely due to the lack of inventory and real timeinteraction involved. Nonetheless, variability can be reduced through careful design of thecustomer service process, adopting standardized procedures, implementing rigorous managementof service quality, high standards of training, and automation. Furthermore, customers are ofteninvolved in co-production as partial employees through self-service, telecommunications and theInternet. 7. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE:Where is the service being delivered? Physical Evidence is the element of the service mix whichallows the consumer again to make judgments on the organization. If you walk into a restaurantyour expectations are of a clean, friendly environment. On an aircraft if you travel first class youexpect enough room to be able to lay down!Difference between Services and Physical Good: http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 30. http://www.gameswala.com/ SERVICES PHYSICAL GOODIt is Intangible. It is Tangible.It is Heterogeneous. It is Homogeneous.Productions, consumption, Production and distribution aredistribution, are simultaneous process. separated from consumption.An Activity or process A thingCore value produced in the buyer- Core value processed in factoryseller interactionCustomers does not participate in Customers participate in productionproductionCannot be stored in stock Can be kept in stockNo transfer of ownership Transfer of ownershipBanking: With years, banks are also adding services to their customers. The Indian bankingindustry is passing through a phase of customers market. The customers have more choices inchoosing their banks. A competition has been established within the banks operating in India. With stiff competition and advancement of technology, the service provided by banks hasbecome more easy and convenient. The past days are witness to an hour wait beforewithdrawing cash from accounts or a cheque from north of the country being cleared in onemonth in the south.This section of banking deals with the latest discovery in the banking instruments along with thepolished version of their old systems. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 31. http://www.gameswala.com/ A large worldwide Financial Institution setup a debit card pilot in Bangalore, India. Thebasic business proposition was to test the marketing and financial viability of opening up a massbase through a remote-access-only savings account product and then cross-selling various fundsand fee based products through a carefully crafted life stage marketing program.Remote access was through ATM centers, touch screen kiosks, Internet banking, debit cardmachines and phone banking. Internet banking was a key remote access tool, because of lowtransaction service costs and for the ability of the channel to put the customer in charge. Theinitial Internet banking offerings were Information retrieval (Statements, Account Balance, etc),and Intra-relationships Account transfers. Customer research quickly revealed that customerswanted a comprehensive range of services, and payment of Utility Bills figured high in theirwish lists. Releasing a full-function Utility Bills payment system would also result in competitiveadvantage and enhance the technology profile. According to RBIs Quarterly Statistics on Deposits and Credit of Scheduled CommercialBanks: June 2010, nationalized banks, as a group, accounted for 51.3 per cent of the aggregatedeposits, while State Bank of India (SBI) and its associates accounted for 22.8 per cent. Theshare of new private sector banks, Old private sector banks, Foreign banks and Regional Ruralbanks in aggregate deposits was 13 per cent, 4.8 per cent, 5.1 per cent and 3.1 per centrespectively.With respect to gross bank credit also, nationalized banks hold the highest share of 51.5 per centin the total bank credit, with SBI and its associates at 23.2 per cent and New Private sector banksat 13 per cent. Foreign banks, Old private sector banks and Regional Rural banks held relativelylower shares in the total bank credit with 5.3 per cent, 4.6 per cent and 2.5 per cent respectively.Banks Products and services: Corporate Banking Retail Banking International Banking Investment Banking http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 32. http://www.gameswala.com/ Treasury Capital and Commodities Market NRI Services Online BankingMarketing Mix in Banking Industry:PRODUCT MIX: Deposits Savings Account Senior Citizen Service Fixed Deposits Recurring Deposits Roaming current Account Salary AccountPRICING MIX: The pricing decisions or the decisions related to interest and fee or commission chargedby banks are found instrumental in motivating or influencing the target market.The RBI and the IBA are concerned with regulations. The rate of interest is regulated by the RBIand other charges are controlled by IBA. The banking organizations are required to frame two- fold strategies. First, the strategyis concerned with interest and fee charged and the second strategy is related to the interest paid.Since both the strategies throw a vice- versa impact, it is important that banks attempt toestablish a correlation between two. It is essential that both the buyers as well as the sellers havefeeling of winning.PLACE MIX: http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 33. http://www.gameswala.com/This component of marketing mix is related to the offering of services. The services are soldthrough the branches.The 2 important decision making areas are: making available the promised services to theultimate users and selecting a suitable place for bank branches.Location of BranchLocation of ATMSWhy to select particular place as branch?The selection of a suitable place for the establishment of a branch is significant with the viewpoint of making place accessible.PROMOTION MIX:Advertising: Television, radio, movies, theatresPrint media: hoardings, newspaper, magazinesPublicity: road shows, campus visits, sandwich man, SponsorshipSales promotion: gifts, discount and commission, incentives, etc.Personal selling: Cross-sale (selling at competitors place), personalized service.Telemarketing: source Call center (mind space)PEOPLE: All people directly or indirectly involved in the consumption of banking services are animportant part of the extended marketing mix. Knowledge Workers, Employees, Managementand other Consumers often add significant value to the total product or service offering. It is theemployees of a bank which represent the organization to its customers.In a bank organization, employees are essentially the contact personnel with customer.Therefore, an employee plays an important role in the marketing operations of a serviceorganization. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 34. http://www.gameswala.com/PROCESS: Flow of activities Standardization Customization Number of steps SimplicityPHYSICAL EVIDENCE:Physical evidence is the material part of a service. Strictly speaking there are no physicalattributes to a service, so a consumer tends to rely on material cues. There are many examples ofphysical evidence, including some of the following:Internet/web pagesPaperworkBrochuresFurnishingsBusiness cardsThe building itself (such as prestigious offices or scenic headquarters)The physical evidences also include signage, reports, punch lines, other tangibles, employee‟sdress code etc.INSURANCE: Insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of acontingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, fromone entity to another, in exchange for payment. The insurance rate is a factor used to determinethe amount to be charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage, called the premium. Riskmanagement, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 35. http://www.gameswala.com/study and practice. An insurer is a company selling the insurance; an insured, or policyholder, isthe person or entity buying the insurance policy. The transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively smallloss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurers promise to compensate(indemnify) the insured in the case of a financial (personal) loss. The insured receives a contract,called the insurance policy, which details the conditions and circumstances under which theinsured will be financially compensated.Common Characteristics: Accident loss Affordable Premium Calculable loss Definite loss Limited risk of catastrophically large losses Larger risk. Large number similar exposure unit.About Life Insurance Company: The Parliament of India passed the Life Insurance Corporation Act on the 19th ofJune 1956, and the Life Insurance Corporation of India was created on 1st September, 1956, withthe objective of spreading life insurance. Today LIC functions with 2048 fully computerizedbranch offices, 109 divisional offices, 8 zonal offices, 992 satellite offices and the corporateoffice. LIC‟s Wide Area Network covers 109 divisional offices and connects all the branchesthrough a Metro Area Network. LIC has tied up with some Banks and Service providers to offer on-line premiumcollection facility in selected cities. LIC‟s ECS and ATM premium payment facility is anaddition to customer convenience. Apart from on-line Kiosks and IVRS, Info Centers have beencommissioned at Mumbai, Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, New Delhi, http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 36. http://www.gameswala.com/Pune and many other cities. With a vision of providing easy access to its policyholders, LIC haslaunched its SATELLITE SAMPARK offices. The satellite offices are smaller, leaner and closer to the customer. The digitalizedrecords of the satellite offices will facilitate anywhere servicing and many other conveniences inthe future.Marketing Mix in Insurance Industry:PRODUCT MIX:The formulation of product mix for the insurance business makes it significant to take a look atthe services and schemes of insurance organizations. The product portfolio is known and theprocess of formulating a package should be known. It is natural that the users expect areasonable return for their investments. It is quite natural that the insurance organizations want tomaximize profitability. Both of these dimensions are found interrelated.PROMOTION MIX:With the advent of private players in the insurance, companies resort to rampant promotion.Promotion mix for this sector is as follows: Advertisement Publicity Sales Promotion Telemarketing World Wide WebPRICE MIX:In the insurance business, the pricing decisions are concerned with the premium charged against http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 37. http://www.gameswala.com/the policies interest charged for defaulting the payment of premiums & credit facilities,commission charged for underwriting & consultancy services. The formulation of pricingstrategies becomes significant with the viewpoint of influencing the target market or prospects.To be more specific in the Indian context where the disposable income in the hands of prospectsis found low, the increasing inflationary pressure has been instrumental in contracting thediscretionary income, the increasing consumerism has been making an assault on the savingpotentials of masses, it is pertinent that the insurance organizations in general & public sectorinsurance organizations in particular adopt such a strategy for pricing that makes it amotivational tool & paves the ways for increasing the insurance business. Of course, amotivational pricing strategy is required to be given due weight age. This necessitates a newvision for setting premium structure & paying the bonus & charging the interest.PLACE:The first component of the marketing mix is related to the place decisions in which our focuswould be on the two important facets – managing the insurance personnel and locating a branch.The management of agents and insurance personnel is found significant with the viewpoint ofmaintaining the norms for offering the services. This is also to process the services to the enduser in such a way that a gap between the services- promised and services – offered is bridgedover. In a majority of the service generating organizations, such a gap is found existent whichhas been instrumental in aggravating the image problem.PEOPLE:People are most important component of marketing mix for the insurance industry.Sophistication in the process of technological advances makes the ways for the personnel in sucha way that an organization succeeds in making possible a productive utilization of technologiesused or likely to be used. Professional qualification requirements change as technologicaldevelops & evolves. The use of computers microcomputers, fax machines, sophisticatedtelephonic service, e-mailing, intra-net service have been found throwing a big impact on theperception of quality of service. This makes it essential that the insurance organizations alsothink in favor of developing personnel in line with the development and use of informationtechnologies. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 38. http://www.gameswala.com/PHYSICAL EVIDENCE:Physical evidence includes facility design, equipment, signage, employee dress, tangibles,reports & statements.MUTUAL FUNDS:Mutual funds have become extremely popular over the last 20 years. What was once just anotherobscure financial instrument is now a part of daily lives. More than 80 million people, or onehalf of the households in America, invest in mutual funds. That means that, in the United Statesalone, trillions of dollars are invested in mutual funds. In fact, too many people, investing meansbuying mutual funds. It‟s common knowledge that investing in mutual funds is better thansimply letting your cash waste away in a savings account, but, for most people, thats where theunderstanding of funds ends. It doesnt help that mutual fund salespeople speak a strangelanguage that is interspersed with jargon that many investors dont understand. Originally, mutual funds were heralded as a way for the little guy to get a piece of themarket. Instead of spending all free time buried in the financial pages of the Wall Street Journal,all had to do was buy a mutual fund and would be set on the way to financial freedom. As mighthave guessed, its not that easy. Mutual funds are an excellent idea in theory, but, in reality, theyhavent always delivered. Not all mutual funds are created equal, and investing in mutuals isnt aseasy as throwing money at the first salesperson who solicits business. A mutual fund is a common pool of money into which investors with commoninvestment objectives place their contributions that are to be invested, in accordance with thestated objective of the scheme. The investment manager invests the money collected into assetsthat are defined by the stated objective of the scheme. For example, an Equity fund would investin Equity and Equity related instruments and a Debt fund would invest in Bonds, Debentures andGilts etc. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 39. http://www.gameswala.com/ UNIVERSAL CONSTRUCTION MACHINERYORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE:Universal has always believed in itself and built its foundations in the faith of growing beyond asound manufacturing company from India. To compete effectively in the global market, theyseek to achieve international standards, raise quality benchmarks in technological breakthroughand set standard quality bars etc. It is an ISO certified company and is engaged in selling a widerange of world class construction equipments backed by quality after sales service.Universal formed 34 years ago at WARJE, PUNE by MR.ROHIDASS More, who is the founderand the Chairman of Universal. He started the company in 1974. Universal began with a humblebeginning. It provided its own produce like oil lubrication pumps and gear boxes to majorindustrial giants. The company supplies concrete construction equipment & machinery to many alarge & small construction units all across the country. It has associate offices all over India atDelhi, Mumbai, Nagpur, Ahmedabad & Bangalore. Having a factory at Shirval, Pune, thecompany boasts of varied clients including L&T.Universal supplies 50% of its produce to illustrious companies. Universal never failed to takepart in events which would give them opportunities to show and improve their talents andcompetencies. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 40. http://www.gameswala.com/The company is now concentrating its resources on producing innovative series of concretebatching plant which includes three types of series- the on wheels in line universal & mobile.The most in demand machinery of this company is the „reversible mix‟ which moves clockwiseand anti-clockwise. It comes in three series- Rn 800, Rn 1050 & Rn 1400. The company has alsoreceived many awards such as Bharat Vikas, Vastu 96, Buildmat 95, Mega Expo96. Since thecompany has been around for such a long era it has grown in market competence andfunctionality.Universal has achieved great heights due to its expertise and detailed execution in the past years.It has got many opportunities to test its metal in the course of time. In the mid-80s, Universal hada chance to display its expertise by working on a project for DRDO (Defense Research &Development Organization).Universal put in all its efforts to come up with a Nitric acid pump to be used in the country‟scombat weapon - the PRITHVI missile. The topping on the cake was when Dr. APJ ABDULKALAM - Ex President of India personally tested the pump at Hyderabad and approved of itsuse in missiles - as an import substitute.The turning point for Universal came in the year 1982 when a friend of MR.ROHIDASS Morerequested him to develop a Concrete block-making machine. The manufacturing of thisequipment was a success and this encouraged Mr. More into the Construction Equipmentmanufacturing frame.With a workforce of 30 to 40 workers Universal started the manufacturing of its small ConcreteMixers at its WARJE workshop, which was set up in the year 1991. In the same year Universalachieved yet another striking goal by exporting its first ever produce SRI LANKA. TheWARJE workshop was full of enthusiasm and production of Construction Equipment was in fullflow.At present there are 1200 workmen employed in the organization.It has ISO 9001:2001 certification and is going for 14001 and OHSAS 18001There are 3 units of Universal spread across 25 acres and the 4th plant is under construction.They export their products to 32 different countries and they have distributors in 10 countries.They have 14 zonal offices and 33+ associate office dealers. http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 41. http://www.gameswala.com/They have various modes of advertising through regional officers, marketing officers brandambassadors, presentations and Tele marketing.20 % of their business in through exports out of which 40% is AFRICAN countries . 80to 95 % goes to developing countries.They own a patent in the process of the drum making machine.The turnover of the organization is around 125croresMISSION: Universal‟s quest to reach the pinnacle in technology based construction solutions ispowered by an even greater desire to be socially responsible, to conduct business in superiorservice values and to provide consistent innovations for a better life.VISION: To be the largest Construction Manufacturing Equipment Company beyondboundaries by meeting the world class standards through strong R&D efforts, sophisticatedmanufacturing equipment, strong after sales support and global reach.NAME OF THE PERSON CONTACTETHEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE FOCUS AREA:MANUFACTURINGManufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The termmay refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonlyapplied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on alarge scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products,such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sellthem to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers". http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 42. http://www.gameswala.com/Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy,manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumersat a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state tosupply a centrally planned economy. In free market economies, manufacturing occurs undersome degree of government regulation.Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production andintegration of a products components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steelmanufacturers use the term fabrication instead.The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examplesof major manufacturers in the North America include General Motors Corporation, GeneralElectric, and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, and Michelin.Examples in Asia include Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone.TYPES OF SECONDARY (MANUFACTURING) INDUSTRYSecondary (manufacturing) industries make goods from raw material and/or assemble parts madeby other companies.Manufacturing industry can be divided into 3 divisions: 1. Heavy 2. Light High-tech TYPES OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Types of Manufacturing Industries Manufacturing is a huge component of the modern economy. Everything from knitting to oil extraction to steel production falls under the description of manufacturing. The concept of http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 43. http://www.gameswala.com/manufacturing rests upon the idea of transforming raw materials, either organic or inorganic,into products that are usable by society. The American Bureau of Labor Statistics classifiesmanufacturing into hundreds of subfields and sub-subfields. This list will simplify these intosix general sectors.CLOTHING AND TEXTILESClothing and textiles are based around the processing of raw wool to make cloth, as well asknitting and sewing these to make garments. This industry includes tailors and all involvedwith fabric and sewing. It also includes all uses of wool and other raw products to maketowels and sheets. Synthetics such as polyester are included under chemical manufacturing.The material, not the product, is at the center of defining this sector.PETROLEUM, CHEMICALS AND PLASTICSThis sector is involved in changing chemicals, coal and crude oil into usable products. Partsof this sector include the making of soaps, resins, paints and pesticides. This also includes themanufacturing of medicines. Rubber manufacturing is considered a part of plastic work. Ofcourse, it also includes the use of crude oil to make certain plastics, as well as gasoline andother chemicals.ELECTRONICS, COMPUTERS AND TRANSPORTThese fields are closely related, though usually they are treated as different fields. Manyproducts in this field use electric power, and all use a power source. This field includes allappliances and micro-processors, semi-conductors and chips. It also includes all audio-visual http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 44. http://www.gameswala.com/ equipment. The transportation sector is self-defining, including all automobiles, trains and planes that do not fall under other sectors, such as metal work or chemical manufacturing. FOOD Food, agriculture and livestock-raising is the simplest of all manufacturing industries. The inclusion of agriculture today into manufacturing shows how agriculture has changed over the years, imitating more a factory for food production than an organic-style farm of centuries ago. This sector includes all forms of food production, from the farm to the dinner table, including things like canning and purifying. METALS Along with oil and chemical manufacturing, metals also are part of what is often called "heavy industry," while the remainder of the sectors are occasionally called "light industry," or "consumer-oriented industry." Metals includes all iron, aluminum and steel manufacturing, as well as the skills of forging, engraving, coating and stamping. Wood, Leather and Paper 3. These products are all rather simple to define and understand. Wood includes all forms of manufacturing floors or housing, as well as sawing and laminating. Leather includes all tanning and curing (while the creation of leather clothes falls under textiles). The paper process is typified by the cleansing of raw wood pulp into paper products of various kinds.THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE FOCUS AREA:MANUFACTURING http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 45. http://www.gameswala.com/Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The termmay refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonlyapplied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on alarge scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products,such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sellthem to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy,manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumersat a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state tosupply a centrally planned economy. In free market economies, manufacturing occurs undersome degree of government regulation.Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production andintegration of a products components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steelmanufacturers use the term fabrication instead.The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examplesof major manufacturers in the North America include General Motors Corporation, GeneralElectric, and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, and Michelin.Examples in Asia include Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone.TYPES OF SECONDARY (MANUFACTURING) INDUSTRYSecondary (manufacturing) industries make goods from raw material and/or assemble parts madeby other companies.Manufacturing industry can be divided into 3 divisions:4. Heavy5. Light6. High-tech http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 46. http://www.gameswala.com/ PROCESS OF MANUFACTURINGTYPES OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIESTypes of Manufacturing IndustriesManufacturing is a huge component of the modern economy. Everything from knitting to oilextraction to steel production falls under the description of manufacturing. The concept ofmanufacturing rests upon the idea of transforming raw materials, either organic or inorganic, into http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 47. http://www.gameswala.com/products that are usable by society. The American Bureau of Labor Statistics classifiesmanufacturing into hundreds of subfields and sub-subfields. This list will simplify these into sixgeneral sectors.CLOTHING AND TEXTILESClothing and textiles are based around the processing of raw wool to make cloth, as well asknitting and sewing these to make garments. This industry includes tailors and all involved withfabric and sewing. It also includes all uses of wool and other raw products to make towels andsheets. Synthetics such as polyester are included under chemical manufacturing. The material,not the product, is at the center of defining this sector.PETROLEUM, CHEMICALS AND PLASTICSThis sector is involved in changing chemicals, coal and crude oil into usable products. Parts ofthis sector include the making of soaps, resins, paints and pesticides. This also includes themanufacturing of medicines. Rubber manufacturing is considered a part of plastic work. Ofcourse, it also includes the use of crude oil to make certain plastics, as well as gasoline and otherchemicals.ELECTRONICS, COMPUTERS AND TRANSPORTThese fields are closely related, though usually they are treated as different fields. Many productsin this field use electric power, and all use a power source. This field includes all appliances andmicro-processors, semi-conductors and chips. It also includes all audio-visual equipment. Thetransportation sector is self-defining, including all automobiles, trains and planes that do not fallunder other sectors, such as metal work or chemical manufacturing.FOOD http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 48. http://www.gameswala.com/Food, agriculture and livestock-raising is the simplest of all manufacturing industries. Theinclusion of agriculture today into manufacturing shows how agriculture has changed over theyears, imitating more a factory for food production than an organic-style farm of centuries ago.This sector includes all forms of food production, from the farm to the dinner table, includingthings like canning and purifying.METALSAlong with oil and chemical manufacturing, metals also are part of what is often called "heavyindustry," while the remainder of the sectors are occasionally called "light industry," or"consumer-oriented industry." Metals includes all iron, aluminum and steel manufacturing, aswell as the skills of forging, engraving, coating and stamping.Wood, Leather and PaperThese products are all rather simple to define and understand. Wood includes all forms ofmanufacturing floors or housing, as well as sawing and laminating. Leather includes all tanningand curing (while the creation of leather clothes falls under textiles). The paper process istypified by the cleansing of raw wood pulp into paper products of various kinds.OBSERVATIONS:REFRENCE TO GENERAL AND PLANT VISIT: http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 49. http://www.gameswala.com/The first observation that was made was that we were briefed about the company‟s functioningand safety standards before entering the work place and then a question and answer session washeld before leaving the company where we were asked if we had any questions which we wouldlike to be answered about the company‟s approach.Various questions such as the company‟s market share in India, the effect of recession on thecompany, and the competitors of the company were asked.Universal construction‟s main competitors are mainly from abroad, in countries like China andKorea. The market share of Universal in India is 50%. Due to recession the production ofUniversal has declined by 15% but to counter this Universal has introduced 15 new products.Universal deals with customers directly. Universal also takes care of the safety measures of theworkers. Each unit has a separate dispensary with full fledged medicine and compounder.Also before we were taken for a tour around the shop-floor we were asked to wear helmets as asafety measure.Universal follows Job Production for certain units and Mass Production for certain units. Also itfollows the Process type of layout.PRODUCT LINE:Company manufactures various products and some of them are shown below:BATCHING PLANT WITH PLANETARY MIXERThe planetary mixer has one or two mixing stars that rotatethemselves while also rotating around a central point, allowingeach arm to cover the whole mixer floor in a number of revolutions.TOUGH RIDER http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 50. http://www.gameswala.com/Tough rider is used to carry material where truck & tractors cannot move. The front end tippingof Tough Rider enables the driver to exactly unload material where it is required. Tough Rider isused tocarry cement, bags from go down to mixing yard, Concreting of industrialsheds, Tunnel Jobs. EARTH COMPACTORThis machine produces repetitive impacts on soil/sand & achieves itscompactions. It is a high capacity machine like Rollers available for certain applications only.MINI BATCHING MACHINEUniversal is pioneer in manufacturing of this machine with the stateahead technology of load cell based in-built system, watermeasuring system, admixture dosing system. It is available in thecapacity of 550 liters, 800 liters, and 1050 liters.PASSENGER CUM MATERIAL HANDLING LIFT : http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 51. http://www.gameswala.com/The Universal Rack and Pinion Type Passenger Cum Material Handling Lift is a unique outputof the continuous research done by the Research and Development Team of Universal. In a highrise structure the PM Lift can be installed externally on the building during its construction it canbe used by consultants, engineers to go to required floor or can be used to carry material etc.PLASMA CUTTERThis machine is used to cut sheets. The sheets are imported. The machine can automatically beworked. The handler enters the data regarding the dimensions in which the sheet needs to be cut.This machine helps in reducing wastes and maintains quality.KAIZEN:There were posters of “Kaizen” along to lobby.Kaizen a Japanese technique is the continuous improvement throughout all aspects of life. Whenapplied to the workplace, Kaizen activities continually improve all functions of a business, frommanufacturing to management. By improving standardized activities and processes, Kaizen aimsto eliminate waste. Kaizen was first implemented Japanese businesses by Toyota, and has sincespread to businesses throughout the world.REFERENCE TO PRESENTATION:IT FOLLOWS THE POLICY OF 5 SS:SORT: The first step in making things cleaned up and organized.SET IN ORDER: Organise, identify and arrange everything in a work area.SHINE: Regular cleaning and maintenance.STANDARDIZE: Make it easy to maintain, simplify and standardize http://www.gameswala.com/
  • 52. http://www.gameswala.com/SUSTAIN: Maintaining what has been accomplishedCONCLUSION:The visit to Universal Constructions Pvt. Ltd. was a very different experience as theprofessionalism of the company is reflected as soon as one enters into the premises. Thecompany teaches us the importance of departmentalization as it secludes the task and improvesthe efficiency. http://www.gameswala.com/