• Reduce the rate of passage.• Stimulates pathogenic microbial proliferation.Enzymes such as xylanase or ß-glucanase into ...
overcome this problem, supplementation of additional methionine and choline in the dietis suggested.Cotton seedQuality of ...
Polynucleotidase Nucleic acids Mono-nucleotidesPosttranslational glycosylation has been reported to protect enzymes from d...
G.I TractRegionEnzyme (orsecretion)Substrate End Product pHMouth Saliva Lubricates and softens foodCrop Mucus Lubricates a...
(chitin is cellulose like fiber found in the cell wall of candida).Cellulases acts on cellulose molecules by hydrolysing t...
controlled aseptic conditions for food supplementation and systemic enzyme therapy.The organisms most often used are Asper...
IndigestionIn a small study including 18 subjects, supplements containing lipase and otherpancreatic enzymes were found to...
Many studies have reported the effective usefulness of DFM in• Detoxifying• Enhancing the immunity System,• Improving F C ...
B lechiniformis• Provides Bacitracin.B. polymixa• Possesses unusual characteristic to fix nitrogen under anaerobic conditi...
• Immune Stimulation• Produces Lactic AcidL lactis• Reduces the ability of pathogenic bacteria to grow and cause infection...
Another conclusion was that L. reuteri and whey in the diets of turkey poults appearedbeneficial in the control of caecal ...
the rumen suggests a role for viable yeast in overcoming ruminal dysfunctionsassociated with the use of high energy diets ...
active peptides. The stimulatory activities of these small peptides has beendemonstrated in studies with pure cultures of ...
Pediococsus acidilactici pediocin (bacteriocin)Propionibacteria sp. Ruminal lactate utilizer, propionate producerPropionib...
7. Bedford, M. R., and H. Schulze. 1998. Exogenous enzymes for pigs and poultry. Nutr. Res. Rev. 11:91-114.[CrossRef]8. Be...
37. Newbold, C. J., R. J. Wallace, X. B. Chen, and F. McIntosh. 1995b. Different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae diffe...
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Profiles enzymix

  1. 1. ENZYMIXENZYMES WITH DIRECT FED ENZYME SECRETING MICROBESINTRODUCTIONImproved animal health and performance always has been the goal of people associatedwith livestock production. Consequently, any feedstuff, feed additive, drug or othercompound that is capable of enhancing animal health or performance will interestproducers, veterinarians, and animal nutritionists. Several compounds have been usedto improve animal performance either by manipulation of the rumen environment (e.g.,sodium bicarbonate) or by directly altering the composition and metabolic activities ofrumen microorganisms (e.g., ionophores).Digestion is the process of breaking down large, complexmolecules, as provided by the birds’ feed, into smallercomponents that can be absorbed into the portal bloodsystem. The process involves changes in both physical andchemical structures of most dietary components. Poultryfeeds consist of a complex array of particles differing notonly in chemical composition, but also in size, hardness,solubility and ionic characteristics.Under ideal conditions, this array of particles and chemicals with different characteristicsdegrade slowly in a step-wise manner as feed passes from the mouth to the largeintestine. Particle breakdown is a constant process, although the gizzard provides themajor site of this activity.In 1877, Moritz Traube proposed that (i) protein - like materials catalyzed fermentationand other chemical reactions and (ii) they were not destroyed by doing such things. Thiswas the beginning of the recognition of what we call enzymes today.Enzymes are largely responsible for molecular degradation, althoughtheir pH greatly influences their efficacy.When digestion is reduced, there will be reduced bird growth and/orincreased feed intake. Indigestion may also cause problems withmanure/litter management, because non-digested residues in the largeintestine often adsorb more water or produce feces that are moreviscous.Animal feed contains Cereals and Cakes.Cell walls of cereals are primarily composed of carbohydrate complexes referred to asNon Starch Polysaccharides (NSP).ANFs present in these NSP (like ß-glucans and arabinoxylans) are non digestible andform high-molecular-weight viscous aggregates in the gastrointestinal tract.They• Affect the digestive enzymes.• Cause endogenous losses
  2. 2. • Reduce the rate of passage.• Stimulates pathogenic microbial proliferation.Enzymes such as xylanase or ß-glucanase into diets having ANF can effectivelydecrease viscosity and consequently reduce the anti nutritional effect of NSP.Cellulase, ß-Glucanase, Xylanase, and Pectinase can degrade plant origin cell wallpolymers.Amylase can increase the gut absorption levels of starches.Hemi Cellulase can degrade the difficult fiber.Protease can degrade the proteins.Lipase can degrade the lipids.Phytase helps in solubilising the phyto phosphorous.Tannases can degrade the plant toxins.ANFPALMThe anti-nutritional factors of the palm kernel cake as discussed by Aletor (1999) arethose chemical compounds synthesized inherently or naturally by one organism, actingas stimulators or inhibitors; the factors are phytic acid, tannic acid, oxalate contents andphytin phosphorus.Anti-nutritional factors of Palm Kernel Cake samplesAnti-nutrients E1 E2 Mean SD CV (%)Tannic acid (%) 0.35 0.44 0.40 0.064 16.0Phytin Phosphorus (mg/g) 6.50 6.73 6.62 0.163 2.46Phytic acid (mg/g) 23.07 23.90 23.49 0.587 2.50Oxalate (mg/g) 5.04 5. 22 5. 13 1.273 24.18E1 and E2 are duplicate determinations.SD = Standard Deviation; CV = Coefficient of variation at P < 0.05 significant level.SOYSoyabean seeds have certain anti-nutritional factors like trypsin inhibitors, proteininhibitors, protease inhibitors, phytohemagglutinin, saponins, goitrogen and estrogenicfactors that can affect the production performance of chickens. But they are all thermolabile and can be destroyed by roasting, heating or autoclaving.Sesame/TilSesame (sesamum indicum) meal contains 40% protein and 8% crude protein fiber. Theprotein is rich in arginine, leucine and methionine but low in lysine. Since the sesamemeal is deficient in lysine its combination with Soyabean meal appears to be useful.Sesame meal has high calcium and phosphorus content but their availability is lowbecause of higher phytate content in the hulls of the seed. The phytic acid reduces theavailability of calcium, zinc, magnesium, copper etc. from the diet. Nevertheless, themeal can be included in poultry diets up to 15% in combination with other lysine rich oilcakes.SunflowerSunflower meal is generally not recommended be yond 20% in the diets may be due tohigh crude fiber content in the meal and also due to the presence of a polyphenoliccompound called chlorogenic acid which inhibits the activity hydrolytic enzymes. To
  3. 3. overcome this problem, supplementation of additional methionine and choline in the dietis suggested.Cotton seedQuality of cotton seed meal is poor due to the presence of gossypol, phenol likecompounds that are present in the pigment gland of cotton seed. Gossypol inhibits theactivity of digestive enzymes and reduces the palatability of diet. Mechanical pressing ofseed followed by solvent extraction reduce the gossypol content to 0.02-0.5% level.Dietary levels of gossypol up to 0.015% levels are believed to be safer in poultry.Detoxification cotton seed meal with solvent mixture containing hexane, acetone andwater were found to be useful after initial cooking of the meal. Addition of ferrousSulphate at the rate of 4 parts to one part of gossypol prevented yolk discoloration of theeggs due to gossypol. Cotton seed has a desirable profile of amino acids except lysineand the digestibility of cotton seed meal is poor due to higher crude fiber.Caster seedThe protein content of caster (Ricinus communis) seed meal varies from 21 to 48%depending upon the extent of decertification and oil extraction. It has an ideal amino acidprofile with moderately high cystine, methionine and isoleucine. But its antinutritionalsubstances called the ricin, ricinine and an allergen restricts its use in poultry even at lowlevels of inclusion. Processing of caster meal by heating at 80 c temperature in thepresence of GN ammonia or an acid or alkali reduces the toxic content substantially.Detoxified meal needs to be effectively corrected for lysine.G.I Tract Region Enzyme (orsecretion)Substrate End Product pHMouth Saliva Lubricates and softens foodCrop Mucus Lubricates and softens food 4.5Stomach (Gizzardand proventiculus)HCI Lowers stomach pH 2.5Pepsin Protein PolypeptidesDuodenum Trypsin,Chymotrypsin andElastasesProteins, Peptonesand PeptidesPeptones,Peptides andamino acidsCarboxy-petidases Peptides Peptides andamino acids6Collagenase Collagen Peptides to6.8Jejunum Peptidases Peptides Dipeptides andamino acids5.8 to6.6
  4. 4. Polynucleotidase Nucleic acids Mono-nucleotidesPosttranslational glycosylation has been reported to protect enzymes from deactivationcaused by high temperatures and proteinases(Olsen and Thomsen, 1991).All enzyme feed additives are considered either food additives or GRAS substancesThe activity of enzymes retains more than 95% when stored at the temperature of 25Deg C upto 3 monthsPROTEINS:Protein and amino acid availability are of greatest concern in animal and vegetableprotein ingredients. Protein content and availability from cereals and their by-productsseem to be more consistent and little affected by processing conditions.Feedstuff C. Protein(%)Digestibility (%)C. Protein Lys Met CysVegetable sources (cereals)Yellow maize 8 82 - 86 81 91 85Wheat 12 78 - 82 81 87 87Barley 10 70 -82 78 79 81Sorghum 10 67 - 72 78 89 83Vegetable sources (oil seed meals)Peanut meals 49 88 - 91 83 88 78Soybean meals 46 83 - 87 91 92 82Cottonseed meal 43 61 - 76 67 73 73Animal sourcesBlood meal 88 82-92 86 91 76Fish meal 66 86 - 90 88 92 73Meat meal 60 75 - 80 79 85 58Feather meal 87 36 - 77 66 76 59FATS:
  5. 5. G.I TractRegionEnzyme (orsecretion)Substrate End Product pHMouth Saliva Lubricates and softens foodCrop Mucus Lubricates and softens food 4.5Stomach(Gizzard andproventiculus)HCI Lowers stomach pH 2.5Lipase Fats Fatty acids, mono-glycerides and glycerolDuodenum andJejunumBile Fats EmulsificationLipase Fats Fatty acids, mono-glycerides and glycerol5.8CholesterolesteraseFatty acid -cholesterolestersFatty acid, cholesterol to6.6Digestibility Metabolizable energy(kcal/kg)Fat Type/Age 0-21d >21d 0-21d >21dTallow 80 86 7400 8000Poultry Fat 88 97 8200 9000Fish oil 92 97 8600 9000Vegetable oil 95 99 8800 9200Coconut oil 70 84 6500 7800Palm oil 77 86 7200 8000Vegetablesoapstock84 87 7800 8100Restaurantgrease87 96 8100 8900CellulaseBreaks down cellulose and chitin
  6. 6. (chitin is cellulose like fiber found in the cell wall of candida).Cellulases acts on cellulose molecules by hydrolysing the beta-1, 4 glycosidic linkages.They largely produces cellobiose, which can ultimately yield glucose units, depending onthe characteristic of the enzyme.It helps free nutrients in both fruits and vegetables.Measured in CU (Cellulase Units).Activity of Enzyme:One activity u/mg (u/ml) of cellulase is defined as that quantity of enzyme that canliberate 1g glucose in one minute at pH of 4.8.Standard Product: 8000 u/gUse the preparation between pH of 4.0~5.0,Generally speaking, adding the preparation 50g to 1t dry materials will play well.Protease:Bonds with alpha 2-macroglobulin to support immune function when taken on an emptystomach.Protease is responsible for digesting proteins in food, which is probably one of the mostdifficult substances to metabolize. Because of this, protease is considered to be one ofthe most important enzymes that we have. If the digestive process is incomplete,undigested protein can wind up in the circulatory system, as well as in other parts of thebody.When protease is present in higher quantities, it can help to clean up the body byremoving the unwanted protein from the circulatory system. This will help to clean up theblood stream, and restore the energy and balance.One of the tricks of an invading organism is to wrap itself in a large protein shell that thebody would view as being "normal". Large amounts of protease can help remove thisprotein shell, and allow the body`s defense mechanisms to go into action. With theprotective barrier down, the immune system can step in and destroy the invadingorganism.Protease refers to a group of enzymes whose catalytic function is to hydrolyze(breakdown) peptide bonds of proteins. They are also called proteolytic enzymes orproteinases. Proteases differ in their ability to hydrolyze various peptide bonds. Eachtype of protease has a specific kind of peptide bonds it breaks. Examples of proteasesinclude: fungal protease, pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, bromelain, and subtilisin.Proteolytic enzymes are very important in digestion as they breakdown the protein foodsto liberate the amino acids needed by the body. Additionally, proteolytic enzymes havebeen used for a long time in various forms of therapy. Their use in medicine is gainingmore and more attention as several clinical studies are indicating their benefits inoncology, inflammatory conditions and immune regulation.Contrary to old beliefs, several studies have shown that orally ingested enzymes canbypass the conditions of the GI tract and be absorbed into the blood stream while stillmaintaining their enzymatic activity. Commercially, proteases are produced in highly
  7. 7. controlled aseptic conditions for food supplementation and systemic enzyme therapy.The organisms most often used are Aspergillus niger and oryzae.Measured in HUT (Hemoglobin Units in a Tyrosine Base).LipaseLipase is an enzyme necessary for the absorption and digestion of nutrients in theintestines. This digestive enzyme is responsible for breaking down lipids (fats), inparticular triglycerides, which are fatty substances in the body that come from fat in thediet. Once broken down into smaller components, triglycerides are more easily absorbedin the intestines. Lipase is primarily produced in the pancreas but is also produced in themouth and stomach. Most people produce sufficient amounts of pancreatic lipase.Along with lipase, the pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon, hormones that the bodyneeds to break down sugar in the bloodstream. Other pancreatic enzymes includeamylase, which breaks down amylose (a form of starch) into its sugar building blocks,and protease, which breaks down protein into single amino acids.Source:Lipase, monoacylglycerol:Penicillium camembertiiLipase, triacylglycerol:Aspergillus nigerAspergillus oryzaeAspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Lipase, triacylglycerol isolated fromFusarium oxysporumAspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Lipase, triacylglycerol isolated fromHumicola lanuginosaAspergillus oryzae, containing the gene for Lipase, triacylglycerol isolated fromRhizomucor mieheiRhizopus arrhizusRhizomucor mieheiRhizophus niveusRhizophus oryzaeUsesIn general, lipase supplements are thought to help the body absorb food more easily,keeping nutrients at appropriate, healthy levels throughout the body. Studies suggestthat they may also be helpful for the following conditions:Celiac DiseasePancreatic enzymes have been most studied as part of the treatment for celiac disease.Celiac disease is a condition in which dietary gluten causes damage to the intestinaltract. Symptoms include abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue. People with celiacdisease must consume a life-long gluten-free diet. Lipase, along with other pancreaticenzymes, may help in the treatment of this condition by enhancing the benefit of agluten-free diet. In a study of 40 children with celiac disease, for example, those whoreceived pancreatic enzyme therapy (including lipase) demonstrated a modest increasein weight compared to those who received placebo. The improvement in weight occurredwithin the first month of use; taking the pancreatic enzyme supplements for an additionalmonth did not lead to more weight gain.
  8. 8. IndigestionIn a small study including 18 subjects, supplements containing lipase and otherpancreatic enzymes were found to reduce bloating, gas, and fullness following a high-fatmeal. Given that these symptoms are commonly associated with irritable bowelsyndrome, some with this condition may experience improvement with use of pancreaticenzymes.OtherAlthough scientific evidence is lacking, lipase has been used by trained clinicians to treatfood allergies, cystic fibroris, and autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritisand lupus.Dietary SourcesLipase is produced primarily in the pancreas and is not found in food.Available FormsLipase supplements are usually derived from animal enzymes, although plant sources oflipase and other digestive enzymes have become increasingly popular. Lipase may betaken in combination with protease and amylase enzymes.PectinaseBreaks down carbohydrates, such as pectin found in many fruits and vegetables.Measured in AJDUActivity of Enzyme: One activity u/mg(u/ml) of pectinase is defined as that quantity ofenzyme that can liberate 1 galacturonic acid in one minute at pH of 3.5,Standard pectinase :1200000 u/ml minOptimum pH of 3.2~5.0,The activity of enzymes retains more than 95% when stored at the temperature of 25Deg C; upto 3 months.XylanaseXylanase (EC is the name given to a class of enzymes which degrade the linearpolysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, which is amajor component of the cell wall of plants.As such, it plays a major role in the digestive system of herbivorous micro-organisms(mammals, conversely, do not produce xylanase).Additionally, xylanases are present in fungi for the degradation of plant matter intousable nutrients.Commercial applications for xylanase include the chlorine-free bleaching of wood pulp inthe papermaking process, and the increased digestibility of silage (in this aspect, it isalso used for fermentative composting).In the future, xylanase may be used for the production of biofuel from unusable plantmaterial.DIRECT FED MICROBES
  9. 9. Many studies have reported the effective usefulness of DFM in• Detoxifying• Enhancing the immunity System,• Improving F C R• Reducing the Diarrhoea,The epithelial cells of the intestine are covered by a protective layer of mucus, which is acomplex mixture of glycoproteins and glycolipids with the large glycoprotein mucin beingthe main component. Ability of probiotic bacteria to adhere to the intestinal mucus isconsidered important for transient colonization, antagonism against pathogens,modulation of the immune system, and enhanced healing of damaged gastric mucosaActinomyces, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Prevotella ruminicola,Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens secrete fiber degrading enzymes.Piromyces rhizinflata secrets carboxymethyl cellulase enzymes.Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus diacetylactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and otherLactobacillus species like L. casei• Would decrease or prevent intestinal establishment of pathogenicmicroorganisms (Vandevoorde et al., 1991)• Would re-colonize a “stressed” intestinal environment and return gut function tonormal more quickly• have reduced incidence of diarrhea (Beecham et al., 1977)• reduced counts of intestinal coliform bacteria (Bruce et al., 1979).Propionibacteria may be beneficial if inoculated into the rumen (Kung et al., 1991)because higher concentrations of ruminal propionate would be absorbed into the bloodand converted to glucose by the liver of the host animalAcetobacter Xylinum• Degrades levulinic acid.• Production of Dienes, 7 – Cyano Steroids.• Useful in steroid conversion.• Useful in dehydroxylation of cholic acids.• Produces 5 nucleotides by cell culture on hydrocarbons.• Produces 3 keto 1,4 Steroids.Aspergillus niger• Produces Sachharifying enzymes, glucoamylase, large amounts of maltase,and less amounts of amylase.• Produces Beta galactesidase.Aspergillus Oryzae• Produces Amylase, Protease, Tannase.• Does not produce aflatoxins.• when fed to lactating ruminants, it is found to result in an average increase inmilk production of about 0.45 kg (1.01 lb.) of milk per day.
  10. 10. B lechiniformis• Provides Bacitracin.B. polymixa• Possesses unusual characteristic to fix nitrogen under anaerobic conditions.• Solubilises Phosphorous.• Produces polymixin a polypeptide antibiotic, which possess the ability todamage cell membrane structure.• Asymbiotic Nitrogen fixer.• Gram negative.• Produces 2,3 Butanediol used as solvent, humectant, chemical intermediateB. megaterium• Solubilises Phosphorous in higher pH of the medium.B subtilisThe nutritive qualities of microbial communities that abound the water medium as alsopossible enhancement of nutritive values of artificial feeds through microbial processingwhen assessed gave the following results. The crude protein levels (%ges. on drymatter Basis) Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus, Plankton, Wheat Bran – GNC Mixture,Fermented Bran-Cake , processed Water Hyacinth were 43.63, 47.27. 42.91, 29.09,36.37 and 14.5respectively. Corresponding Energy values (Kcal / gm dry weight) are2.98, 4.03, 3.78,3.02, 3.68 and 3.01 respectively. Specific growth rates of the carp fryfed on the above ranged between 3.40 to 0.02. This indicates the significance ofmicrobial communities as triophic components and showed possibilities of their betterutilization for carp rearing through medium enrichment and diet incorporation.• Gram positive.Thermoduric.• Solubilises Phosphorous.• Degrades proteins.(Proteolytic) and Carbon (amylolytic).• Produces amylases and protease enzymes. Used to modify starches, in sizingpaper and textiles.• Can remain active in excreta resulting in less odor, faster decomposition, and inreduction of solids.• Produces bacitracin, which interferes with regeneration of the monophosphateform of bactoprenol from the pyrophosphate form.Lactic Acid Bacillus( Formerly known as Lacto Bacillus Sporogenes )• Proved effective in lowering LDL Cholesterol.• Provides an excellent preventative effect against various diseases of theintestine.• Increases production of Rotefiers.• Limits the proliferation of pathogens in rotifiers.• Provides a source of immunostimulant .• Useful in the cases of non specific vaginitis / leucorrhoea• Safe during lactation and in elderly.Lactobacillus delbrueckii
  11. 11. • Immune Stimulation• Produces Lactic AcidL lactis• Reduces the ability of pathogenic bacteria to grow and cause infection.• Especially effective against Listeria monorytogenes, which causes severe foodpoisoning.L acidophillus• Produces extremely effective natural antibiotic substances that can inhibit11 known disease causing bacteria.• It has also been proven to inhibit yeast infections.• Helps in cases of chronic constipation and diarrhea by replacingundesirable intestinal organisms.• Helps in the cases of food poisoning.• Lowers levels of LDL Cholesterol.• Found to alleviate intestinal disorders, principle being that the ingestion oflarge numbers of the lactobacilli may result in replacement of undesirableintestinal organisms by harmless and beneficial organisms, a conceptfirst proposed by the Russian Bacteriologist Metchinikoff in the early daysof bacteriology. The implantation of the lactobacilli seems to depend oningestion of large number of organisms and on supplying a suitablecarbohydrate such as lactose that is not readily absorbed by the body butcan be easily used by the organism.• Aids in nutrient uptake.• Fights Candida overgrowth.• Controls effectively E Coli and Staphylococcus aureus.Lactobacillus reutri• Possess resistance to bile salt and acid.• Possess the capacity to break down soluble carboxymethyl cellulose, ß-glucan, or xylan. Possess high adhesion efficiency to mucin and mucus.• Produces an autoaggregation-promoting protein.• Produces antimicrobial substance reuterin.• Produces fibrolytic enzymes.Effective in enhancing the growth and development of poultry subject to stressors similarto those likely to be encountered under commercial production conditions. L.reuri is theonly species of known microorganism which can produce reuterin, a newly discoveredantimicrobial agent which inhibits growth of other intestinal pathogenic microbes such asSalmonella, Listeria, Escherichia.In addition, there is evidence that L. reuteri formulations effectively counteract weightlosses caused by disease associated stress and competitively reduce Salmonella. Inanother trial, the result showed that L. reuteri and whey in the diet reduced mortalityfrom natural causes and from mortally induced by a Salmonela challenge.Also poultry treated with L. reuteri and whey were heavier than non treated animals.
  12. 12. Another conclusion was that L. reuteri and whey in the diets of turkey poults appearedbeneficial in the control of caecal Salmonella populations.Lyophilized L. reuteri exhibit excellent long term viability.It has been shown that early colonization with L. reuteri contributes to the developmentof healthy birds, possibly because of the effect it has on the development of the gutmucosal tissues.Transitory cold stress during the first 48 hours after the placement of the birds causes agrowth depression through 20 days of age. Addition of L. reuteri to the diet of these coldstressed birds plays a significant role in overcoming the suppressive effects.Reduced variability in body weights of the birds was observed with the feeding of L.reuteri resulting in more uniform flock. Controls Cryptosporidium parvum infection.Beneficial in treatment of watery diarrhea.Sachromyces cerevisiae 3090• Has ability to improve milk production consistently.• Helps in oligosaccharide transfer in microsomes.• May also stimulate rumen fermentation by scavenging excess oxygen fromthe rumen (Newbold et al., 1996).• May have a buffering effect in the rumen by mediating the sharp drops inrumen ph, which follows feeding.• May help to buffer excess lactic acid production when ruminants are fed highconcentrate diets.• Possess invertase activity.• Produces arginase.Most investigators agree that yeast culture supplementation strategies can havemeasurable effects on ruminal fermentations, and a number of beneficial changes indigestion have been noted. Studies in several laboratories have demonstrated that yeastculture supplementation can influence digestive processes in the rumen (Williams andNewbold, 1990; Dawson, 1992; Newbold et al., 1996; Wallace 1996). Typically, the totalextent of dry matter digestion was not drastically altered. However, the initial rate ofdigestion is readily influenced by the addition of live yeast preparations to the diets ofruminants . This is a characteristic of yeast supplementation that has been measured inboth in vitro (Dawson and Hopkins, 1991) and in vivo studies (Williams and Newbold,1990; Smith et al., 1993; Kumar et al., 1997). Since feed intake is often considered to bea function of the initial rates of fiber digestion, early stimulation of ruminal activity can beexpected to have a major impact on feed consumption and can provide a driving forcefor improved animal performance. Such studies suggest an important role for yeastculture supplementation in digestion of animals maintained on high forage diets.Other studies have demonstrated a role for yeast culture in stabilizing ruminalfermentations and in addressing ruminal disorders. Williams et al. (1991) demonstratedthe beneficial effects of the viable yeast culture, on lactic acid concentrations in therumen in high concentrate diets. In animals fed high energy diets, decreased lactic acidconcentrations are associated with higher ruminal pH and are characteristic of muchmore stable ruminal fermentation. These alterations in ruminal fermentation can beexpected to provide for improved digestion and could also be reflected in improvedintake and production. The ability of yeast to prevent the accumulation of lactic acid in
  13. 13. the rumen suggests a role for viable yeast in overcoming ruminal dysfunctionsassociated with the use of high energy diets used in both high-producing dairy and fast-growing beef cattle.Several lines of evidence suggest that yeast culture supplementation can beneficiallyalter nitrogen metabolism in the rumen . This is reflected in lower ruminal ammoniaconcentrations observed in animals receiving yeast supplements and is consistent withobserved increases in the concentrations of bacteria in the rumen. In addition, thesechanges are reflected in an increased flow of bacterial nitrogen to the small intestines(Erasmus et al., 1992). Altered nitrogen flow has also been associated with shifts in thebasic amino acid flow out of the rumen. The beneficial increase in the flow of microbialprotein from the rumen is consistent with models that suggest stimulation of microbialgrowth in the rumen and more efficient conversion of ammonia nitrogen into microbialprotein. Since microbial protein is often used to drive protein synthesis in high-producingruminants, these observations suggest a role for specific yeast culture supplements instimulating protein synthesis in both beef and dairy production systems.Many investigators have attributed the beneficial effects of yeast culture directly tochanges in the ruminal fermentation and to changes in the microbial population in thedigestive tract . The ability of specific yeast culture preparations to stimulate the growthof ruminal bacteria and to increase the concentrations of specific groups of beneficialbacteria in the rumen has been well documented. Increased concentrations of the totalanaerobic bacteria and of cellulolytic bacteria have been one of the most consistentlymeasured responses to yeast culture in the rumen .However, other studies have alsosuggested that yeast culture preparations can enhance the growth of lactic acid-utilizingbacteria, proteolytic bacteria and bacteria that convert molecular hydrogen to acetate inthe rumen. In addition, yeast preparations have been shown to enhance the activities offiber-digesting fungi in the rumen. Increased concentrations of beneficial microorganismsand enhanced microbial activities can be expected to lead to enhanced digestiveprocesses and the destruction of metabolic intermediates that can result in ruminaldysfunction. The ability of yeast to stimulate specific groups of bacteria is consistent withmany of the other physiological and metabolic effects of yeast observed in the rumenand can explain enhanced protein synthesis, improved ruminal stability and improvedmicrobial protein synthesis.Despite the basic understanding of some of the beneficial effects of yeast cultures on thebacterial population in the rumen, the physiological basis for the enhanced microbialgrowth has not been completely described. A number of specific hypotheticalbiochemical mechanisms have been developed to explain the stimulatory effects ofyeast cultures in the rumen (Dawson and Girard, 1997). Some of these have beenbased on the ability of yeast to provide important nutrients or nutritional cofactors thatstimulate microbial activities while others suggest that the ability of yeast to control theoxygen level in the ruminal environment is important. These kinds of models have manyattractive features but are individually limited in their ability to explain all of the effectsassociated with yeast supplementation in the rumen.However, recent studies have suggested that more basic mechanisms are involved inthe overall stimulation of beneficial ruminal bacteria. These studies have resulted in theisolation of a group of small compounds that stimulate bacteria to enter into logarithmicgrowth and thus stimulate microbial activities. Some of the basic characteristics of thesestimulatory compounds are consistent with the basic characteristics of small biologically
  14. 14. active peptides. The stimulatory activities of these small peptides has beendemonstrated in studies with pure cultures of ruminal bacteria. Synthetic tryptophancontaining peptides have also been shown to bring about similar stimulatory effects andhave also been shown to stimulate the growth of representative fiber-digesting bacteriafrom the rumen. These stimulatory activities were not associated with individual aminoacids . Stimulatory activities occurred at concentrations well below those that wouldsuggest that these compounds are limiting nutrients. Instead, they appear to serve asmetabolic triggers that stimulate beneficial ruminal bacteria to enter into an exponentialgrowth phase. This stimulatory activity toward specific strains of ruminal bacteria canexplain many of the observed effects of yeast culture in the rumen.It is important to recognize that stimulatory effects of viable yeast in the rumen onlyaddress some of the beneficial effects of yeast in animal production systems. Researchin this area has resulted in a number of new concepts that have evolved into usefulanimal supplements. Currently yeast cell wall products are available that preventcolonization by pathogenic microorganisms in the gut, alter the composition of microbialpopulations in the intestinal tract, modulate immune function and alter the structure ofthe gut wall. These developments are all the result of in depth study of yeast culturesupplementation and are currently used to enhance the performance of both ruminantand non-ruminant animals.Trichoderma reesei• Produces glucose by enzymatic hydrolysation of cellulose.• Produces Cellulase.• Produces D glucanase.• Produces cell wall lytic enzymes.When compared to Enzymes, DFM are cost effective and not cumbersome.However one hurdle in using DFM is that prior to reaching the intestinal tract, these DFMmust first survive transit through the stomach, where secretion of gastric acid representsa primary defense mechanism against the majority of ingested microorganisms. BIOOPShas overcome this problem successfully by adopting specific strains that can overcomethis problem.Another problem of using DFM is that now a days almost all feeds are pelletised at about105 Deg C, which temperature may damage the DFM. Hence tolerance of DFM to heatis becoming an important factor.In general, most yeast, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus are destroyedby heat during pelleting. In contrast, bacilli form stable endospores when conditions forgrowth are unfavorable and are very resistant to heat, pH, moisture and disinfectants.BIOOPS has solved this problem by adopting procedures to improve the heat toleranceof the specific strains used.Organism End Products or Potential UseBacillus subtilis amylase, proteaseBifidobacterium bifidum ureases, lactic acid, formic acidL. lactis amylase, hydrogen peroxide, proteasesLactobacillus acidophilus lactic acid, acidophilin, glycosidases
  15. 15. Pediococsus acidilactici pediocin (bacteriocin)Propionibacteria sp. Ruminal lactate utilizer, propionate producerPropionibacterium thoenii propionicin PLG-1 (bacteriocin)Bacillus polymyxa Polymixin B Antifungal PeptideCOMPOSITION OF ENZYMIXDFM < 1000 Million CFU/gSALIENT FEATURES OF ENZYMIX• Higher quality end product from cleaner eggs or reduced carcass downgrades• Improved environment• improves the digestibility of the feed• Lower feed costs• More uniform pigs and birds• Proven value in antibiotic growth promoter free nutrition• Provides feed manufacturing with the opportunity to choose low cost feedingstuff to replace high cost feeding stuff.• Provides feed manufacturing with the opportunity to reduce feed costsSUGGESTED LEVEL OF INCLUSION:Generally speaking, adding ENZYMIX 75- 150 g to 1M T dry materials will play well. Butyou should reconfirmed suitable dosage depending on your bench-scale experimentresults.OTHER MATTERS OF IMPORTANCEUse the preparation between pH of 3.8~5.0,The activity of enzymes retains more than 95% when stored at the temperature of 25Deg C upto 3 monthsWITHDRAWAL PERIODNot necessarySTORAGE:All Enzymes and DFM should be kept away from moisture, excess heat, and lightRef:1. Ahmed, F. E. 2003. Genetically modified probiotics in foods. Trends Biotechnol. 21:491-497.2. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, November 2005, p. 6769-6775, Vol. 71, No. 110099-2240/05/$08.00+0doi:10.1128/AEM.71.11.6769-6775.20053. Baran, M., and V. Kmet. 1987. Effect of pectinase on rumen fermentation in sheep and lambs. Arch. Anim. Nutr. Berlin.7/8:643.4. Beauchemin, K. A., W. Z. Yang, and L. M. Rode. 1999. Effects of grain source and enzyme additive on site and extent ofnutrient digestion in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:378-390.5. Beauchemin, K., A., and L. M. Rode. 1996. Use of feed enzymes in ruminant nutrition. Proc. of the Canadian Society ofAnimal Science Annual Meeting, Lethbridge, Alberta. Pp 103-140.6. Beauchemin, K., A., L. M. Rode, and V.J.H. Sewalt. 1995. Fibrolytic enzymes increase fiber digestibility and growth rateof steers fed dry forages. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:641-644.
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