TREATING Cattle dung for use as manure or poultry feeding stuff
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    TREATING Cattle dung for use as manure or poultry feeding stuff TREATING Cattle dung for use as manure or poultry feeding stuff Document Transcript

    • DUNGTREAT CATTLE DUNG PROCESSINGIn the last few decades livestock practices have evolved considerably. Highly integratedfarms, notably in cattle (Bos taurus), pig (Sus scrofa), and poultry production, havelargely disappeared, replaced by intensive systems using confined rearing methods.Management of the large volumes of excreta produced from these systems has meantbedding is minimized and slatted floors are employed, allowing feces and urine tocollect as slurry containing approximately 3 to 12% solids. As intensive farming methodshave proven economically effective, many adverse effects of handling livestock wastes,particularly as slurry, have become evident. The main problems were summarized byPain et al. (1987):(i) Ammonia volatilization.(ii) Offensive odor release.(iii) Handling problems due to the formation of crusts and sediments during storage.In addition, other issues, such as the pollution of watercourses via surface runoff andthe spread of pathogens, are becoming ever-increasing concerns. The importance of allthese problems varies according to the nature of the waste, concerns of the farmer,distance of neighbors, vulnerability of the surrounding environment, and currentlegislation.One of the most promising methods of disposal of cattle manure, is recycling as alivestock feed ingredient.Concentrate-fed animals excrete more digestible crude fiber in their feces than cattlefed high-roughage diets(Mc-Clure et al., 1971; Lucas et al., 1975; Newton et al., 1977).
    • Nutrient concentration Range in Solid Beef manure.(Lb/ tonne)Nitrogen (N) 7-36Phosphorus (P) 2-6Potassium (K) 7-17Sulphur (S) 0.1-3Note: multiply P by 2.3 to get P2O5 and K by 1.2 to get K2OAdapted from Schoenau , 1997Dried Cow dung contains 3290 Kcal/kg Calorific valueTYPICAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CATTLE MANUREDry matter, % 26.6Dry matter basisCrude protein, % 11.9Crude fiber, % 50.9NFE, % 31.6Ether extract, % 0.2Ash, % 5.4Calcium, % 0.63Phosphorus, % 0.17Gross energy, Mcal/kg 4.61Iron, ppm 612Copper, ppm 12Nickel, ppm 6Cadmium, ppm 0.76Lead, ppm 1Mercury, ppm . 0.07Present technology provides a wide array of innovative treatments for managinglivestock wastes. Among these, the majority of research has concentrated on biogas(methane) production, anaerobic and/or aerobic purification, and solids separation.While these methods have proven effective (Woestyne and Verstraete, 1995), their use
    • is limited, primarily due to the high cost and expertise required to operate thesemechanized systems effectively.AMMONIA EMISSIONSLivestock slurry is a valuable fertilizer source for crop production but its value is reducedover time by significant losses of nitrogen (N), attributed mainly to the volatilization ofNH3(Lauer et al., 1976; Pain et al., 1987; Hartung and Phillips, 1994).In addition to the economic loss, NH3 emission and subsequent deposition can be amajor source of pollution, causing N enrichment, acidification of soils and surfacewaters, and the pollution of ground and surface waters with nitrates(Hartung, 1992; Sutton et al., 1995; Pain et al., 1998).In the housed environment, NH3 emissions can also adversely affect the health,performance, and welfare of both animals (Donham, 1990) and human attendants(Donham et al., 1977; Donham and Gustafason, 1982).During the last 30 years NH3 emissions in Europe have increased by more than 50%(ApSimon et al., 1987; Sutton et al., 1995).Intensification in livestock production has been identified as the primary contributor tothis increase and is estimated to account for 80% of yearly emissions(Buijsman et al., 1987; Pain et al., 1998).Consequently, many European countries have implemented legal constraints on thespreading of livestock slurry (Burton, 1996), necessitating an increase in storagecapacity.Storage of livestock slurry has been recognized as a major source of NH3 emissions(Hartung and Phillips, 1994), with reported N losses ranging from 3 to 60% of initial totalN(Muck and Steenhuis, 1982; Dewes et al., 1990).
    • Factors Influencing VolatilizationThe concentration and type of N in livestock slurry varies according to animal species,diet, and age.Typically, livestock use less than 30% of N contained in their feed, with 50 to 80% of theremainder excreted in the urine and 20 to 50% excreted in the feces. Urea is the majornitrogenous component in urine, accounting for up to 97% of urinary N.The exception is poultry manure, where uric acid is excreted instead of urea.Urea is hydrolyzed by the enzyme urease, found in the feces, to ammonium (NH+4) andbicarbonate ions.Hydrolysis occurs rapidly, with complete conversion of urea N to NH+4 possible within amatter of hours, depending on environmental conditions(Muck and Richards, 1980; Beline et al., 1998).Fecal N typically consists of 50% protein N and 50% NH+4. Mineralization of fecal proteinN mainly occurs through the activity of proteolytic and deaminative bacteria, initiallyhydrolyzing proteins to peptides and amino acids and finally by deamination to NH+4.This process occurs at a far slower rate than the hydrolysis of urea and is thought to be arelatively unimportant source of NH+4 where livestock slurry is stored for a short periodof time(Muck and Steenhuis, 1982).However, where livestock slurry is stored for long periods, especially at highertemperatures, it becomes the dominant pathway for NH+4 production(Patni and Jui, 1991).Reactions that govern NH3 volatilization may be represented by the followingsummarized equation(Freney et al., 1981): [1]
    • The driving force for NH3 volatilization is considered to be the difference in NH3 partialpressure between that in equilibrium with the liquid phase and that in the ambientatmosphere. In the absence of other ionic species, this is predominately influenced bythe NH+4 concentration, pH, and temperature, although any displacement of theequilibrium will affect NH3 emission.OFFENSIVE ODORSOffensive odor emanating from livestock production is of concern for intensive systemsand confined operations as the number of complaints continue to rise(Jongebreur, 1977; ONeill and Phillips, 1991; Misselbrook et al., 1993).Odors from livestock slurry are due to a complex mixture of volatile compounds arisingfrom anaerobic degradation of plant fiber and protein(Spoelstra, 1980; Hammond, 1989).Chemical analysis has identified approximately 170 volatile compounds(Spoelstra, 1980; Yasuhura et al., 1984; ONeill and Phillips, 1992).According to ONeill and Phillips (1992), the most important odorous componentsemitted from livestock slurry appear to be the volatile fatty acids (VFAs: p-cresol, indole,skatole, hydrogen sulfide, and NH3), by virtue of either their high concentrations or theirlow odor thresholds.Odor can be assessed by two criteria: strength, which is measured as concentration orintensity, and offensiveness (i.e., the perceived quality). Relationships between theknown volatile compounds and perceived olfactory responses have also been sought bymany researchers(e.g., Schaefer, 1977; Williams, 1984; Pain et al., 1990; Mackie, 1994; Zhu et al., 1997b).At present, though, no compound has been found suitable as a marker to predictolfactory response. Based on olfactory measurements, the problem of odor nuisancecan be tackled by reducing either the perceived strength or offensiveness
    • (ONeill and Phillips, 1991).Reducing odor strength implies destroying or diluting odorants, whereas reducing odoroffensiveness implies modifying odorants emitted from livestock slurry.Handling PropertiesWhere livestock waste is handled as a slurry, handling problems are often encountereddue to the formation of crusts and sediments during storage that make removal fortimely and accurate applications to land difficult(Pain et al., 1987).The rheological properties of a livestock slurry are dependant on its total solids content(Chen, 1986).Reducing total solids reduces viscosity and so reduces power and cost when pumping.The composition of solids varies considerably among animal species, age, physiologicalstate, and diet, but generally consist of undigested plant fiber and protein.Stimulating the microbial degradation of total solids would appear to be a more feasibleapplication than either control of NH3 or odor emissions, as the targeted organiccompounds are readily identified.Work is needed to discover the microbial decay patterns of theses organic compoundsin livestock slurries and identify the responsible enzymes and bacterial genera.Pollution to Surface WatercoursesToday there is considerable pressure on farmers to avoid water pollution.On entry to a watercourse, livestock wastes exert a high biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) and cause eutrophication due to high levels of nutrients, particularly N andphosphorous (P).
    • Williams (1983) found that the volatile fatty acid (VFA) fraction of livestock slurryaccounted for up to 70% of its BOD.The VFA fraction of livestock wastes has also been identified as a primary contributor toodor(Zhu et al., 1997c; Mackie et al., 1998; Zhu and Jacobson, 1999; Zhu et al., 1999).Enhancing the degradation of this fraction reduction may well also lower the BOD.However, further understanding of the microbiology pathways in livestock wastes isrequired before this can be achieved.Phosphorus runoff from land receiving slurry is another major environmental problem,particularly from sites receiving poultry manure.The majority of P runoff is from the dissolved reactive P fraction.PathogensMany of the bacteria in livestock slurry are pathogenic and pose a heath risk. DUNGTREATPresent method is to treat and biodegrade the cattle dung so as odour is controlled,pathogens are eliminated by compettion and the material is biodegraded to formassimable nutrients for use in plants in the first phase.1.5 Kg/Ton dung once uniformly spread over layers of each not exceeding 12.5 cmheight and total heap not exceeding 45 cm height.Moisture is to be maintained @50% level upto 40 days.Treatment completes in about 45 days.In the later phases, efforts can be made to convert this biodegraded material fit foranimal consumption as a feeding stuff in the concentrate feeds @ 10% replacing the deoiled rice or wheat brans.
    • DIGESTION COEFFICIENTS AND TDN OF DIETS AND MANURE ROUGHAGEDiets: Untreated Manure roughage as fed Manure roughageDigestibility, % 0 20% 40% 60% SE a Sign. b Mean c SEdDry matter 68.3 62.0 58.9 50.3 2.7 P<.001 23.0 3.3Crude protein 57.5 54.8 50.0 41.7 2.1 P<.01 10.7 2.5Crude fiber 29.4 31,1 33.9 31.9 5.2 N.S. 39.4 5.0NFE 77.6 72.5 69.4 61.3 2.3 P<.O01 36.8 2.9Ether extract 83.8 77.5 87.2 83.9 4.8 N.S. 101.2 5.3Gross energy 64.6 59.9 57.9 49.6 3.0 P<.01 29.2 3.5TDN 73.5 64.6 62.2 52.2 3.0 P<.001 33.0 3.8apooled standard error of mean, n = 4.bsignificance level of linear term of manure roughage dry matter in model (quadraticand cubic terms, N.S.).CCalculated by method of Kromann (1967) and Kromann et al. (1977).dstandard error of regression, n = 16.DIGESTIBLE AND METABOLIZABLE ENERGY AND NITROGEN VALUES OFDIETSManure roughage as fedItem 0 20% 40% 60%SEa Significance bDigestible energy c,Mcal/kg,dry weight 2.99 2.70 2.69 2.29 .14 P<.01Metabolizable energy cMcal/kg, dry weight 2.59 2.33 2.35 1.98 .13 P<.O1Percentage of gross energy lost as:Fecal energy, % 35.4 41.1 42.1 50.4 3.02 P<.O1Methane energy, % 6.2 5.7 5.3 4.7 .27 N.S.
    • Urine energy, % 2.5 2.4 1.8 1.9 .24 N.S.Nitrogen data, daily basis:N intake, g 153.9 162.0 190.0 166.1 8.34 N.S.Fecal N, g 65.3 73.6 94.9 97.0 5.92 P<.O1Urinary N, g 56.4 55.5 46.6 37.5 4.54 P<.O01N balance, g 32.2 32.9 48.5 31.6 5.67 N.S.N balance as % of N intake 20.9 20.3 25.5 19.0 7.00 N.S.N balance as % of N digested 35.2 37.5 51.1 44.0 4.89 P<.05A standard error of the mean, n = 16.bsignificance of linear term of manure roughage dry matter (quadratic, cubic andinteraction terms, N.S.).CDE and ME values for the manure roughage when calculated by the method ofKromann (1967)and Kromann et aI. (1977) were 1.35 and 1.21 Mcal/kg dry weight,respectively.EFFECT OF MANURE ROUGHAGE IN FEEDLOT DIETS FED STEERSON ENERGY UTILIZATION, NEm and NEg VALUES, 124 DAYSManure roughage in diets, % as fed 0 O 20 20 40 40 60 60Feed intake, % of ad libitum 50 100 50 100 50 100 50 100Avg metabolic size, W~g J 70.6 75.4 72.3 80.7 73.5 81.3 71.9 79.8ME in feed, Mcal/kg d. wt 2.59 2.59 2.33 2.33 2.35 2.35 1.98 1.98ME intake/steer/day,Meal 10.85 20.03 11.25 21.62 12.69 23.59 11.03 20.36Heat production, Meal/steer/day 10.18 16.58 10.32 16.87 10.62 18.75 9.56 15.53NEm heat production, Meal/steer/day a 5.51 5.89 5.65 6.30 5.74 6.35 5.61 6.23Heat increment, Meal/steer/day 4.67 10.69 4.67 10.57 4.88 12.40 3.95 9.30Total heat/ME intake, % 93.8 82.8 91.7 78.0 83.7 79.5 86.7 76.3Heat increment/ME intake, % 43.0 53.4 41.5 48.9 38.5 52.6 35.8 45.7NE m heat/ME intake, % 50.8 29.4 50.2 29.1 45.2 26.9 50.9 30.6Energy balance/ME intake, % 6.2 17.2 8.3 22.0 16.3 20.5 13.3 23.7NE m of diet, Mcal/kg b 1.55 1.55 1.46 1.46 1.51 1.51 1.30 1.30
    • NEg of diet, Mcal/kg c 1.060 .875 .970 .959 1.308 .833 1.168 .879a 78.08 kcal/Wk75 X avg metabolic size, W~g.b NEm, Mcal/kg = Energy required for maintenance, Meal/day (Vance et al.,1972) Dry matter intake at energy equilibrium, kg/dayC NEg, Mcal/kg = Energy retained in tissues, Mcal/day Total dry matter intake-dry matter intake at energy equilibrium, kg/day(Vance et al., 1972) DUNGTREAT CONTAINSNitrifying Bacteria, Herbal Gas adsorbants, Deodourants, Enzymes, Probiotics, OsmoRegulators, Methyl Donors, Uni Cellar Protein Producing Microorganisms, Amino acidproducing Microorganisms.SUGGESTED LEVEL AND METHOD OF USAGE:USE @ 2 Kg/ MT dung ( Heap height not exceeding 9 inches) ( Maintain 35-40%Moisture Level for 10 Days) (Room temperature). Once in a day give the heap a turningfor the first 10 Days.Treatment time: 10 + 4 Days REFERENCES: • Airoldi, G., P. Balsari, and R. Chiabrando. 1993. Odour control in swine houses by the use of natural zeolites: First approach to the problem. p. 701–708. In E. Collins and C. Boon (ed.) Livestock Environment IV, 4th Int. Symp., Univ. of Warwick, Coventry, UK. 6–9 July 1993. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng., St. Joseph, MI. • Al-Kanani, T., E. Akochi, A.F. MacKenzie, I. Alli, and S. Barrington. 1992. Organic and inorganic amendments to reduce ammonia losses from liquid hog manure. J. Environ. Qual. 21:709–715.[ISI] • Amon, M., M. Dobeic, T.M. Misselbrook, B.F. Pain, V.R. Phillips, and R.W. Sneath. 1995. A farm scale study on the use of De-Odorase for reducing odour and ammonia emissions from intensive fattening piggeries. Bioresour. Technol. 51:163–169.[ISI]
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