Cough (VK)


Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • (Water release from nose).
  • Drowsiness
  • Cough (VK)

    2. 2. Cough is physiologically useful protective reflex that clears the respiratory tract of the accumulated mucus and foreign substances. It occurs due to stimulation of mechano / chemo receptors in throat, respiratory passage or stretch receptors in the lung.
    3. 3. Types of cough Cough is 2 types COUGH Non Productive (Dry) Productive (Tenacious)
    4. 4. Cough phases
    5. 5. Mechanism of cough Stimulation of mechano or chemoreceptors (throat, respiratory passages or stretch receptors in lungs) Afferent impulses to cough centre (medulla) Efferent impulses via parasympathetic & motor nerves to diaphragm, intercostal muscles & lung Increased contraction of diaghramatic, abdominal & intercostal (ribs) muscles ⇒noisy expiration (cough)
    6. 6. Most common causes of cough • • • • • • • • • • • • Common cold, Upper/lower respiratory tract infection Allergic rhinitis Smoking Chronic bronchitis Pulmonary tuberculosis Asthma Gastroesophageal reflux Pneumonia Congestive heart failure Bronchiectasis Use of drugs (e.g.:ACEI)
    7. 7. Classification of drugs Peripherally acting Peripherally& centrally Benzonatate Pharyngeal demulcents Expectorants Mucokinetics Mucolytic Centrally acting Opioids Non Opioids
    8. 8. Peripherally acting Expectorants:Pharyngeal demulcents 1.Mucokinetics – Prenoxdiazine – Ammonium chloride – Glycerin – Sodium citrate – Liquo rice – Potassium Iodide – Lozenges – Guaifenesin – Linctus containing – Ipecacuanha 2.Mucolytic syrup. – – – – – Vasaka Bromhexine Ambroxal Dornase alfa Acetyl cysteine
    9. 9. Centrally acting • Opioids – Codeine – Pholcodeine – Morphine – Ethylmorphine • Non Opioids – Noscapine – Dexomethorphan – Pipazethate – Chlophedinol – Oxeladin Centrally and peripherally acting • Benzonatate
    10. 10. Demulcents:- These are indirect peripherally acting cough suppressants. • They provide a protective coat over sensory receptors on pharynx and reduce afferent impulses from the inflamed / irritated mucosa. • They provide relief in dry cough arising from throat. • Ex:- Honey, liquorice
    11. 11. Expectorants • Mucokinetics:- These expectorants stimulate the flow of respiratory tract secretions by stimulating bronchial secretory cells( to inc. volume) and the ciliary movement (to facilitate their removal) Ex:- Volatile oils, certain emetics in sub emetic doses, ammonium chloride, Na citrate, guaiacol and guaifenesin.
    12. 12. • Essential oils:- Provide only mild expectoration by directly stimulating the bronchial secretory cells. • Syrup of Ipecacuanha know its use has declined. • Sodium and potassium citrate:- (0.3-1g) After absorption citrates get converted to bicarbonates in vivo and mucus becomes less viscous in alkaline pH. • Ammonium chloride:- It is a gastric irritant which reflexly enhances bronchial secretions. • Large doses-produce metabolic acidosis.
    13. 13. KI:- (0.2-0.3g) It is secreted by bronchial glands and in this process irritates them, increasing the volume of secretions. • It also gastric irritant acts reflexly as well. A/E:-It is dangerous in pts sensitive to iodine, and interfere with thyroid function. • Prolong use - induce goiter and hypothyroidism • Less popular now because of these potential hazards
    14. 14. • Guaiacol and Guaifenesin - obtained from creosote wood but nowadays are prepared synthetically. • These safe expectorants with proven efficacy. • Guaifenesin is less irritating derivate of guaiacol. • After absorption, guaifenesin is secreted through bronchial glands to increase airway secretion and mucosal ciliary activity. • Admi orally 100-200mg BD
    15. 15. Mucolytic • Mucolytics alter the chemical characteristics of mucus to ↓ its viscosity and facilitate its removal by ciliary action • Commonly used mucolytics include acetyl cysteine, carbocysteine,bromhexine, ambroxol and dornase-alfa.
    16. 16. Bromhexine:- Alkaloid from vasaka plant . • It depolymerises mucopolysaccharides of mucus directly and also by ↑ lysosomal enzyme activity that break the fiber network of tenacious sputum . • Oral dose is 8-16mg TDS S/E:- GIT upset and rhinorrhoea • Ambroxol:-Metabolite of bromhexine and has a similar mode of action • Oral dose 30mg BD/TDS
    17. 17. Acetylcyseteine :- It is a mucolytic that ↓ viscosity of mucus by splitting the disulfide –S-S- bonds of mucoproteins. • It’s action facilitated by alkaline pH(7-9) • Admi is done by nebulisation (3-5ml of 20%solution),also oral 200mg TDS but efficacy is much less. • S/E :- N, V, stomatitis and bronchospasam
    18. 18. Dornase-alfa:- It is highly purified solution of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (DNase). These enzyme that selectively cleaves DNA. • Purulent (Pus) pulmonary secretions in cystic fibrosis contain very high amounts of extra cellular DNA. • Dornase alfa inhalation (2.5mg once daily) hydrolysis this accumulated DNA in the sputum of the pts of cystic fibrosis
    19. 19. • Drinking warm water, inhaling warm moist air or menthol vapours, surfactants such as tyloxapol, proteolytic enzymes such as chymotrypsin or trypsin are also used for their hydrating and mucolytic action.
    20. 20. Centrally acting • Act in the CNS to raise the threshold of cough centre to reduce tussal impulses • Main aim to control rather then eliminate cough • These are mainly useful for dry cough or if cough is disturbs sleep or is hazardous.
    21. 21. Codeine:- An opium alkaloid (Semi synthetic opioid), qualitatively similar to but less potent then morphine. • It is more selective for cough centre and it is treated as standard antitussive. • It suppress cough center for 6hr. • Admi orally (10mg BD or TDS) • Abuse liability is low at these dose. S/E:- High dose cause respiratory depression, convulsions, postural hypotension, constipation.
    22. 22. Pholcodeine:- It is structurally related to codeine but it is slightly more potent, longer acting and better tolerated than codeine. • It cause lesser constipation and drowsiness than codeine. • More suited for long term use • Orally 10-15mg BD
    23. 23. Dextromethorphan:-It is methyl ester of the dextroisomer of levorphanol. • Less addition liability, no analgesic action, least constipating effect, minimal drowsiness . • It is as potent as codeine and given orally 10mg TDS • Most popular cough suppressant • Combination available with antihistamines and bronchodilators in cough mixtures.
    24. 24. Noscapine:- It is naturally occurring opium alkaloid belonging to benzylisoquinoline group. • Popular cough suppressant • Given orally 15mg TDS. • Less addiction liability, drowsiness, analgesic activity S/E: At high doses may produce N, H and tremors.
    25. 25. Pipazethate:- Phenothiazine group of antitussive .Occasionally used in cough mixtures. • Given orally 40mg TDS Chlophedianol:- It is less effective • Rarely used • Dose 20mg BD orally • High doses cause excitatory effects, tremors.
    26. 26. Centrally as well as peripherally acting antitussives Benzonatate:- It is structurally related to LA tetracaine. • It not only inhibits the afferent cough impulses to suppress the central cough center, but also inhibits the pulmonary stretch receptors and also posses local anaesthetic action • Administered orally 100-200mg S/E: D, N, H • High doses cause vertigo.
    27. 27. Specific treatment approach to cough Etiology of cough 1) Upper/lower respiratory tract infections 2) Smoking/chronic bronchitis Treatment Appropriate antibiotics Cessation of smoking 3) Pulmonary tuberculosis Antibiotics 4) Asthmatic cough Inhaled β2-agonists/ipratropium/corticosteroid 5) Postnasal drip (sinusitis) Antibiotics, nasal decongestants, antihistamines