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Blood (VK)
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Blood (VK)

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  • Events in Hemostasis:The term hemostasis means prevention of blood loss. Whenever a vessel is severed or ruptured,hemostasis is achieved by several mechanisms: (1)vascular constriction, (2) formation of a platelet plug, (3) formation of a blood clot as a result of blood coagulation, and (4) eventual growth of fibrous tissue into the blood clot to close the hole in the vessel permanently.
  • biconcave discs having a mean diameter of about 7.8 micrometers and a thickness of 2.5 micrometers at the thickest point and 1 micrometer or lessin the center. Quantity of Hemoglobin in the Cells: Red blood cells have the ability to concentratehemoglobin in the cell fluid up to about 34 grams in each 100 milliliters of cells.
  • migration of cells through capillaries into the tissue spaces diapedesis is an impo part of the reaction of tissues to injury

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  • 1.  Blood is a connective tissue  Humans contain 5 liters on average  8% of body weight is blood Terminology  –Heme,  –Emia Hemato = blood = blood condition
  • 2.  Transportation  Regulation  Protection
  • 3. Transportation  Carries Oxygen to tissues  Carries Carbon Dioxide from tissues  Delivers Nutrients  Removes Heat  Removes Waste  Delivers Hormones
  • 4. Regulation  Acid/ base balance of body fluids  Temperature Maintenance
  • 5. Protection  Hemostasis  Fighting off infection and disease
  • 6.  Plasma  Formed elements
  • 7.  Accounts for 55% of circulating volume – 91% Water – 2% Solutes – 7% Proteins
  • 8.  Solutes in plasma –Nutrients –Gases – Ions –Amino Acids –Glucose –Hormones
  • 9.  Serum albumin –Maintains osmotic pressure  Keeps fluid in vascular space – 60% of serum protein
  • 10. Globulins –Produced during an immune response –Prothrombin A  Involved in clotting –Fibrinogen  Involved in clotting –Gamma Globulins  Form anti-bodies 
  • 11.  Erythrocytes  Leukocytes  Thrombocytes  Stem Cells
  • 12.  Men = 4.6 - 6.2 million/ mm3  Women = 4.2 – 5.4 million/ mm3  Flexible, biconcave disk  Anucleate, without organelles  Contain hemoglobin  Why doesn’t a RBC contain mitochondria?
  • 13.  Process begins in the kidneys  Kidneys constantly produce erythropoietin  Renal cells are sensitive to hypoxia  Hypoxia caused by several conditions – Reduced number of RBCs – Reduced availability of O2 – Increased tissue demands of O2  Requires iron, B12, and folic acid
  • 14.  Because of hypoxia, kidneys increase production of erythropoietin  Erythropoietin travels to red bone marrow
  • 15.  Process begins with stem cells (hematocytoblasts)  Takes 3-5 days for maturation  Reticulocytes leave bone marrow and enter blood
  • 16.  Reticulocyte count provides information about rate of RBC production – Low = Not producing a normal number of RBCs  Bone marrow disease (cancer)  Low intake of vitamin B12, iron, or folic acid – High = Response to blood loss or anemia
  • 17.  Abuse of RBCs cause them to wear out  Unable to repair damage that occurs  Life span = 120 days average  Worn out RBCs are destroyed in spleen, liver, and red bone marrow by macrophages  Spleen is a series of ducts with macrophages
  • 18.     WBC’s are short lived – Hours – Days Nucleated cells without hemoglobin Two categories – Granulocytes – Agranulocytes General function is to combat infection and inflammation
  • 19.  WBCs can leave the blood vessel by diapedesis  Allows them to move to site of injury  Cells at injury site release a chemical that attracts WBCs (chemotaxis)
  • 20. Neutrophils die in the process of combating infections
  • 21. WHITE BLOOD CELLS 2 TYPES Agranulocytes Granulocytes  Monocytes(3-8%)  Basophils(2-1%)  Lymphocytes(20-25%)  Nuetrophils(60-70%)  Eosinophils(2-4%) T-cells,B-cells,NK cells
  • 22.  54- 62% of total WBCs  Characteristic multilobed nucleus  Role is to phagocytize bacteria and destroy with lysosomes in granules  Increased during bacterial infection  SEM of neutrophil attacking anthrax bacteria
  • 23.  1- 3% of total WBC count  Bi-lobed  Primary nucleus job is to combat parasitic worms
  • 24.  During allergic reactions, they lessen the severity of reaction by inactivating inflammatory mediators  They release anti-histamines  Increase during allergic reactions
  • 25.  Less than 1% of total WBC count  Granules contain histamine and heparin  Histamine causes vasodialation and attracts other WBCs to area  If  they are in tissue, they are called MAST cells Involved in severe allergic reactions
  • 26.  25- 33% of total WBC count  Large  Most dark nucleus, small cytoplasm are found in lymphatic system  Responsible  Can for immune response differentiate into two types  B-Cells-made  Found in bone marrow in blood and produce antibodies that attack bacteria and toxins
  • 27.  T-cells-Made  T8 in thymus cells- destroy body’s cells that are infected with virus and kills tumor cells  T4 cells- enhance immune response by releasing chemotaxis agents
  • 28.  3- 7% of total WBC count  Largest WBC  Large horseshoe shaped nucleus  Leave blood and become macrophages  Able to phagocytize bacteria
  • 29.  150,000 – 350,000 mm3  Fragments of cells with membrane  Form a plug in damaged vessles  Contain granules with clotting chemicals